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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jun 2000
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 16, Issue 5 - May 2000
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Volume 6, Issue 6 - 00 2000
Volume 6, Issue 5 - 00 2000
Volume 6, Issue 4 - 00 2000
Volume 6, Issue 3 - 00 2000
Volume 16, Issue E - 00 2000
Volume 16, Issue E2 - 00 2000
Selecting the target year
Individual Particle Analysis for Developing a Source Profile of Yellow Sands
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 565~572
To quantitatively estimate mass contribution of long-range transported yellow sand, their sources should be separated independently from various local soil sources having similar elemental compositions. While it is difficult to estimate total mass loadings of pure yellow sand by traditional bulk analysis, it can be clearly solved by an particle-by-particle analysis. To perform this study, two yellow sand samples and three local soil samples were collected by a mini-volume sampler. These samples were three analyzed using a scanning electron microscope(SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray analyser (EDX) was used to obtain basic chemical information of individual yellow san particles. A total of 19 elements in a single particle were measured to develop a source profile with newly created homogeneous particle classes (HPCs) as chemical variables. The present study showed that the yellow sand samples as well as three local soil samples were characterized with reasonably well created HPCs. Finally the mass fraction of each HPC in each sample was calculated and then compared each other.
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 573~583
In order to investigate the characteristics of PM(sub)2.5 in the background area, the following pollutant were measured from February 1996 to June 1999 in Kanghwa: PM(sub)2.5 mass, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The mean concentration of PM(sub)2.5 mass was 25.8
/㎥(range 5.18~85.74). This value was higher than the annual PM(sub)2.5 US NAAQS(15
/㎥) and the total number of samples higher than the 24-h PM(sub)2.5 US NAAQS(65
/㎥) was seven. PM(sub)2.5 masses also showed temporal variations both yearly and seasonally. Total water soluble ions constituted about 45% of PM(sub)2.5 miss, and sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were main components in water soluble ions. Compared with the literature data from other areas, the measured PM(sub)2.5 concentrations were relatively high.
Mercury Fluxes from the Nan-Ji-Do Area of Seoul -Application of Micrometerorological Methods
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 585~594
Through an application of Micrometerorological methods, we conducted measurements of Hg fluxes from Nan-Ji-Do which is well known as one of the major local areal sources in Seoul metropolitan area during Match/April of 2000. In the course of our study, we determined the concentration gradients of total gaseous Hg(between 20 and 2000 cm heights) and combined these data with Micrometerorological components to derive is fluxes. It turned out that emission from and dry deposition to soil surfaces occurred at the ratio of 72:27 from a total of 271 hourly measurements. The validity of measured concentration gradients( or resulting fluxes) was evaluated in terms of percent gradient. Accordingly, about more than 95% of gradient data derived were statistically significant. The mean fluxes of Hg across soil-air interface, when computed using the concentrations gradients and relevant parameters, were found at 253(during emission) and -846ng/
/h(during dry deposition) The occurrences of abnormalously high exchange rates appear to be the combined effects of enormously high gradient values and high transfer coefficients. While the emissions of Hg occurred constantly during the whole study periods, the occurrences of dry deposition events were observed most intensively during very limited time periods(3/29 and 4/3). The results of our study cleary indicated that the studied area is a strong local areal source, while exhibiting great potential as a major sink simultaneously.
A Comparative Study on the Analytical Methods of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 595~606
In order to compare analytical conditions for measuring PAHs(polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in ambient air, a series of experiment were conducted using three different types of extraction methods that include:(1) accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), (2) soxhlet, and (3) sonification methods. Efficiency and relevant analytixal parameters for each of these methods were examined on five different types of solvents that include:(1) 10% diethyl ether in n-hexane(v/v), (2) dichloromethane, (3)cyclohexane.(4) toluene, and (5) Benzene: ethanol (4:1). Comparison of extraction efficiency for various combinations between methods and solvents was made through an application of both internal and external standard calibration techniques. The extraction efficiency tests, when checked using both internal and external standards, allowed us to derive meaningful comparison among different techniques and among solvents.
Trends and Factors of Ozone Concentration Variations in Korea
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 607~623
Major trends of ozone concentration variations in Korea were investigated by using observation data from around 100 stations for the period of 1991∼1997. In addition, important regulating those variations were inferred. Three measures such as the number of days exceeding 80ppb, the 95th percentile of daily maxima, and the annual average concentration were used for the analysis of multi-scale ozone concentration variations. Three areas in the southwest (Sosan, Mokpo, and Cheju) of which monitoring has been operated since 1995 showed the highest annual average concentrations over; this was noted because of the high annual average in the Yosu area in the early 1990s. Large increases in annual average concentrations were observed along the relatively cleaner areas connecting Kangnung and Kwangju(northeast to southwest), in contrast to polluted areas connecting Seoul and Pusan(northeast to southeast). Both the number of exceedance days and the daily maximum concentration were nearly constant in the Greater Seoul Area in spite of interannual flucturations associated with year-to-year changes in air temperature. Within the Greater Seoul Area, all three measures usually showed the same trend; they decreased in the middle and west and increased in the east and northeast. All three measures including the number of exceedance days increased largely at Sillim where the average concentration was high but no exceedance days were recorded in the early 1999s, Nationwide ozone concentration variations appear to be determined by the competitive influence of long-range transport and local urban emissions, Within the city including the Greater Seoul Area, changes in emission which accompany changes in population and in the number if vehicles ( in the process of urban development) were found to be important components of ozone concentration variations.
Evaluation of Passive Monitor for the Measuring of Personal Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide in Indoor and Outdoor Air
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 625~631
Practical devices for measuring personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide(NO
) have been made for epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution Standard methods for NO
measurement such as the chemiluminescent method and Saltzman method are not suitable for personal exposure because they are heavy, large and complicated to operate. In this study, a passive monitor was tested for the measurements of indoor and outdoor NO
level. Through a comparative analysis of data sets obtained by on-site chemiluminescence system, we assessed the accuracy and precision of NO
passive monitors. We also examined the possibility of passive monitor in the study of indoor, outdoor and personal NO
exposure. The accuracy and precision of NO
passive monitor were analyzed assuming measurements of on-site chemiluminescence system is reference value and using duplicated measure- ments, respectively. From these analysis the NO
passive monitor was useful for measuring indoor, outdoor and personal exposure. And NO
level from on-site chemiluminescence systems could not properly represent the personal NO
exposure as well as indoor and outdoor level of ones house. Personal exposures were correlated more strongly with indoor NO
concentrations than with outdoor NO
concentrations. Since activity pattern of each person is different, it was considered that personal daily behavior and life-style might prevent the air pollutant exposure
Effects of Two Stage Vortex Finder on the Particulate Collection Efficiency of Cyclone Separator
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 633~640
The effects of structure modification of the vortex finder on the collection efficiency and pressure drop have been investigated. The pressure drop in a cyclone having the two stage vortex finder is higher than that in a conventional cyclone and increases proportionally with the increase of square of gas inlet velocity in both cases. The pressure drop of both conventional cyclone of friction resistance at the boundary layer. The collection efficiency of fine dust has been enhanced by addition of vortex finder in a conventional cyclone and gas inlet velocity showing maximum dust removal efficiency increase to 17 m/s(1.7 times of saltation velocity). Optimum size of two stage vortex finder has been induced to 13 cm I.D
2.6cm Length from the results of overall dust collection efficiency. Previous models were tested for the simulation of collection efficiency of cyclone having two stage vortex finder and the Dietz model predict the similar value with experimental results of the present study.
Effects of the Block Arrangement on the Collection Efficiency in the Two-Stage Electrostatic Precipitator with Charging Plate
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 641~652
The effect of block arrangement has been investigated on the particle deposition in the specified collecting cell of two-stage electrostatic precipitator by numerical analysis. Recirculation zone existed at the downstream of the block in the collecting cell, and the particles entering the recirculation zone were deposited on the collecting plate. Particle trajectory and deposition had considerably different phenomenon according to electrostatic and inertial effect, which depended on inlet mean velocity, electrostatic number, and particle diameter in the collecting cell. The total collection efficiency reached a minimum value through an interaction of electrostatic and inertial effect. In the computational domain, total collection efficiency for the case of two blocks in the computational domain was more than that of one block at the relative small electrostatic number. However as the block distance and inertial effect increased, the difference between the collection efficiency of two cases decreased. In the range of relatively small particle size total collection efficiency was always superior to particle collection efficiency that was predicted by Deutsch equation. 18
The Development of Hazardous Waste Compact Dump incinerator for Low Emissions
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 653~663
A lot of hazardous wastes are discharged as by-products of working process by industrial development. Hazardous wastes is physical characteristics of difficult destruction at hight temperature. Numerical simulation and combustion experiment performed of dump incinerator for hazardous waste incineration. For the numerical simulation, the SIMPLEST algorithm was used to ensure rapid converge A K-
model was incorporate for the enclosure of turbulence flow. Combustion model was used by ESCRS (extended simple chemically reacting system) model available of CHEMKIN thermodynamic data for the source term of species conservation equation or energy equation. Radiation model is used by six flux model. A parametric screening studies was carried out through numerical simulation and experiment. Residence time and concentration in the incinerator was strongly dependent on the parameters of mixture velocity, mixture equilibrium ratio, surrogate velocity and surrogate equilibrium ratio.
A Numerical Simulation of Hazardous Waste Destruction in a Dump Incinerator
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 665~674
A major source of the hazardous waste generated is from chemical industries producing plastics, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated solvents. All of these processes produce a class if hazardous waste termed the chlorinated hydrocarbons(CHCs), either directly or from undesirable side reactions. In this study, we investigated the destruction characteristics of hazardous waste through incineration. A nonequilibrium combustion model was used to describe the effect of the chemical kinetics due to the flame inhibition characteristics of
which was used as the surrogate of hazardous waste. A parametric screening studies was made in a dump incinerator proposed in this study. The dump incinerator showed high
DRE(Destruction and Removal Efficiency) as 5 nines.
ratio appeared to be most important in the destruction of
Development of the Novel Dry and Wet Deposition Collector
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 675~684
A novel dry and wet deposition collector, which can overcome the several problems such as water evaporation cartridge cracks and high costs founded in the previous collector systems, has been constructed. ENVI-18 SPE adsorption cartridge has been used to measure atmospheric deposition of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A surrogate surface, consisted of water and methanol, was filled in the dry deposition funnel to simulate dry deposition onto water surface. A water supply system in order to compensat evaporation of the surrogate surface was used and it was consisted of a piston pump, a tubing pump, a overflow tube and a chamber system. A novel water vaporizing system to supply water onto the wet SPE cartridge system with a constant flow rate was developed. The novel water vaporizing system, consisted of a vacuum pump, a water supply reserviour and tube and a mini space heater, could prevent the PAHs adsorption cartridge cracks occurred in the previous collector and effectively adsorb PAHs. The novel dry and wet deposition collector showed a good adsorption, desorption, and recovery rates of PAHs. By reducing the number of pumps used and employing polypyopylene (PP) instead of teflon as a material of collection funnel, the total construction costs were much reduced as compared with the previous dry and wet deposition collectors.
Interlaboratory Study of Sampling and Analysis Techniques for Ambient VOCs under Field Conditions
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2000, Pages 685~691
In order to provide basis for an accurate concentration determination of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in air, four different institutions participated in simultaneous measurements of several VOC species under the experimental scheme of the Measurement and Analysis Division(MAD) of the Korea Society for Atmospheric Environment(KOSAE). Two types of experiments were undertaken by collecting and analyzing ambient air samples from the 7th floor of Natural Science Building, Han Tang University during two day periods of the late May 1998. The first typer of experiment was conducted as five consecutive experiments at 2-hour intervals by two institutions. On the other hand. the second type of experiment was performed as two -10hr sampling by three different institutions. The data obtained from different type of experiments were examined using various statistical approaches. In general, the results of these experiments indicated that the VOC data produced by a number of Korean institutions be fairly agreeable.