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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Nov 1986
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Sep 1986
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Jun 1986
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A Study on the Change in Forest Community by Air Pollution at Yocheon District
金俊選 ; 金泰旭 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 3, 1986, Pages 1~10
Nowadays, air pollution by increasing consumption of fossil fuels resulting from rapidly growing population and industrialization has caused the adverse effects on terrestrial ecosystems and become one of the most serious problems causing environmental discriptions. Air pollution such as $SO_2, HF, NO_X,$ fly ash, ozone and PAN might influence plant growth, reproduction, nutrient cycling, photosynthesis and predisposition to entomological and pathological stresses on plants. Furthermore, accumulation of those toxic substances in forests might cause subtle or serious changes in the structure and function of forest ecosystems. Since 1970s, a number of large industrial complexes had been constructed as a part of industrialization plan in Korea. Accordingly, the forest exosystems around them has been under chronic influences of air pollution and effects of air pollution on plants became a matter of concern. In Yocheon Industrial Complex which consisted of lots of petrochemical plants and a phosphatic fertilizer manufacturing plant, forests has been exposed to chronic air pollution, mainly HF and $SO_2$ gas, Various reports were available to investigate the potential effects of air pollution on crops and forest trees in Yocheon. Kim and Kim surveyed vegetation by naked eye method and reported 71 families, 150 genera and 158 species were growing within a 2 km from air pollution sources in 1981. Needle injuries on Pinus spp. in the polluted area water reported by Kim, et al. and Kim, et al. Kim, et al. investigated the primary production of Pinus thunbergii forests in the polluted area and verified that growth inhibition of Pinus thunbergii was attributable to air pollution. Thus, previous reports suggested that forest ecosystems around Yocheon Industrial Complex were influenced adversely by air pollution. The objective of this study was to investigate the subtle ecological changes in forest community exposed to chronic air pollution in Yocheon.
A Study on the Correlation between Lead in Airborne Suspended Particulates and Leaves of Roadside Trees in Urban Area
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 3, 1986, Pages 11~18
In order to evaluate the state of the environmental pollution by vehicle exhaust in Seoul area the correlation between lead in air and leaves of roadside trees has been investigated during August in 1985. The dust in the atmosphere was collected by high volume air sampler to measure the concentration of lead. On the other hand, lead as a pollution indicator was extracted from the leaves of roadside trees (Ginkgo biloba, Salix pseudo/lasiogyne, platanus occidentalis) by conventional method and their concentrations were determined. The following results were obtained : 1. Lead concentrations in the leaves of roadside trees varied with trees, for example, the average concentrations of lead in each of the leaves of Ginkgo biloba, Salix pseudo/lasiogyne and Platanus occidentalis were 20.66 ppm, 9.37 ppm, and 10.58 ppm, respectively. 2. The dust sampled along heavily traveled highways showed that lead content tended to increase with traffic volume. 3. The correlation coefficients between lead correlation in air and leaves of Gingo biloba, Salix pseudo/lasiogyne, and Platanus orientalis were 0.80, 0.85, and 0.87, respectively.
A Study on the Air Pollution Impact Analysis Using the Environmental Information Management System
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 3, 1986, Pages 19~26
The degree of air pollution is usually presented in terms of concentration. But, in evaluating the environmental impacts or air pollution control policies, the concentration values need to be interpreted in terms of damage effects on property and human health. The damage effect varies with the types of pollution, subjects and land use pattern of an affected area. Therefore, this study is aimed at developing a method of analyzing effects of various types of air pollutions on surrounding environmental setting with the EIMS (Environmental Information Management System) developed for land suitability analysis. Using the method formulated in this study, the long- term effects of such pollutants as $SO_2$ and HF on types of vegetation and residents, and potential, short-term effects of HCl leak accidents from manufacturing facilities in Ulsan and Onsan Industrial complex are analyzed. The presentation of the damage effects of air pollution rather than the concentration of pollutants will be useful for the preparation of environmental impact statements, the formulation of environmental policies, and the development of land use plans in heavily industrialized areas.
Concentration and Size Distribution of Atmospheric Particulate Matters, Chloride, Nitrate, and Sulfate Salts in Urban Air
孫東憲 ; 許文寧 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 3, 1986, Pages 27~33
Atmospheric particulate matter (A. P. M.) was collected and size-fractionated by an Andersen high-volume air sampler over 15 month period from Jan. 1985 to Feb. 1986 in Seoul. The concentration of chloride, nitrate and sulfate were extracted in an ultrasonic bath and were analyzed by ion chromatography. The annual arithmetical mean of A. P. M. was 128.54 $\mug/m^3$. The concentration of anions were 2.88 $\mug/m^3$ for chloride, 3.86$\mug/m^3$ for nitrate, and 25.44$\mug/m^3$ for sulfate. The content of A. P. M. was lowest in the particle size range 1.1 $\sim 3.3\mum$ and increased as the particle size increased or decreased. And the anions exhibited a seasonal variation in the isize distribution. The contents of anions were higher in winter than summer. Ther ratio of fine particles to the total particles defined by F/T for chloride, nitrate and sulfate. The F\ulcornerT of these anion generally decrease with increasing air temperature. This tendency was prevalent in the chloride and nitrate.
Yellow Sand Phenomena Influence to the Atmosphere in Korea
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 3, 1986, Pages 34~44
Particle size distribution of airborne suspended particulate concentrations according to particle size in the events of yellow sand phenomena, have been measured and analyzed by using Andersen air sampler for four years, January 1982 through December 1985. The conclusions are as follows: 1. Yellow sand phenomena, generally, occur between March and May. 2. The frequent occurrences of yellow sand were observed during March and April and airborne suspended particulate concentrations in the cases of yellow sand appeared to be 2 $\sim$ 3.4 times higher than those of normal conditions. 3. Geometric mean particle diameter and its geometric mean standard deviation by logarithmic normal distribution sheet, were quite close to each other and log-distribution curves showed similar shapes. 4. Analysis by particle size distribution curve showed bi-modal distribution. 5. Concentrations of coarse particles in normal conditions were 1.2 $\sim$ 2 times higher than those of fine particles and, similarly, coarse particle concentrations in yellow sand cases were 1.3 $\sim$ 2.5 times higher than those of fine particles. 6. Concentrations of coarse particles in yellow sand cases were 2 $\sim$ 3.6 times higher than those in normal conditions and those of fine particles were 1.7 $\sim$ 3.5 times higher.
Development of Relationship between Air Quality and Rain Acidity
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 3, 1986, Pages 45~51
The simple and precise model for the estimation of rain acidity from the ambient air quality was developed using the theory of wet scrubber and the chemical equilibria of $SO_2, CO_2, and H_2O$ system. From the measured mixing height, and from the developed relationship between NTU (=number of transfer units) and the concentration of $SO_2$(aq) in rain drops, the HTU (= height equivalent to one transfer unit, i.e. mass transfer resistance) was estimated, and validated with the field-measured data. In Seoul, Korea where the effect of $SO_2$ on rainfall acidity is as high as 84% and the average mixing height is 1 km, the average HTU of $SO_2$ system was found to be 191.5m. The important parameters affecting HTU were identified as rainfall intensity and initial ambient concentration of $SO_2$, and their effects on the value of overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient were quantified.
A Study on Air Pollution Prediction Using Adaptive Lattice Altorithm
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 3, 1986, Pages 52~56
In this paper a adaptive LMS(least mean-square) lattice predictor, which is composed of the adaptive lattice algorithm and LMS algorithm by Widrow-Hopf, is used to predict the future air pollution of the extraordinary levels in the environmental system. This prediction algorithm is applied to the one-step forward prediction of atmospheric CO concentration by using real observed data. Computer simulation proves that the power in the forward error sequences decreases as the number of stages in the lattice is increased.
Studies on Particle Size Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Atmosphere
孫東憲 ; 姜春遠 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 3, 1986, Pages 57~63
Atmospheric particulate matter (A.P.M.) was collected on quartz fiber filters from March 1985 to May 1986 according to particle size using Andersen high-volume air sampler, and 6 heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb) in these particulates were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The arithmetic mean concentration of A.P.M. was 195.57$\mug/m^3$. The arithmetic mean concentrations of 6 metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb) were 3385.04, 1451.67, 897.94, 159.68, 127.14 and 59.49 $ng/m^3$ respectively. The order of heavy metals contributing to A.P.M. was as follows: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Mn > Ni. These heavy metals were devided into 3 groups according to their particle size distribution. The contents of heavy metals belonging to the 1st group (Fe, Mn) were increased with the particle size. On the contrary, the content of Pb belonging to the 2nd group (Pb) was increased with the decrease in the particle size. The heavy metal contents in the 3rd group (Ni, Cu, Zn) were lowest in the particle size range of 2.0-3.3 $\mum$ compared with particles larger or smaller tha this range. The seasonal variation of heavy metal concentration were as follows: Fe and Mn contents were highest in spring, but Ni and Pb contents were highest in winter. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between A.P.M. and Fe in coarse particles, meanwhile between A.P.M. and Pb in the case of fine particles.