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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Volume 8, Issue 6 - 00 2002
Volume 8, Issue 5 - 00 2002
Volume 8, Issue 2 - 00 2002
Volume 18, Issue E4 - 00 2002
Volume 18, Issue E3 - 00 2002
Volume 18, Issue E2 - 00 2002
Volume 18, Issue E1 - 00 2002
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of INPUFF Model Using METREX Tracer Diffusion Experiment Data
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 437~452
The Metropolitan Tracer Experiment (METREX) was performed over the Washington, D.C. area using two inert, non-deposition perfluorocarbon gases for over 1 year period (November 1983∼December 1984). Two perfluorocarbon gas tracers (PDCH, PMCH) were released simultaneously at intervals of every 36 hours for 6 hours, regardless of the meteorological conditions in metropolitan area. Samples were collected continuously for 8 hours at a central downtown and two adjacent suburban locations. Monthly air samples were collected at 93 sites across the whole region (at urban, suburban, and rural locations). The purpose of this study is to simulate INPUFF and ISCST model using METREX data, and to compare calculated and observed concentrations. In the case of INPUFF simulation, two meteorological input data were used. One is result data from wind field model which was calculated by diagnostic wind model (DWM), the other is meteorological data observed at single station. Here, three kinds of model calculation were performed during April and July 1984; they include (1) INPUFF model using DWM data (2) INPUFF model using single meteorological data (3) ISCST model. The monthly average concentration data were used for statistic analysis and to draw their horizontal distribution patterns. Eight-hour-averaged concentration was used to describe movement of puff during the episode period. The results showed that the concentrations calculated by puff model (INPUFF) were better than plume model (ISCST). In the case of puff model (INPUFF), a model run using wind field data produced better results than that derived by single meteorological data.
A Numerical Simulation for Thermal Environments by the Modification of Land-use in Busan
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 453~463
Prognostic meteorological model, MM5V3 (Mesoscale Model 5 Version 3) was used to assess the effects of the land-use modifications on spatial variations of temperature and wind fields in Busan during the selected period of summer season in 2000. We first examined sensitivity analysis for temperature between MM5V3 predictions and meteorological data observed at 4 AWS (Automatic Weather System) stations in Busan, which exhibited low structural and accurate errors (Mean Bias Error, MBE: 0.73, Root Mean Square Error, RMSE: 1.18 on maximum). The second part of this paper, MMSV3 simulations for the modification of land-use was performed with 1 km resolution in target domain, 46
area around city of Busan. It was found that modification result from change of surface land-use in central urban area altered spatial distributions of temperature and wind. In particular, heat island core moved slightly to the seaward at 1300 LST. This results may imply that modification of surface land-use leads to change the thermal environments; in addition, it has a significant effect on local wind circulations and dispersions of air pollutants.
Monte Calro Analysis of Cancer Risk from Airborne Trace Metals
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 465~474
In order to reflect variability due to exposure factors as well as to assess uncertainty associated with cancer risk posed by airborne trace metals, a Monte Calro analysis has been made in this study. Input parameters for Monte Carlo analysis were developed or adjusted using body weight, lifetime, and exposure frequency of Koreans. Ambient distributions of toxic metals were founded to be lognormal distributions for most of them using goodness-of-fit tests. Thus, the 95% UCL and 95% LCL of carcinogenic metals were estimated by H-statistic method for lognormal distribution, respectively. The results of Monte Carlo analysis of 95% UCL showed that the 95th percentile risks for men and women were 1.2 and 1.1 times higher than an acceptable risk of 10
, respectively. The probabilities which those risks exceed the acceptable risk were estimated to be 8% and 6%, respectively, while to be 95% and 94%, respectively on the basis of the minimum acceptable risk of 10
, respectively. Approximately 90% of total cancer risk came from human carcinogens such as arsenic and hexavalent chromium. Therefore, it is necessary to properly manage both arsenic and hexavalent chromium emissions in the study area.
Development of Analytical Method for Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Air
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 475~485
An analytical method was investigated for the meaiiurement of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) concentrations in air samples. Procedures required for column chromatographic clean up. silicagel (stage I) and gel permeation chromatography (stage II), were discussed. Identification and quantification of PCBs and OCPs were performed using a combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/ selected ion monitoring. Recovery tests calculated from six samples are 68∼137% for PCBs and 58∼130% for OCPs except for endrin aldehyde. Instrumental detection limits determined for the PCBs and OCPs varied from 0.05 to 0.18 pg/m3 and from 0.71 to 16.82 pg/㎥, respectively. The method has been applied to the analysis of air samples collected at Ansung city, Kyonggi province, Korea. This method may serve as a screening protocol for the simultaneous determination of PCBs and OCPs in air.
Concentrations of Air Pollutants Measured at Kosan during ACE-Asia Intensive Observation Period
;;;;Jianzhen Yu;Keith Bower;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 487~501
The concentrations of gaseous (NO
) and particulate (Elemental Carbon, EC and Organic Carbon, OC) pollutants were measured to evaluate the air quality of Kosan. Samples were taken at Kosan during ACE-Asia (Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) IOP (Intensive Observation Period) (2001. 3. 21~2001. 5. 5). The mean concentrations of
10.4 ppb) is higher than those at urban area such as Seoul and Busan in Korea. On the other hand, the mean concentrations of other gaseous species, NO
3.42 ppb) and SO
0.63 ppb) are lower than those at great cities. So we concluded that there are a few primary sources emitting atmospheric pollutants. The concentration of EC is higher and the concentration of OC is similar with or higher than those at other background sites. The recent EC concentration is higher than those measured before at Kosan. We concluded that there are more primary sources than other background sites and the amount of primary source have increased recently in Jeju. Backward trajectory and co..elation analysis were used to study where the air masses originated and distinguish the source of pollutants. While NO
were mainly emitted and formed from Jeju inland area, concentrations of SO
, OC and EC were affected by Asian Dust from China. Using the mean relative standard deviation of ozone, cleanness coefficient was obtained. The cleanness coefficient value, is 1.6 times larger than the value in 1992. Recently, the air quality of Kosan has been contaminated because of the Asian Dust events since spring and the rapid industrialization development.pment.
Visibility Variations in Korea in the 1980s and 1990s
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 503~514
During the past two decades, primary pollutants in the ambient air have been substantially reduced in Korea by aggressive government efforts such as the switchover to clean fuels and equipment of automobiles with a three-way catalytic converter. However, visibility impairment in Seoul and major metropolitan areas has been a stubborn problem. It is apparent that both directly emitted fine particles mainly from vehicles and secondary fine particles from photochemical reactions could contribute to this visibility impairment. In addition, Korea is located downwind of the prevailing westerlies from China and is influenced by the emissions of air pollutants in China. In order to assess this complicated problem of visibility impairment, the visibility trends for the past 17 years observed at more than 60 stations throughout the country were analyzed. The results showed that visibilities were generally the lowest in the winter morning in comparison with those in the summer afternoon as well as the annual average values. It was believed that primary pollution was principally responsible for visibility impairment in most areas. The visibility in the summer afternoon was lower in clean coastal areas along with a high level of relative humidity due to the inflow of moist air accompanied by sea breeze. Although contributions of secondary particles from photochemical reactions and long-range transport of fine particles to the visibility impairment were probable, their certain evidences were not found.
A Study on the Comparison to Source Profile of the Major Terpenes from Pine Tree and Korean Pine Tree
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 515~525
A field study was conducted to estimate the emission rate of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from pine trees. In addition, the influences of meteological variables on their distribution characteristics have been investigated. A vegetation enclosure chamber was designed and constructed of Tedlar bag and acril. Sorbent tubes made up of Tenax TA and Carbotrap were used to collect biogenic VOCs emitted from each individual tree. Analysis of BVOCs was performed using a GC-FID system. The fundamental analytical parameters including linearity, retention time, recovery efficiency, and breakthrough volume were examined and verified for the determination of monoterpene emission rates. Total average concentration of each component is found to be
-pinene (4.61) from pine trees, and
-pinene (18.7 ng(gdw)
) from Korean pine trees. On the basis of our study,
-pinene was found to be the major monoterpene emitted from both pine and Korean pine trees which were accompanied by
-pinene, camphene, and limonene. In ambient air, variable monoterpene compositions of emissions from pine trees were similar to Korean pine trees. Emission rates of monoterpene from each tree were found to depend on such parameters as temperature and solar radiation.
Quality Control(QC) Analysis of Ambient VOCs in Canisters Using GC/MSD Method
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 527~538
In this study, the performance of sampling and of analytical methodology was examined against a number of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air. The canister-based sampling method for VOCs has been a viable and widely used approach that is based on research and evaluation performed over the past several years. VOCs were determined using canisters by GCMSD analysis. A total of target analyses in this study included approximately 30 VOCs designated in TO-l4A categories including BTEX. The methodology for QC(quality control) was intensively investigated with a wide range of performance criteria such as; (1) cleanliness of canisters, (2) reproducibility of diluter, (3) instrumental detection limits of preconcentrator and GCMSD, and (4) precision and accuracy of GCMSD. For most of the compounds tested, precision was less than
5%, IDL was 0.2 ppbv, accuracy was
5%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the combination of canister sampling and GC/MSD analysis could be reliably applied to the measurements of BTEX in ppbv levels that are typically observed in/outdoor air environment.
An Investigation for Air Pollutants Emitted from Small-Scale Incinerators in Highway Service Area
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 539~546
The physicochemical properties of solid wastes generated from seven highway service areas, four branch offices, and one construction site were analyzed in concert with air pollutants including heavy metals emitted from near-by small-scale incinerators. The amount of solid wastes generated from highway areas has been increasing with recent increases in the number of highways and passengers. Twelve incinerators examined in this study generally had capacity smaller than 100 kg/hr, most of which were equipped with cyclone for dust removal. It was seen that the concentrations of the gas-phase air pollutants (e.g., SO
, HCl and H
S) were above the acceptable emission standards except one or two sites. CO concentrations at all incinerators were also higher due to incomplete combustion. In addition, particulate matters showed concentration six times higher at their maximum. The results of heavy metal analysis showed that the concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Ni satisfied the emission standards. whereas Pb at one site and Zn at five sites exceeded the standards. Cr measurement results indicated that 9 of 12 incinerators had higher values than the standard; especially one branch office showed nine times higher than normal concentration. In order to satisfy more stringent emission standards in the near future, it is necessary to install air pollution control system and to develop an intensified management plan.n.