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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Exhaust VOCs Emission Characteristics from Motor Vehicles
Lyu, Young-Sook ; Ryu, Jung-Ho ; Han, Jong-Soo ; Kim, Sun-Moon ; Lim, Cheol-Soo ; Kim, Dae-Wook ; Lee, Dong-Min ; Lee, Joong-Koo ; Eom, Myung-Do ; Kim, Jong-Choon ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 275~283
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.3.275
Since mobile source is a major source of VOCs, quantifying emissions from motor vehicles is an important factor to control VOCs in atmosphere. In this study, in order to evaluate tailpipe VOCs emissions from motor vehicles, mass emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from 45 vehicles were determined. Measurements were made on a chassis dynamometer using CVS-75 mode and speed specific drive modes. Target VOCs are 53 compounds determined as the volatile ozone precursors. The individual VOCs composition of vehicle emission and emission rates were also determined. In case of gasoline vehicles, VOCs emission from over 80,000 km vehicles were about 46% larger than less 80,000 km vehicles. The difference in benzene and toluene according to driving mileage was 44% and 26% respectively. The composition of VOCs were different by fuel type. The order of VOCs composition was paraffins>aromatics>olefins in gasoline vehicle emissions, paraffins>olefins>aromatics in light duty diesel vehicle emissions. The VOCs emissions were decreased as vehicle speed increasing. These results will be used to calculate total VOCs emissions from automobiles in the future.
Assessment of Changed Input Modules with SMOKE Model
Kim, Ji-Young ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Hong, Ji-Hyung ; Jung, Dong-Il ; Ban, Soo-Jin ; Lee, Yong-Mi ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 284~299
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.3.284
Emission input modules was developed to produce emission input data and change some profiles for Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) using Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)'s activities and previous studies. Specially, this study was focused to improve chemical speciation and temporal allocation profiles of SMOKE. At first, SCC cord mapping was done. 579 SCC cords of CAPSS were matched with EPA's one. Temporal allocation profiles were changed using CAPSS monthly activities. And Chemical speciation profiles were substituted using Kang et al. (2000) and Lee et al. (2005) studies and Kim et al. (2005) study. Simulation in Seoul Metropolitan Area (Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi) using MM5, SMOKE and CMAQ modeling system was done for effect analysis of changed input modules of SMOKE. Emission model results adjusted with new input modules were slightly changed as compared to using EPA's default modules. SMOKE outputs shows that aldehyde emissions were decreased 4.78% after changing chemical profiles, increased 0.85% after implementing new temporal profiles. Toluene emissions were decreased 18.56% by changing chemical speciation profiles, increased 0.67% by replacing temporal profiles as well. Simulated results of air quality were also slightly elevated by using new input modules. Continuous accumulation of domestic data and studies to develop input system for air quality modeling would produce more improved results of air quality prediction.
Cluster Analysis of PM10 Concentrations from Urban Air Monitoring Network in Korea during 2000 to 2005
Han, Ji-Hyun ; Lee, Mee-Hye ; Ghim, Young-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 300~309
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.3.300
Variations in PM10 concentration between 2000 and 2005 from 84 urban air monitoring stations operated by the government were analyzed. The K-means cluster analysis was attempted using annual average and the 99th percentile of daily averages as parameters. The results obtained by excluding Asian dust episode days were compared with those obtained by using all available data. In any cases, the cluster with the highest mean concentration was mostly composed of stations in Seoul and Gyeonggi. Annual average of the cluster with the highest mean concentration showed a distinct decreasing trend, but that excluding Asian dust episode days did not show such a trend. Without Asian dust episode days high concentrations of monthly averages in March and April were also not observed. The effect of Asian dust was more pronounced in the 99th percentile of daily averages. The 99th percentile of daily averages of the cluster with the highest mean concentration was the highest in June following downs in April and May.
Study on the Characteristics of Surface Ozone Distributions and the Ozone Critical Levels to Vegetation in the South Korea
Koo, Hae-Jung ; Park, Soon-Ung ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 310~320
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.3.310
Concentration of tropospheric ozone (
) was investigated for the South Korea. And then the critical ozone levels, expressed as AOT40 (Accumulated exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb) to vegetation have been used in this region within the UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) Convention on Long-Range Trans-boundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Hourly ozone concentration data from 1996 to 2001 at 26 air monitoring stations was used to estimate the exceedance of the critical levels. It was calculated for daylight hours for each station, and mapped using surface interpolation over the South Korea. The critical levels of ozone have shown the highly exceeded value in the Gyeonggi region, southern coastal region and central inland of the South Korea. It was some different from the typical ozone distribution which represented highly in the western inland and coastal regions. The area exceeding the critical level for crops was founded to be more than 40% of the whole South Korean territory. While that for trees was to be about 17% of the South Korea. The critical ozone critical level was based upon data from experiments on specific species, and thus may not be fully representative for all types of vegetation. Nevertheless, the critical level and its exceedance of the ozone concentration would be one of the useful tools for international agreements on abatement strategies to prevent ecosystem damage.
Enhancement of Allergen-related Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness by House Dust Particles in Mice
Lim, Heung-Bin ; Kim, Seung-Hyung ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 321~328
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.3.321
The number of patient with allergic asthma and atopy have increased in the cities of Korea steadily. In order to elucidate the primary factor, we investigated whether the house dust particles collected from an apartment of the middle classes has promoting effects of allergen-related airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Mice were treated with 0.1 mL of 1 mg/mL of house dust particles suspension by intratracheal instillation once weekly for 10 weeks combined with ovalalbumin (OVA) sensitization. Intratracheal instillation of house dust particles and OVA sensitization caused an increase in the level of serum L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), immunoglobulun-E (IgE) and histamine, and an elevation in respiratory resistance. It also enhanced infiltration of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice, IgE and eotaxin expression in blood, and T helper type 2 cell derived cytokine levels such as of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13 and IL-5 in the BALF. However, it did not influence T helper type 1 cytokine such as interferon-gamma in the BALF. These results indicate that house dust particles elevate allergen-related airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice and may play an important role in the aggravation of asthma and atopy in Korea.
Decomposition Characterist of Toluene Using a Glidarc Water-jet Plasma
Kim, Seong-Cheon ; Chun, Young-Nam ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 329~335
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.3.329
Volatile organic compounds emitted to the atmosphere can cause adverse effects on human health and participate in photochemical smog formation reactions. The destruction of a series of VOCs has been carried out by non-thermal plasma in other researches. And the characteristic of non-thermal plasma was operated at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. A new type non-thermal plasma reactor was investigated combined Glidarc plasma with water jet in this research. Also, it was found that the water-jet had an significant effect on the toluene removal efficiency. But too much water content does not favor toluene decomposition by decreasing of reaction temperature. The input toluene concentration, gas flow rate, water flow rate and specific energy input were used as experiment variables. The toluene removal efficiency, energy efficiency and specific energy input were 75.3%, 146.6 g/kWh and
at a water flow rate of 100 mL/min.
Simultaneous Control of Dust and Gases Using a Double Centrifugal Device
Jang, Jung-Hee ; Lee, Ju-Heon ; Jo, Young-Min ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 336~345
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.3.336
A large volume of work has been attempted to improve the separation efficiency of cyclone by establishing new design and optimum operation. An auxiliary device called Post Cyclone (PoC) has been introduced and tested in an earlier work (In order to reduce the emission of fine dust from the reverse flow cyclones). This work applies the PoC to remove the dust and gaseous elements using a centrifugal effect remained in the discharging flow over the cyclone. As a result of the experiment, the efficiency was found best at the high gas concentration and low inlet velocity.
Classifying and Identifying Asbestos and Non-Asbestos Fibers by a Rule Building Expert System
Choi, Young-A ; Lee, Tae-Jung ; Kim, Dong-Sool ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 346~356
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.3.346
Asbestos is the name of a group of minerals with long and thin fibers that originate naturally in the environment. Asbestos mainly affects lungs and the membrane that surrounds the lungs. In general, PCM (phase contrast microscopy) and PLM (polarized light microscopy) have been used to analyze asbestos fibers. However, these methods have often problems to over-estimate number concentration when counting real asbestos fibers. Moreover, there are many difficulties when separating and identifying various asbestos and non-asbestos fibers. In order to determine quantitative information on fibrous particles, source profiles for asbestos and non-asbestos fibers must be initially developed on the basis of their chemical compositions and physical parameters. In our study, a SEM/EDX was used to develop source profiles from known asbestos samples as reference samples. We could make the source profile matrix consisting of 6 types of asbestos fibers and 2 types of non-asbestos fibers by analyzing 380 fibers. Based on these profiles, a rule building expert system was developed by using the visual basic application (VBA). Various fibers were successfully classified by 2 simple rules in the EXCEL environment based on several visual steps such as inserting data, viewing results, and saving results. For a case study to test the expert system, samples from a construction materials and from various indoor environments such as a residental area, a preschool classroom, and an underground store were collected and analyzed. As a result of the survey, a total of 76 individual test fiber particles was well classified into 5 different types of particle classes; 9.3% of chrysotile, 15.4% of amosite, 0.8 of crocidolite, 4.2% of tremolite, 5.8% glass fiber, 21.1% of other fibers, and 43.5% of unknown fibers in terms of number concentration. Even though unknown portion was high, it will be decreased markedly when expanding fiber source profiles.
The Analysis of Airborne Trimethylamine Using a Headspace (HS)-SPME Method
Ahn, Ji-Won ; Kim, Ki-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 357~366
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.3.357
In this study, the analytical performance of trimethylamine (TMA) were investigated with respect to headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method. In order to induce the elution of aqueous TMA to headspace, NaOH was added as a decomposition reagent to aqueous TMA standard. By controlling the combination of three major variables for TMA extraction, the extent of extraction was compared between the two contrasting conditions for each variable (i.e., reaction time (long (L) vs short (S)), exposure temperature (30 vs
), and exposure time (10 vs 30 min)). The results of this comparative analysis showed that the extraction efficiency for all eight types of HS-SPME combinations decreased on the order: L-30-30>L-50-10>L-30-10>L-50-30>S-30-30>S-50-30>S-50-10>S-30-10. The effect of reaction time appeared to exert significant influences on the relative recovery rate of HS-SPME at 90% confidence level. However, the effects of exposure temperature or exposure time were not so significant as reaction time. When the recovery rate of HS-SPME is compared against the direct injection of liquid standard into GC injector, it recorded as 2%. According to this comparative study, the reaction conditions for HS-SPME application can exert significant influences on the analysis of TMA.
Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 in Cheonan Area Using a Dust Monitor
Lee, Hyun-Mi ; Oh, Se-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 367~375
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.3.367
To characterize atmospheric particles in Cheonan area, 5 monitoring sites representing highway area, commercial area, residential area, and industrial areas were selected, and the mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were monitored for 14 days at each site during 2007. The daily average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were in the range from 18.5 to
and 8.2 to
, respectively, showing the highest mean concentrations at the commercial area site and the lowest concentration at the residential area site. The daily average PM 10 concentrations at Shinan (Commercial area) and Bakseok (Industrial area) sites were exceeded the current National Standard for 1 and 2 days during the monitoring periods. The fractions of PM2.5 in PM10 were above 70% for all sites, indicating fine particles are the major constituent of atmospheric particles in Cheonan. The results indicate that PM10 concentrations in Cheonan are at the concerning level, and the control strategy for fine particles is necessary to address this issue.