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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Estimation of Dust Emission Schemes and Input Parameters in Wintertime Asian Dust Simulation: A Case Study of Winter Dust Event on December 29, 2007
Kang, Jung-Yoon ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Yoon, Soon-Chang ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 28, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2012.28.1.001
A case study was conducted for a severe wintertime dust event that occurred on December 29, 2007 in Korea. Three different dust emission schemes, namely, those of Marticorena and Bergametti (1995), Lu and Shao (1999), and Shao (2004) (hereinafter, referred to MB, LS, and S04 schemes, respectively) were implemented in Weather Research Forecast with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) to assess their performance in simulating wintertime Asian dust events. WRF/Chem simulation reproduces dust emission over Mongolia on December 27 and 28, 2007 and the onset timing of the dust event in Korea well. There is, however, a huge difference among the estimated dust emission amounts for the three schemes; the dust concentration derived by MB scheme is 6 times larger than that from LS scheme. The three schemes overestimate dust concentrations when comparing to observed surface-level
mass concentrations in Ganghwa, Seoul, and Yeongwol. This discrepancy is thought to be mainly due to the overestimated model winds and the surface condition such as snow cover fraction, which did not adequately represent the real conditions. Considering frozen soil effect on dust emission, the model results are comparable with observation data: it is important to consider frozen soil in simulating wintertime dust events.
The Analysis of Spatial Distribution of Ozone in the Southern Coast of Korea using the Aircraft (2009, Summer)
Seo, Seok-Jun ; Kim, So-Young ; Lee, Min-Do ; Choi, Jin-Soo ; Kim, Su-Yeon ; Lee, Seok-Jo ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Lee, Gang-Woong ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 28, issue 1, 2012, Pages 12~21
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2012.28.1.012
The purpose of this study is to understand distribution of ozone concentration in the south coastal region of Korea by evaluating ozone spatial distribution in the upper air using aircraft. Sampling was carried out from May to August in 2009. The average concentration of ozone in the upper air was ranged from 32.3~90.8 ppb with its maximum concentration of 132 ppb. When it comes to the spatial distribution of ozone, ambient concentration was high in the air, 1,000 m and 500 m above the southern sea near the Gwangyang Bay area and emission sources, respectively. Daily mean concentration of NOy was 6.7~24.2 ppb and that of CO was 0.152~0.487 ppm. In addition, the concentration was appeared to be relatively high in the upper air of industrial regions and the southern seas. Meanwhile, the concentration of both
and CO was high in the upper air of the emission sources regardless of latitude. As for PAN, its daily mean concentration ranged between 0.1 and 0.6 ppb with overall mean concentration of 0.2 ppb. The average concentration of VOCs was 48 ppb, and the concentration of toluene and m,p-Xylene were higher than other components.
Vulnerability Assessment of Human Health Sector due to Climate Change: Focus on Ozone
Lee, Jae-Bum ; Lee, Hyun-Ju ; Moon, Kyung-Jung ; Hong, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Deok-Rae ; Song, Chang-Keun ; Hong, You-Deog ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 28, issue 1, 2012, Pages 22~38
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2012.28.1.022
Adaptation of climate change is necessary to avoid unexpected impacts of climate change caused by human activities. Vulnerability refers to the degree to which system cannot cope with impacts of climate change, encompassing physical, social and economic aspects. Therefore the quantification of climate change impacts and its vulnerability is needed to identify vulnerable regions and to setup the proper strategies for adaptation. In this study, climate change vulnerability is defined as a function of climate exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Also, we identified regions vulnerable to ozone due to climate change in Korea using developed proxy variables of vulnerability of regional level. 18 proxy variables are selected through delphi survey to assess vulnerability over human health sector for ozone concentration change due to climate change. Also, we estimate the weighting score of proxy variables from delphi survey. The results showed that the local regions with higher vulnerability index in the sector of human health are Seoul and Daegu, whereas regions with lower one are Jeollanam-do, Gyeonggi-do, Gwangju, Busan, Daejeon, and Gangwon-do. The regions of high level vulnerability are mainly caused by their high ozone exposure. We also assessed future vulnerability according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2, A1FI, A1T, A1B, B2, and B1 scenarios in 2020s, 2050s and 2100s. The results showed that vulnerability increased in all scenarios due to increased ozone concentrations. Especially vulnerability index is increased by approximately 2 times in A1FI scenarios in the 2020s. This study could support regionally adjusted adaptation polices and the quantitative background of policy priority as providing the information on the regional vulnerability of ozone due to climate change in Korea.
Application of Semi-continuous Ambient Aerosol Collection System for Elemental Analysis
Park, Seung-Shik ; Ko, Jae-Min ; Lee, Dong-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 28, issue 1, 2012, Pages 39~51
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2012.28.1.039
Aerosol slurry samples were collected in 60-min interval using Korean Semi-continuous Elements in Aerosol Sampler (KSEAS) between May 19 and June 6, 2010 at an urban site of Gwangju. The
samples were collected with a flow rate of 16.7 L/min and particles are grown by condensation of water vapor in a condenser maintained at
after saturation by direct injection of steam. The resulting droplets are collected in a liquid slurry with a airdroplet separator. Concentrations of 16 elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ti, V, Ni, Co, As, Se) in the collected slurry samples were determined off-line by ICP-MS. KSEAS sample analysis encompassed the sampling periods for which 24-hr average elemental species concentrations were calculated for comparison with those derived from 24-hr integrated filter samples. Relationship between elemental species measured by two methods indicated high correlation coefficients (r), mostly greater than r of 0.80. However, we note that concentrations of Al, K, Ca, Mn, and Fe, which are often associated with crustal elemental particles, in the KSEAS samples, were substantially lower (1.4~11 times) than those found in the typical filter-based samples. This discrepancy is probably due to difficulties in transferring insoluble dust particles to the collection vials in the KSEAS. Temporal profiles of elemental concentrations indicate that some transient events in their concentrations are observed over the sampling periods. For the elemental species studied, atmospheric concentrations during the transient events increased by factors of 4 in Mn~80 in Zn, compared to their background levels. Principle component analyses were applied to the hourly KSEAS data sets to identify sources affecting the concentrations of the metal constituents observed. In this study, we conclude that hourly measurements for particle-bound elemental constituents were extremely useful for revealing the short-term variability in their concentrations and developing insights into their sources.
A Study of Calibration Bias in the Analysis of Airborne Carbonyl Compounds between Gaseous and Liquid-phase Standards by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Lee, Min-Hee ; Kim, Ki-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 28, issue 1, 2012, Pages 52~58
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2012.28.1.052
In this study, the effect of standard phase difference in calibration of carbonyl compounds (CC) was evaluated by using their standards prepared in both gaseous and liquid phase. For this analysis, standards in both phases were prepared for 6 different CCs (formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (AA), propionaldehyde (PA), butyraldehyde (BA), isovaleraldehyde (IA) and valeraldehyde (VA)) at similar concentration levels. Their gaseous standard was calibrated after derivatization with three types of DNPH cartridge, and their calibration results were compared against liquid-phase standards. Although there was a strong compatibility between 2 phases for CCs with lower molecular weights (e.g., formaldehyde and acetaldehyde), it was not the case for the heavier CCs. The results of our analysis indicate that the analytical bias of the heavier CCs can be significantly large (by more than a few tens of %). As a result, underestimation of hevier CCs can be significant, if their gaseous samples are quantified by liquid phase standard.
A Noticeable Change in Indoor Radon Levels After Platform Screen Doors Installation in Seoul Subway Station
Jeon, Jae-Sik ; Yoon, Jong-Cheol ; Lee, Ho-Chan ; Eom, Seok-Won ; Chae, Young-Zoo ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 28, issue 1, 2012, Pages 59~67
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2012.28.1.059
Platform screen doors (PSD) installed at 289 stations in Seoul metropolitan subway from November 2005 to December 2009, are expected to prevent death from a fall and improve air quality. In this study, we systematically surveyed changes in radon concentrations before and after PSD installation in Seoul metropolitan subway stations. By solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), the radon concentrations before and after the PSD installation were measured at 54 stations of 6 lines from 2 to 7 reported to have relatively high radon concentrations. Mean radon concentrations at platforms were decreased by approximately 56% from 121.7 Bq/
to 54.0 Bq/
. Before PSD installation, mean radon concentrations were in the decreasing order for subway lines 7, 5, 6, 3, 4 and 2. On the other hand, after PSD installation the order was changed to 5, 6, 7, 3, 4 and 2. According to a radon map of Seoul metropolitan subway, the number of platforms where radon concentration over was 74 Bq/
decreased from 38 to 12 after PSD installation.
Estimation on the Emission Reduction of SULEV LPG Vehicles
Park, Jun-Hong ; Lee, Jong-Tae ; Kim, Sun-Moon ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Kang, Dae-Il ; Lim, Yun-Sung ; Han, Bo-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 28, issue 1, 2012, Pages 68~76
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2012.28.1.068
SULEV (Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) which is one of the emission standards in Fleet Average System introduced to Korea from 2009 is known as the most severe standard to achieve with internal combustion engine. Considering low sales volume of hybrid vehicles in Korea, vehicle manufacturers are required to develop SULEV technologies for conventional gasoline and LPG vehicles to meet the future Fleet Average standard. In this study, the comparison of emissions has been made between SULEV developed and ULEV LPG vehicles mainly produced in this time. To estimate the emission reduction of SULEV vehicles, CVS-75 and NIER test modes have been used. CVS-75 has been used for emission certification of gasoline and LPG vehicles. NIER modes cover various average vehicle speed and reflect Korean real driving patterns better than CVS-75. The test results show that SULEV LPG vehicles have very high potential to reduce
in regulated emissions,
in green house gases and toluene in VOCs. However, SULEV LPG vehicles don`t affect much on the reduction of CO and total green house gases.
Variations of BVOCs Emission Characteristics according to Increasing PAR
Son, Youn-Suk ; Hwang, Yoon-Seo ; Sung, Joo-Han ; Kim, Jo-Chun ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 28, issue 1, 2012, Pages 77~85
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2012.28.1.077
In this study, emission rates (ER) of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were measured by varying levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). An appropriate plan for ozone reduction according to increasing ecology area ratio in future metropolitan areas was suggested. Several trees were selected as representative tree species in urban areas. Emission rates and composition ratios of monoterpene and isoprene emitted from these trees were estimated and compared. As a result, it was found that emission rates of BVOCs were considerably different depending on tree species. Especially, BVOCs emitted from Platanus orientalis and Quercus mongolica could significantly affect ozone increase in the metropolitan area, because the emission rates were several thousands to ten thousand times higher than those emitted from Zelkova serrata and Prunus serrulata. Furthermore, it was observed that emission rates of BVOCs by species increased maximum up to 10 times when PAR, which has close relations with temperature, rose. It was concluded that tree species such as Zelkova serrata et al., was appropriate for metropolitan areas since the species has low ozone potential and good landscape. Suppose this type of trees are planted on purpose in the urban areas, better ambient air quality will be promised in the future.
Retrieval of Dust Backscatter Coefficient using Quartz Raman Channel in Lidar Measurements
Noh, Young-Min ; Mueller, Detlef ; Lee, Han-Lim ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 28, issue 1, 2012, Pages 86~93
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2012.28.1.086
We present a retrieval method to obtain dust backscatter coefficient from the mixed Asian dust and pollutant layer. In the present study, vertically resolved quartz (silicon dioxide, silica) concentration was calculated using Raman scattering signals from quartz at 546 nm. Dust concentration was obtained based on typical mass percentage of quartz in Asian dust. The highest value of dust concentration at 3.7 km in March 21, 2010 was 22.3 and 10.9
according to the quartz percentage in Asian dust as 65 and 30% based on literature survey, respectively. OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosol and Clouds) simulations were conducted to calculate dust backscatter coefficient. The retrieved dust concentration was used as an input parameter for the OPAC calculations. Utilization of quartz Raman channel in Lidar measurements is considered useful for distinguishing optical properties of dust and nondust aerosol in the mixing state of Asian dust.
Evaluation of On-Road NO
Emission from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle using a Portable Emissions Measurement System
Lee, Tae-Woo ; Lee, Jong-Tae ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 28, issue 1, 2012, Pages 94~104
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2012.28.1.094
The purpose of this research is to quantify the compliance of on-road emission from a light duty diesel vehicle, based on a comparison to emission regulation standard.
, CO and THC emissions were measured using a portable device on a selected real-world driving route with a length of approximately 22 km. On-road measurements were repeated by 10 times on a same route to reflect variability in traffic conditions. A test route was divided into 22 road links with length of 1 km to analyze emission results with higher spatial resolution. The average emissions of
, CO and THC over total travel distance, which is approximately 220 km, were quantified to be in compliance with emission regulation standards. Under higher spatial resolution,
concentration exceeded a standard in 92 links out of 220 links. The extended time in stop period and the stop-and-go driving cycle were identified as two important reasons for increased
emissions in observed cases. Heavy traffics showed higher
emissions than free flow. These results indicate that the real-world vehicle emissions might exceed the compliance level associate with traffic conditions. Another interesting observation of this research is that the on-road emission characteristics can be independent to the average speed of road links with higher spatial resolution. Variability in on-road emission might not be fully described by solely relying on an average speed, because variability in traffic conditions and road conditions can influence on real-world vehicle emissions.