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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Volume 19, Issue E4 - 00 2003
Volume 19, Issue E3 - 00 2003
Volume 19, Issue E2 - 00 2003
Volume 19, Issue E1 - 00 2003
Selecting the target year
A Time-Series Study of Ambient Air Pollution in Relation to Daily Mortality in Seoul, 1998∼2001
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 625~637
This study was performed to examine the relationship between air pollution exposure and mortality in Seoul for the years of 1998∼2001. Daily counts of death were analyzed by general additive Poisson model, with adjustment for effects of seasonal trend, air temperature, humidity, and day of the week as confounders in a nonparametric approach. Daily death counts were associated with CO (current day),O
(current day), PM
(current day), NO
(1 day before), SO
(1 day before). Increase of 41.71
/㎥ (interquartile range) in PM
was associated with 1.3% (95% CI = 0.7∼1.9％) increase in the daily number of death.
concentrations resulted in an increased risk of 1.3% for 23.86 ppb in all-aged mortality [RR = 1.013 (1.004-1.023)1. This effect was greater in children (less than 15 aged) and elderly (more than 65 aged). After ozone level exceeds 25 ppb, the dose-response relationship between mortality and ozone was almost linear. We concluded that Seoul had 1∼5％ increase in mortality in association with IQR (interquartile range) in air pollutants. Daily variations in air pollution within the range currently occurring in Seoul might have an adverse effect on daily mortality. These findings also support the hypothesis that air pollution, at levels below the current ambient air quality standards of Korea, is harmful to sensitive subjects, such as children or elderly.rly.
Genotoxicity of Heavy Metals among the Particulates in the Working Environment as Assessed by Tradescantia-Micronucleus (Trad-MCN) Assay
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 639~646
In this study, we evaluated genotoxicity of heavy metals among particulates with Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay in the various working environment. In a synthetic fiber factory and a rubber factory, chromium concentration was higher than any other heavy metals. On the other hand, nickel concentration was the highest in a semi-conductor factory. The difference in genotoxicity among the working environment was statistically significant as Trad-MCN frequencies were 4.07
0.35 MCN/100 tetrads (p< 0.01) for the synthetic fiber factory,5.73
0.81 MCN/100 tetrads (p< 0.01) for the rubber factory, and 15.60
2.58 (p< 0.01) (p< 0.001) for the semi -conductor factory. As a result, heavy metals among particulates in the working environment can be considered to have hazardous potential to human health, although they cannot directly induce DNA damage to the workers in the working environments.
Opto-Chemical Characteristics of Visibility Impairment Using Semi-Continuous Aerosol Monitoring in an Urban Area during Summertime
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 647~661
For continuous monitoring of atmospheric visibility in the city of Kwanaju, Korea, a transmissometer system consisting of a transmitter and a receiver was installed at a distance of 1.91 km across the downtown Kwanaju. At the transmitter site an integrating nephelometer and an aethalometer were also installed to measure the scattering and absorption coefficients of the atmosphere, respectively. At the receiver site. an URG PM
cyclone sampler and an URG-VAPS (Versatile Air Pollutant Sampler) with three filter packs and two denuders were used to collect both PM
samples at a 2-hour or 12-hour sampling interval for aerosol chemical analysis. Sulfate, organic mass by carbon (OMC), nitrate, elemental carbon (EC) components of fine aerosol were the major contributors to visibility impairment. Diurnal variation of visibility during best-case days showed rapid improvement in the morning hours, while it was delayed until afternoon during the worst-case days. Aerosol mass concentration of each aerosol component for the worst-case was calculated to be 11.2 times larger than the best-case for (NH
(NHSO), 19.0 times for NH
(NHNO), 2.2 times for OMC, respectively. Also result shows that elemental carbon and fine soil (FS) were 3.7 and 2.2 times more than those of best-case. respectively- Sum of total contributions of wet NHSO and NHNO to light extinction was calculated to be 301 Mm
for the worst-case. However, sum of contributions by dry NHSO and NHNO was calculated to be 123 Mm
for the best case. Mass extinction efficiencies of fine and coarse particles were calculated to be 5.8
/g and 1.8
Trends of Volitile Organic Compounds in the Ambient Air of Yeosu Industrial Complex
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 663~677
The concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air were measured at three sites (Samil-dong, SRO and EFMC) in Yeosu industrial complex during September 2000 to August 2001. Air samples were collected for 24 hours in Silicocan canister (6l) with constant flow samplers every 6 days and analyzed using a cryogenic preconcentration system and a GC/MS. At each site, we identified 35 species known as on both the carcinogenic and mutagenicity by the EPA US (TO-14 manual). No relationship was found between YOCs concentration at three sampling points. Furthermore, the result shows that there appears to be a variety distribution of the concentration. BTX, vinyl chloride and high concentrations of 1,2-dichloroethane were observed at the sampling sites. Especially, high concentration of toxic VOCs, such as vinyl chloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane and benzene were shown at environmental facilities management cooperation (EMFC) site. They seem to be emitted from the facility of wastewater treatment in Yeosu industrial complex. It was difficult to tell the seasonal variation of total VOCs concentration. Nevertheless, the concentration in winter was typically higher than in summer The concentrations of toxic VOCs contents in Yeosu industrial complex were generally lower than those in Ulsan complex, although those were similar or less than in Seoul and Daegu. Whereas, toluene and styrene emitted from Yeosu industrial complex were higher than those of Edmonton industrial complex in Canada. Especially, toluene was third times higher than those observed from Texas, USA.
Calibration Methods for the Gas Chromatographic Analysis of ppt-level Hydrogen Sulfide (H
) in Air
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 679~687
In this study, we investigated the analytical techniques to quantify the ambient concentration of hydrogen sulfide (H
S) in air at ppt concentration level. For this purpose, an on-line GC analytical system equipped with both pulsed-flame photometric detector (PFPD) and thermal desorption unit (TDU) was investigated by collecting ambient air samples. The results of our study generally indicated that calibration conditions of GC system is highly sensitive to affect the accuracy of the analytical technique. Most importantly. we found that the use of different matrices in the the preparation stage of working standards was sensitive to control the overall performance of this technique. The calibration of our analytical system was tested by the two types of working standard (prepared by mixing either with high purity
or with the ambient air). According to this test, the latter represented more efficiently the detecting conditions of actual air samples. The peak occurrence patterns of both air samples and standards (prepared by mixing with ambient air) were altered in a similar manner as the function of the loaded volume; however, it was not the case for the
-mixed standards. Results of our study suggest that detection of H
S is highly different from other sulfides and that its quantification requires minimiaing interfering effects of non -pure substance (like water vapor) and (either sorptive or destructive) loss effects.
Characterization of Toluene Vapor Removal Efficiency Using Alnus Firma Fruit in a Biological Treatment Process
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 689~699
This study was to examine characteristics of treating toluene vapor, which gets to be problematic due to its harmful carcinogenicity and mass generation from various sources, through a biological treatment facility which is environment-friendly and adopts a high-efficient and low-cost clean technology. In order to identify whether Alnus Firma Fruit (AFF) can be used as a media for a bioreactor, its utility and basic operating factors, a study was conducted on pressure drop, supply of nutrient substances and retention time which are operating factors of a biofilter, and eliminating characteristics were compared between AFF and the conventional biological activatedcarbon (BAC) widely used as filter media. In the case of AFF, the initial microbial deposits was 2.3
CFU/g dry AFF, which represents the initial microbial density higher than the case of BAC showing 5.5
CFU/g dry BAC And it took about 2 weeks to acclimate until its eliminating rate got to be increased over 90%. As a result of comparing pressure loss taking place with the lapse of time between BAC and AFF, after 130 days passed at SV 25h
, BAC showed that its eliminating efficiency had a tendency to drop greatly due to a great pressure loss (0.53\longrightarrow54.7 mm
/m) caused by an excess of biomass as accumulated. On the other hand. AFF showed that the pressure drop was 0.53 mm
/m, about 2 times as much as the initial pressure loss of 0.4 mm
/m, which represents no great change in the pressure loss, and its eliminating efficiency was also shown to be continuously high. Therefore, when AFF was used as a filler for a biological treatment facility, a biological filter enabling improvement of the purifying efficiency to be promoted could be provided, and moreover, the pressure loss was so small that the filler replacement cycle or the back flushing cycle could be extended. So, even in terms of the operating cost, it was identified to be an economical filler When an inorganic material was used as a filler, the biofilters performance acted sensitively on whether nutrient substances were supplied or not. In the case of AFF with low adsorptivity, addition of ethyl-alcohol increased the solubility of toluene, and consequently, biodegradation got to be actively made by microbes, and thus, its eliminating rate could be increased. As the flow velocity and the inflow concentration got to be more increased, its eliminating rate got to be lower, and particularly, an increase in the flow velocity made its eliminating rate drop more greatly than an increase in the concentration.
Source Identification of Ambient PM-10 Using the PMF Model
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 701~717
The objective of this study was to extensively estimate the air quality trends of the study area by surveying con-centration trends in months or seasons, after analyzing the mass concentration of PM-10 samples and the inorganic lements, ion, and total carbon in PM-10. Also, the study introduced to apply the PMF (Positive Matrix Factoriza-tion) model that is useful when absence of the source profile. Thus the model was thought to be suitable in Korea that often has few information about pollution sources. After obtaining results from the PMF modeling, the existing sources at the study area were qualitatively identified The PM-10 particles collected on quartz fiber filters by a PM-10 high-vol air sampler for 3 years (Mar. 1999∼Dec.2001) in Kyung Hee University. The 25 chemical species (Al, Mn, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Ce, Pb, Si, N
, TC) were analyzed by ICP-AES, IC, and EA after executing proper pre - treatments of each sample filter. The PMF model was intensively applied to estimate the quantitative contribution of air pollution sources based on the chemical information (128 samples and 25 chemical species). Through a case study of the PMF modeling for the PM-10 aerosols. the total of 11 factors were determined. The multiple linear regression analysis between the observed PM-10 mass concentration and the estimated G matrix had been performed following the FPEAK test. Finally the regression analysis provided source profiles (scaled F matrix). So, 11 sources were qualitatively identified, such as secondary aerosol related source, soil related source, waste incineration source, field burning source, fossil fuel combustion source, industry related source, motor vehicle source, oil/coal combustion source, non-ferrous metal source, and aged sea- salt source, respectively.ively.y.
Estimation of Quantitative Source Contribution of Ambient PM-10 Using the PMF Model
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 719~731
In order to maintain and manage ambient air quality, it is necessary to identify sources and to apportion its sources for ambient particulate matters. The receptor methods were one of the statistical methods to achieve reasonable air pollution strategies. Also, receptor methods, a field of chemometrics, is based on manifold applied statistics and is a statistical methodology that analyzes the physicochemical properties of gaseous and particulate pollutant on various atmospheric receptors, identifies the sources of air pollutants, and quantifies the apportionment of the sources to the receptors. The objective of this study was 1) after obtaining results from the PMF modeling, the existing sources of air at the study area were qualitatively identified and the contributions of each source were quantitatively estimated as well. 2) finally efficient air pollution management and control strategies of each source were suggested. The PMF model was intensively applied to estimate the quantitative contribution of air pollution sources based on the chemical information (128 samples and 25 chemical species). Through a case study of the PMF modeling for the PM-10 aerosols, the total of 11 factors were determined. The multiple linear regression analysis between the observed PM-10 mass concentration and the estimated G matrix had been performed following the FPEAK test. Finally the regression analysis provided quantitative source contributions (scaled G matrix) and source profiles (scaled F matrix). The results of the PMF modeling showed that the sources were apportioned by secondary aerosol related source 28.8 ％, soil related source 16.8％, waste incineration source 11.5%, field burning source 11.0%, fossil fuel combustion source 10%, industry related source 8.3％, motor vehicle source 7.9%, oil/coal combustion source 4.4％, non-ferrous metal source 0.3％. and aged sea- salt source 0.2％, respectively.
Analysis of Flow Field around Multiple Fluid Spheres in the Low Knudsen Number Region
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 733~743
The flow field in multiple fluid sphere systems was studied analytically. The expanded zero vorticity cell model based on Kuwabara's theory (1959) was applied and the effects of gas slippage at the collecting surface were considered. Also, the solid sphere system was extended to fluid sphere including the effects of the induced internal circulation inside the liquid droplet spheres or gas bubble systems. As a result, the obtained analytic solution was converged to the existing solutions for flow field around solid and bubble sphere systems with proper boundary conditions. Based on the resolved flow field, the terminal velocity around the collecting fluid spheres was obtained. Subsequently, this study evaluated the most general solution for flow field around the multiple fluid sphere systems. The obtained flow field in multiple fluid sphere could be used as a fundamental consideration of wet scrubber design and devices for removing particles by fluid-fluid interactions.
Analysis of Wind Environments for Siting a Wind Farm
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 745~756
An analysis of wind environments using computational fluid dynamics and an evaluation of wind resources using measurement data obtained from meteorological observation sites at Homi-Cape, Pohang have been carrid out for siting a wind farm. It was shown that a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics would provide reliable wind resource map in complex terrain with land-sea breeze condition. As a result of this investigation, Homi-Cape wind farm with 11.25 ㎿ capacity has been designed for maximum power generation and 25.7 GWh electricity production is predicted.
A Study on Modification of Geographical Features Affecting Onset of Sea Breeze
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 757~772
We simulate the geographical effects on the onset time of sea breeze at Suyoung and Haeundae districts by using the LCM (Local Circulation Model). The following can be found out from the numerical simulation on Case I (real terrain) which considered the real geography of Busan metropolitan area. Especially, as a result of analyzing the land breeze path, it could be found along the coastline as it flows out through low land coastal area. To find out more about the effects of terrain and geography on the onset time of sea breeze, the results of numerical simulation of virtual geography are as follows. In Case II (flat terrain), to find out how the terrain slope affects the onset of sea breeze, flat land and the ocean was considered. As a result, convergence of nighttime air mass at a Suyoung area and nighttime strong wind speed phenomenon was not shown. In Case III (modified flat terrain), to find out the effects of the irregularity of coastline affecting the onset of sea breeze, numerical simulation was carried out by simplifying the complex coastline into segments of straight coastline. So land breeze system and changing process of sea breeze after sunrise at Suyoung and Haeundae was simulated almost in a similar manner. Through this we could find the effects of coastal irregularities on onset of sea breeze.
Numerical Simulation for Local Circulation of Urban Area and Deposition Phenomenon
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 773~787
There are variations in the temperature Held due to urban heat island and anthropogenic heating so that regional scale meteorological field is changed. Therefore we simulate and predict the regional climate change according to surface characteristics through regional meteorological model. This study investigates the regional meteorological field by urbanization that influences in local circulation system using CSU-RAMS and simulates dry deposition velocity (V
) using PNU/DEM which includes surface characteristics (such as albedo, surface hydrology and rough-ness length etc.) with calculated meteorological field. During the summer, horizontal distributions of V
were simulated using CSU-RAMS and PNU/DEM at Busan metropolitan area. The estimated values of V
were larger in forest and agricultural areas than water areas since ozone with low water solubility is destroyed slowly at wet surface or water.water.
The Study on the Comparison of the ISCST3 Model and Receptor Model by Dispersion Tracing of Particulate Matter from Large Scale Pollution Sources
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 789~803
The purpose of this study is to compare the usefulness between Gaussian dispersion model and receptor model with the experimental result of the dispersion tracing of the particulate pollutants from Taean coal-fired power plants. For this purpose, the component analysis of the collected PM 10 samples was performed. In order to trace the pollution sources, factor analysis was done with the result of the component analysis. As a result of the correlativity analysis of the fifteen power plants' profiles offered by US EPA, the correlativity of No.11202 source profile showed highest rate up to 84.5%. Thus it was adopted as proper one and the contribution rate by each pollution source was calculated by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB)-8 model. The contribution rate, which was the effect rate of the power plants on each measuring point, were calculated with a range of 24∼52％ and the standard error was below 0.9
/㎥. This indicates the selection of the source profile was appropriate. Also, the concentrations of each point were calculated by the ISCST3 which is suggested by US EPA as one of the regulatory Gaussian dispersion model. The calculation result showed that the predicted concentration was 50∼58
/㎥, comparing with the measured result of 9∼65
/㎥. It was found that the concentration calculated by ISCST3 was underpredicted. It was thought that the receptor model was more favorable than the Gaussian dispersion model in estimating the effect of the particulate matter on a certain receptive point.
Annual Trends of Air Pollution Emission from Construction and Agricultural Equipments
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2003, Pages 805~810
The annual air pollution emissions from construction and agricultural equipments were estimated from 1987 through 2000. The annual numbers and operation hours of 5 major construction equipments (Excavator, Bulldozer, Loader, Fork lift, Crane) and 3 major agricultural equipments (Power Tiller, Agricultural Tractor, Combine) were investigated for emission estimation. And monthly variation factors of operation hours of construction equipment were investigated too. The NO
emission from construction equipment have been gradually increased since 1987 to 1997, but sharply decreased as -45％ in 1998 due to economic crisis in Korea. The NO
emission was estimated as 64,300 ton/year from construction equipment, and as 23,300 ton/year from agricultural equipment in 2000.000.