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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
A Study of Interrelationships between the Effect of the Upwelling Cold Water and Sea Breeze in the Southeastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula
Lee, Hwa-Woon ; Ji, Hyo-Eun ; Lee, Soon-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 481~492
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.6.481
The characteristic of cold water by upwelling in the southeast of the Korean Peninsula and the effect of sea breeze in this region are investigated. The coastal upwelling around the southeast coast of the Korea Peninsula is analyzed by using Coastal Oceanographic Data statistical analyses for 5 years were carried out. The period of an cold water event, on the average, was observed southwesterly wind events. The analysis suggests that strong and persistent southwesterly winds in period of an cold water play an important role of bring the moisture to the surface, generating persistent cyclone as jangma. In order to investigate the effect of cold water on sea breeze, we considered two case. First, Exp. 1 is not occurred coastal upwelling on sea breeze. Second, Exp. 2 is occurred cold water on sea breeze. Two experiments were completed separately to the effects of cold water by upwelling. The results show the sea breeze is stronger in Exp. 2, when the cold water occurs, and weaker in Exp. 1, when there is no cold water. In order to verify the effect of the sea breeze on the cold water by upwelling, on the intensification and change of direction of the prevailing wind, the sea breeze effectively intensify cold water condition.
Atmospheric Distribution Characteristics of Airborne Bacteria in Part of Seoul Area
Kim, Ki-Youn ; Kim, Yoon-Shin ; Lee, Cheol-Min ; Cho, Man-Su ; Byeon, Sang-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 493~502
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.6.493
The concentrations of outdoor airborne bacteria measured in Seoul, Korea for one year (Jan. 2008~Dec. 2008) ranged from
. In monthly concentration distribution, the level of outdoor airborne bacteria was highest in September and October and lowest in March. In seasonal concentration distribution, the order of level of outdoor airborne bacteria was autumn>winter>spring>summer. In regional concentration distribution, the highest level of outdoor airborne bacteria was generally found in the forest, followed by general area and traffic site. In distribution characteristics according to particle size, outdoor airborne bacteria showed 31% for >
(stage 1), 21% for
(stage 2), 15% for
(stage 3), 19% for
(stage 4), 10% for
(stage 5), and 4% for
(stage 6) and its mean respirable fraction was 48%. In concentration distribution by yellow dust, the mean levels of outdoor airborne bacteria were 803
for period of yellow dust and 691
for period of non-yellow dust. Although the level of outdoor airborne bacteria was higher in period of yellow dust than period of non-yellow dust, there was no significant difference between period of yellow dust and non-yellow dust (p>0.05). In correlation analysis between outdoor airborne bacteria and atmospheric factors (temperature and relative humidity), there was no significant correlation between outdoor airborne bacteria and atmospheric factors. The predominant airborne bacteria were identified to the Bacillus-derived species.
Removal Characteristics and Mass Balance Analysis of Mixed VOCs in Trickle Bed Air Biofilter Using Backwashing Operation
Kim, Dae-Keun ; Sorial, George A. ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 503~511
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.6.503
VOC mixture was fed to a trickle bed air biofilter (TBAB) with step-change in influent mixture concentrations from 50 ppmv to 1,000 ppmv, corresponding to loadings of
. VOC mixture was an equimolar ratio of two aromatic VOCs, i.e., toluene and styrene, and two oxygenated VOCs, i.e., methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The TBAB system employed backwashing as biomass control. The experimental results showed that a critical loading rate for VOC mixture removal was determined to be about
, and critical loading rates for individual VOCs in the mixture were different. Specifically, toluene content in the mixture played a major role in the biofilter overall performance. As VOC mixture was fed beyond the critical loading rate, reacclimation of the biofilter to reach the 99% removal efficiency following backwashing was delayed, which was a critical factor in the biofilter performance. In the mass balance analysis, 63.8% of the carbon equivalent in VOCs removal was used for
production during the experimental runs. The 82.6% nitrogen utilized in the biofilter was contributed to microbial cell synthesis. The obtained results were compared against consistently high efficient performance of TBAB for VOC mixture by employing backwashing as biomass control.
Removal Efficiency of Some Odorants against Water as Sorptive Media: A Case Study on Trimethylamine and Reduced Sulfur Compounds
Ahn, Ji-Won ; Kim, Ki-Hyun ; Ok, Joon-Seok ; Kim, Yong-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 512~522
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.6.512
In this study, the removal efficiency of trimethylamine (TMA) and four reduced sulfur compounds (RSC) of
, DMS, and DMDS was investigated using deionized water as absorbent. To this end, two types of experiments were conducted which include: (1) by passing both RSC and TMA standard gases through water contained in an impinger system and (2) by passing TMA gases through a water spray system. In the former method, TMA standard gases were effectively removed (below detection limit) in all experiments. Likewise, minor fractions of some RSC (
, DMS, and DMDS) were removed by water in line with theoretical expectations. In addition, the first type of our experiment was extended further to test some commercially available odor treatment products. The results of this test showed that removal efficiencies of RSC
were different significantly among 4 kinds of absorbent, while the removal of TMA was consistently good as water. In the second phase of experiment, removal efficiency of TMA was tested by passing its standard gas through a water spray system. The overall results of our study showed that the actual removal efficiency of odorants by water (as sorptive media) approached the values that can be predicted theoretically (by Henry`s law).
A Study on the Performance Optimization of a Continuous Monitoring Method for Hazardous VOCs in the Ambient Atmosphere
Son, Eun-Seong ; Seo, Young-Kyo ; Lee, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, Min-Do ; Han, Jin-Seok ; Baek, Sung-Ok ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 523~538
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.6.523
Recently, there has been a keen demand for real-time automatic monitoring of VOCs not only in Korea but other developed countries. We carried out this study to evaluate and to optimize the performance of a continuous automatic monitoring system for hazardous VOCs (HVOCs) in the ambient atmosphere, using an on-line GC system. The online system normally consisted of a Nafion dryer prior to a cold trap of an automatic thermal desorption apparatus and a GC system equipped with two detectors, i.e. PID and ECD. Preliminary tests conducted to check out any contamination of the system revealed an evidence of significant artifact formation of benzene, and it was found that the Nafion dryer (even brand new one) is the source of the benzene artifact. Thus, all the subsequent experiments in this study was carried out inevitably by removing the Nafion dryer. The on-line GC method was investigated with a variety of QC/QA performance criteria such as repeatability, linearity, lower detection limits, and accuracy. In order to find out the best operating condition for the on-line GC system, three different types (in terms of adsorption strength) of cold trap combinations were tested, i.e. (i) Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B combination (weak and hydrophobic); (ii) Tenax-TA, Carbopack-X and Carboxen-1000 combination (strong and hydrophilic); and (iii) Tenax-TA and Carbopack-X combination (medium and hydrophobic/hydrophilic). The USEPA TO-17 manual method was selected as a reference method to evaluate the performance of the on-line method. A series of experiments revealed that the system performance was superior to others when a cold trap packed with hydrophilic adsorbents (Tenax-TA/Carbopack-X/Carboxen-1000 combination) was used and operated at
. However, the system with a cold trap packed with a combination of Tenax-TA and Carbopack-X is more recommended for field applications since the carboxen-1000 adsorbent is too sensitive to water vapor, and hence the performance of the system might be very unstable to humid samples or during rainy days. Furthermore, the precision and accuracy criteria of the Tenax-TA/ Carbopack-X combination were generally compatible with the triple adsorbents cold trap. The continuous automatic monitoring method is, thus, considered very useful to real-time monitoring to understand the variations of VOCs concentrations in ambient air, as it adopts much simpler procedures in sampling, analysis, and data integration steps than manual monitoring methods. However, it should be noted that there is a high possibility of benzene artifacts formation through the Nafion dryer, which is often installed to remove water vapor in air samples before being adsorbed onto the cold trap. Therefore, if a Nafion dryer is used in any studies of monitoring VOCs, the benzene contamination should be carefully examined before carrying out obtaining the data.
Estimation of Hourly Emission Flux of Asian Dust Using Empirical Formulas in the Source Area
Moon, Yun-Seob ; Lee, Seong-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 539~549
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.6.539
The purpose of this study is to estimate hourly Asian dust emission flux in springtime by using the optimized Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF) in order to accurately predict the horizontal flux of Asian dusts. Asian dust emission flux using 5 empirical formulas such as US EPA, Park and Inn, Wang, The Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) and Dust Entrainment and Deposition (DEAD) were calculated and compared by using classified land-use types and size distribution at various locations in China and Mongolia together with the hourly meteorological elements of the WRF model. As a result, the empirical formula in US EPA among them, which was considered the various conditions such as vegetation, soil type and terrain, was better than the other 4 empirical formulas. However, these formulas were adjusted hourly and vertically in time and space because there was different order and time resolution of dust emissions from original empirical formulas.
Characteristics of Air Quality in the West-coastal Urban Atmosphere
Kim, Deug-Soo ; Ma, Hui ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 550~561
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.6.550
This study is to investigate the air pollution characteristics of an industrialized midsize west-coastal city by comparing air quality to a neighboring inland city. The hourly averaged data of
, CO, and
measured from continuous air quality monitoring sites in Gunsan (coastal) and Jeonju (inland) were analyzed. The data set covers the period from 2004 to 2006. The annual average concentrations of the air pollutants in two cities were compared in their abundances and temporal trends as well.
in Gunsan were relatively higher than those in Jeonju, while vice versa in case of
. It seems that heavy automobile emissions from Jeonju mainly bring on higher
than those in Gunsan on annual base.
concentrations in both cities showed bimodal diurnal variations with peaks in the morning and in the late evening. These peaks correspond to the coupled effects of rush hour traffic and meteorological conditions (i.e., variation of mixing height and dispersion conditions). Maximum hourly averages of
ranged from 18 ppb to 28 ppb at Jeonju, and from 12 ppb to 20 ppb at Gunsan.
showed typical diurnal variation with a maximum in the afternoon between 14:00 and 16:00 LST. Diurnal variations of CO and
were similar to
was similar to
. Seasonal variations of
in both cities indicated that their concentrations during spring season were significantly high. Asian dust storms occur frequently during spring and seem to affect increase in
days were selected from both cities. The analyses based on the HYSPLIT trajectory model during the high
showed these episodes (six cases) were mostly coincident with Asian dust storm originated from northern China and Mongolia. However, these high air pollution episodes in the west coastal cities may not only be caused by the Asian dust but also affected by other air pollutants transported from China accompanying the Asian dust.
Development of Greenhouse Gas (CH
O) Emission Factors for Anthracite Fired Power Plants in Korea
Lee, See-Hyung ; Kim, Jin-Su ; Lee, Seong-Ho ; Sa, Jae-Hwan ; Kim, Ki-Hyun ; Jeon, Eui-Chan ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 562~570
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.6.562
Although anthracite power plant acts as the important source of greenhouse gas emissions, relatively little is known about its emission potentials. Especially, because the emissions of Non-
are strongly dependent on fuel type and technology available, it is desirable to obtain the information concerning their emission pattens. In this study, the anthracite power plants in Korea were investigated and the emission gases were analyzed using GC/FID and GC/ECD to develop Non-
emission factors. The anthracite samples were also analyzed to quantity the amount of carbon and hydrogen using an element analyzer, while calorie was measured by an automatic calorie analyzer. The emission factor of
computed through the gas analysis corresponded to 0.73 and 1.98 kg/TJ, respectively. Compared with IPCC values, the
emission factor in this study was about 25% lower, while that of
was higher by about 40%. More research is needed to extend our database for emission factors of various energy-consuming facilities in order to stand on a higher position.
Compensation of Aethalometer Black Carbon Data Observed at a Gwangju Site
Park, Seung-Shik ; Jung, Jung-H. ; Cho, Sung-Y. ; Kim, Seung-Jai ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 571~578
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.6.571
black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured to investigate the filter spot loading effect in raw BC data at 5-minute time-based resolution using a single-wavelength aethalometer at a Gwangju site. Also the elemental carbon (EC) concentrations from 24-hr integrated filter-based measurements of
particles were determined to compare with the loading compensated BC values. Close examination of the time-series BC data showed clearly the "gaps" when the filter tape advances, suggesting the correction of raw BC data. Therefore, we calculated the average BC concentration in each range of attenuation (ATN) to decide if there was (or was not) an effect on the aethalometer data according to the loading of the filter spot. A consistent decrease of average BC concentration was found with increasing ATN values for every month, suggesting there was a consistent "spot loading effect" in the raw BC data. The loading compensated BC concentration according to a simple compensation model with loading effect was 1.01~1.15 times greater than the raw BC data. The 24-hr average concentration of EC observed during summer sampling period was about 3% higher than the original 24-hr average BC value and 2% lower than the loading compensated BC concentration.
Review of PM-related Air Quality Improvement Policies of United States for PM-related Air Quality Improvement of Metropolitan Region in Korea
Woo, Jung-Hun ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 579~593
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.6.579
Several fine particle-related policies in Northeast United States were investigated in support of the execution of special measures to improve air quality of Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). The definition of particulate matter (PM) in the Clean Air Act (CAA), components and procedures of Regional Haze Rule (RHR), and Air Quality Management (AQM) were reviewed. Several State Implementation Plans (SIPs) were also reviewed as the way to attain required air quality under the Clean Air Act.
attainment SIP of Maryland, 8-hr Ozone attainment SIP of New Jersey, and Regional Haze Rule attainment SIP of MANE-VU were analyzed in detail as case studies. We realized that "Special Measures for Air Quality Improvement in the Seoul Metropolitan Area" has many similarities with its US counterparts in terms of purpose, components, procedures, and implementation methods. US policies, however, have more advanced features, such as standardized procedures and methods, transparent guidelines, and stable relationship among federal/state/local governments and stakeholders, which would be helpful to improve air quality in SMA.