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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Volume 8, Issue 6 - 00 2002
Volume 8, Issue 5 - 00 2002
Volume 8, Issue 2 - 00 2002
Volume 18, Issue E4 - 00 2002
Volume 18, Issue E3 - 00 2002
Volume 18, Issue E2 - 00 2002
Volume 18, Issue E1 - 00 2002
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Characteristics of Ambient Metals: Size Segregated Ambient Concentrations and Dry Deposition Fluxes at Four Sites in Kunpo in 2000
Yong Pyo Kim ; Hui-Jung Yun ; Seung-Muk Yi ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue E2, 2002, Pages 57~57
Atmospheric dry deposition fluxes and size segregated concentrations of particulate metal elements were measured at four sites in Kunpo, a small city in the Seoul metropolitan area in Korea. At each site, aerosol samples were collected by dry deposition plates, a cascade impactor, and a coarse panicle rotary impactor during four sampling periods. At all sites, the average fluxes of metals measured during daytime were higher than nighttime fluxes due to higher wind speeds and higher ambient concentrations during daytime. The average fluxes of crustal elements (Al, Ca) were 1∼2 orders of magnitude higher than anthropogenic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The daytime fluxes of Al and Ca were between 90 and 12000 ㎍ m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/, and the nighttime fluxes of Al and Ca were between 20 and 2200 ㎍ m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/. The daytime fluxes of Pb, a typical anthropogenic element, were between 20 and 160㎍ m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/, and the nighttime fluxes of Pb were between ND and 100㎍ m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/. Also the ambient metal concentrations during daytime were higher than nighttime. Based on a dust emission estimation study in Kunpo, it was found that dust emissions during daytime are higher than nighttime. The concentrations of crustal elements were higher than anthropogenic elements. The distributions of heavy metals were mainly in small particles (D/sub p/ 9㎛). The fraction of crustal elements in the large particles (D/sub p/> 9㎛) were higher than anthropogenic elements.
The Nationwide NO₂Monitoring with Passive Sampler in Korea
Sun-Tae Kim ; Han-Soo Kim ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue E2, 2002, Pages 69~69
The nationwide NO₂monitoring program has been carried out using the passive sampler in Korea since 1993. During the sixteenth periods of measurement, total 26,474 sites of data were collected through eight years. In this paper, the roadside NO₂concentration of six major cities were analyzed. As results, the most frequent NO₂concentration of Seoul, Incheon, and Daegu ranged from 40 to 60 ppb, and that of Pusan, Kwanju, and Daejeon was from 20 to 40 ppd. Despite that the automobile number of Incheon was less than that of Daegu and Pusan, the exceedence rate of Korean national ambient air quality standard and ninetieth percentile concentration of Incheon were almost the same level as Seoul. In addition, the mean and standard deviation of roadside NO₂concentration of Seoul and Incheon was also appeared to be higher than that of other cities. These results indicates that NO₂concentration on roadside was affected by the traffic volumes and the traffic flow conditions.
Biodegradation of Ethylene in an Activated Carbon Biofilter
Jong-O Kim ; Il-Hyun Chung ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue E2, 2002, Pages 79~79
The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of ethylene in an activated carbon biofilter inoculated with immobilized microbial consortium. The biofilter performance was monitored in terms of ethylene removal efficiency and carbon dioxide production. The biofilter was capable of achieving ethylene removal efficiency as much as 100% at a residence time of 14 min and an inlet concentration of 290 ppm. Under the same conditions, carbon dioxide with a concentration of up to 546 ppm was produced. Its was found that carbon dioxide was produced at a rate of 87 mg day/sup -1/, which corresponded to a volume of 0.05 L day/sup -1/. During operation with an inlet ethylene of 290 ppm, the maximum elimination capacity of the biofilter was 34 g of C₂H₄m/sup -3/ day/sup -1/. The biofilter could provide an attractive treatment technology for removing ethylene, an extremely volatile and slowly adsorbed compound.
Characteristic Distributions of Hydrogen Peroxide and Methyl Hydroperoxide and over the North Pacific Ocean
Meehye Lee ; Brian G. Heikes ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue E2, 2002, Pages 85~85
Hydrogen peroxide and methyl hydroperoxide were measured over the northwestern Pacific Ocean during NASA′s PEM (Pacific Exploratory Mission) -West. The first experiment (PEM -West A) was conducted in the fall of 1991 and PEM-West B in the early spring of 1994. Hydroperoxide data were obtained on board the NASA DC -8 aircraft through the entire depth of the troposphere. Average concentrations of both H₂O₂and CH₃OOH were higher during PEM -West A than B. The seasonal difference in hydroperoxide distribution was determined by the degree of photochemical activities and the strength and location of jetstream, which led to extensive and rapid continental outflow during the PEM-West B. While for H₂O₂distribution, a longitudinal gradient was more apparent than a latitudinal gradient, it was opposite for the CH₃OOH distribution. The longitudinal gradient indicates the proximity to the anthropogenic sources from the Asian continent, but the latitudinal gradient reflects photochemical activity. During PEM -West B, the ratio of C₂H₂/CO, a tracer for continental emission was raised and high concentrations of H₂O₂were associated with high ratios. The flux of hydroperoxide toward the North Pacific was also enhanced in the early spring. The eastward fluxes of H₂O₂ were 9% and 17% of the average photochemical production over the Pacific Basin between 140°E and 130°W during PEM-West A and B, respectively. For CH₃OOH, these ratios were 8% and 13%. Considering the lifetime of hydroperoxide and the rapid transport of pollutants, the export of hydroperoxide with other oxidants would have a significant influence on oxidant cycles over the North Pacific during winter/spring.
Washout Removal Efficiencies of Major Air Pollutants by Precipitation
Dong-Sool Kim ; Deuk-Yong Lim ; Jeong-Sook Heo ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue E2, 2002, Pages 97~97
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively estimate the washout removal efficiencies of criteria air pollutants such as SO₂, TSP, PM10, CO, NO₂, and O₃corresponding to the amounts and durations of precipitation. The removal patters by washout were studied with air pollutants data and the corresponding precipitation data in Seoul, Korea during the periods of 1990 to 1999. In addition, washout patterns were classified into four seasons and four time Bones, i.e., night, morning, afternoon, and evening. In this study, natures of air pollutants by sequential precipitation were also intensively studied by examining the linear relationships between removal efficiencies and the amounts and durations of precipitation for each pollutant. The results of this study showed that SO₂, TSP, and O₃were rapidly removed by initial precipitation; however, NO₂was slowly removed 2-hour after precipitation. Both CO and PM10 were weakly removed by washout and their removal patters showed to be irregular.
Overall Conversion Efficiency for Dimethylsulfide to Sulfur Dioxide in the Marine Boundary Layer-An Overview
Zang-Ho Shon ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue E2, 2002, Pages 107~107
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is the major sulfur gas released from the ocean. The atmospheric DMS released from the ocean is oxidized mainly by hydroxyl (OH) radical during the day and nitrate (NO₃) radical at night to form sulfur dioxide (SO₂) as well as other stable products. The oxidation mechanism of DMS via OH has been known to proceed by two channels; abstraction and addition channels. The major intermediate product of the addition channel has been known to be dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) based on laboratory chamber studies and field experiments. However, a branching ratio for DMSO formation is still uncertain. The reaction of DMSO with OH ultimately produces SO₂and dimethylsulfone. The major product of the abstraction channel has known to be SO₂from laboratory chamber studies. But overall conversion efficiency for DMS to SO₂from DMS oxidation is still inconsistent in the literature. Based on laboratory and field studies, the conversion efficiency from the abstraction channel is likely to be greater than 0.5, while that from the addition channel is likely to be greater than 0.6. Overall conversion efficiency from DMS to SO₂might be greater than 0.5 based on the above two values in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL). This high efficiency in the remote MBL is supported by strong coupling between DMS and SO₂measurements with high temporal resolution.
Diesel Exhaust Particles and Airway Inflammation: Effect of Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors
Heung-Bin Lim ; Dong-Wook Lee ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 18, issue E2, 2002, Pages 121~121
This study was carried out to investigate if nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors modulate airway inflammation induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP). N/sup G/-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a potent constitutive NOS (cNOS) inhibitor, and aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor, were administered to mice in their drinking water for 7 weeks. Airway inflammation was elicited by the repeated intratracheal administration of DEP. The results showed that macrophages, inflammatory eosinophils and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids by intratracheal DEP instillation were significantly suppressed in the mice treated with two NOS inhibitors toghther with DEP. The suppression of these cells was more effective in AG treated groups than in L -NAME treated groups. NOS inhibitor treatment also reduced interleukin -5 (IL-5 in the BAL fluids and lung homogenates. Additionally, it was found that eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity in the BAL fluids was also decreased by NOS inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that nitric oxide (NO) is produced in airway inflammation by repeated DEP instillation, and that iNOS inhibition as well as cNOS inhibition can play a modulating role in this airway inflammation by DEP.