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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Nov 1987
Volume 3, Issue 1 - May 1987
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Air Resources; Basic Necessity for Human Being
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 1~10
Studies on Benzo(a) pyrene Concentrations in Atmospheric Particulate Matters
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 11~17
Atmospheric particulate matter (A.P.M.) was collected on quartz fiber filters from March 1985 to February 1986 at Chung-Ang University according to particle size using Andersen high-volume air smapler, and benzo (a) pyrene concentration in these particulates were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The annual arithmetic mean concentration of A.P.M. was 115.50$\mug/m^3$. The annual arithmetic mean concentrations of coarse particles and fine particles in A.P.M. were 52.54$\mum/m^3$ and 62.96$\mum/m^3$ respectively. THe annual arithmetic mean concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in A.P.M. was 1.44$ng/m^3$. THe annual arithmetic mean concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in coarse particles and fine particles were 0.05 $ng/m^3$ and 1.39 $ng/m^3$ respectively. Thus, the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene showed maldistribution of 96.53% in fine particle. A.P.M. showed wide fluctuation according to the season. The concentration of A.P.M. was lowest in summer and high in spring and winter. Coarse and fine particle concentrations in A.P.M. were highest in spring and winter, respectively. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene was highest in winter and lowest in summer. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in fine and coarse particles were highest in winter and spring, respectively.
Heavy Metals in Ambient Air at Shinchon Area in Seoul
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 18~26
In order to investigate the character of air pollution by heavy metals and to elucidate the possible sources in Seoul city, this study was performed to measure the concentrations of heavy metals of total suspended particulate and air pollutants such as $SO_2, NO_2, CO, CH_4$, Non-methane hydrocarbon, ozone at the residential-traffic area (shinchon dong) in January and February, 1986. The results are as follows: 1. $SO_2$ and TSP concentration were 135ppb and 167 $\mug/m^3$ in average, respectively. 2. While concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, Pb in the ambient air seems gradually decreasing annually, Ni compound has been shown the tendency of increasing. 3. Among heavy metals in TSP analysed, the iron was detected at the highest level, 0.905% and the cadimium was the lowest 0.004% in average, respectively. 4. V, Fe and Zn compounds in air were observed to be highly correlated with their correlation coefficients(r) higher than 0.7. Pb compound was highly correlated to the levels of Zn and Fe, however relatively less correlated to V compound. 5. Among concentrations of heavy metals in the particulates, V and Ni compounds were highly correlated with coefficient(r) of 0.8587; the cause might be imagined by the fact of releasing from combustion of fuel oil. Fe, Pb and Zn compounds were highly correlated $SO_2$ concentration. It might be explained that they were released by combustion of coal. 6. The level of $SO_2$ was highly correlated to most of heavy metals: especially correlation coefficient(r) to Pb compound was 0.9081. Pb compound was also highly correlated to NO, CO and TSP. TSP showed higher correlation to Pb and Cd compounds than to V and Ni compounds. It might be assumed that particulate was mainly produced by combusting coal from space heating and by exhausting gasoline and diesel oil from transportation rather than by burning fuel oil.
Comparison of Five Pollutant Levels between Inside and Outside Homes
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 27~32
As part of an air pollution epidemiological study of asthmatics residing in the Houston area, an air monitoring system provided data on the indoor and outdoor measurements of major pollutant gases sampled at selected residences during May ~ October 1981. Continuously monitored pollutant gases included sulfur dioxide (
), nitrogen dioxide(
), nitric oxide(NO), carbon monoxide(CO), and ozone(
). Outdoor levels for each pollutant were compared with their indoor levels(bedroom, kitchen, living room). Mean concentrations of each pollutant in the kitchen, and living room exceeded the mean levels outside except for ozone, while average bedroom levels for all gases except for
were found higher than the corresponding outside levels. Indoor/ outdoor ratios for
, NO, and CO were 1.8 ~ 2.7 times the outdoor levels, but indoor/ outdoor ratios for
were 0.99 and 0.06, respectively. The impact of several important household characteristics (type of cooking fuel and cigarette smoking) on the indoor levels for these gases is evaluated.
Personal, Indoor and Outdoor
Measurements in an Urban Area
金潤信 ; 柳澤 幸雄 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 33~38
A pilot study on indoor air concentrations of nitrogen dioxide $(NO_2)$ was undertaken in the Seoul area, Korea dudring February-April 1986. Indoor and outdoor data on nitrogen dioxide concentrations were obtained for 48 private residences. Personal exposure to $NO_2$ was also investigated. Indoor outdoor ratio of $NO_2$ concentrations was 0.87, while the correlations between the indoor and outdoor levels were less than 0.50 for $NO_2$. Homes with an unvented space heater had average living room $NO_2$ concentrations approximately double those with a vented space heater. Residences with smokers have significantly higher living room $NO_2$ levels than those without smokers.
Determination of Tire Tread Rubber in the Atmospheric Particulate Matters by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography
李龍根 ; 金萬九 ; 金南勳 ; 黃圭子 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 39~45
Rubber particles emitted from automobile tire tread by abrasion were collected by Andersen sampler with atmospheric dusts. The samples of atmospheric dusts at each stage were analysed for rubber particles by Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography with Apiezon grease L column. Pyrolysis was done at 740$^circ$C for 5 seconds. In the pyrogram, NR rubber (bus and truck tire tread) was determined by isoprene peak, and SBR rubber (passenger car tire tread) was determined by styrene peak simultaneously. The size distribution of rubber particles was proportioned with the size of rubber particles. The concentrations of NR and SBR rubber were 0.23 $\mug/m^3$ and 1.31 $\mug/m^3$, respectively, in the atmospheric dusts which were collected from the street in front of Yonsei University on April 1986. The ratio of tire tread rubber in the atmospheric dusts was about 0.63%.
Air Contamination in an Underground Commercial Floor assayed by GAseous Pollutants, Dusts and Mutagenicity
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 46~52
There are many factors such as airtighteness and high density of merchandises or passengers that contaminate indoor air in underground commercial floor. So it is very important to know air quality and quantity of contamination in underground market increasing in number lately. It was from these viewpoints that gaseous pollutants, dusts and mutagenicity of organic compounds extracted from dusts in an underground market were investigatd. Organic ompounds (tar) were extracted by Soxhlet extractor with benzene as a solvent. Mutagenicities of these extracts were evaluated by the preincubation method using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and TA 98 strains with and without S9mix. The results obtained were as follows: It seemed to be under the influence of outdoor air that the concentrations of $CO, CO_2, NO, NO_2$ and dusts were higher in winter than summer. The concentration of $CO_2$ was higher in indoor than outdoor, but the concentration of NOx was similar in both sampling areas. Metal contents in dusts attached to the ventilation ducts were as follows showing in order of high concentration : Fe (9000-22000ppm), Zn(1200-2300ppm) and Pb (280-590ppm). The contents of tar were 6-33% of dusts, and higher than those from dusts collected by high volume air sampler. The extracts from dusts attached to the inlet duct exhibited lower mutagenicity than those from dusts attached to the outlet duct. This finding seemed to suggest that mutagenic substances were in creasing in underground. There was no seasonal difference of mutagenicity toward TA 98. Toward TA 100 in the presence of S9mix, the mutagenicity was about 3 fold higher in winter than summer. The mutagenicities of tar extracted from dusts collected by high volume air sampler were different from those attached to the ventilation ducts. The former showed 2-3 fold higher mutagenicity than the latter toward TA 100. However no difference showed between the former and the latter toward TA 98 in the absence of S9mix, but the former was 4-5 fold higher than the latter in the presence of S9mix.
Effects of Rain Water Sampler on the Results of Analysis
李敏熙 ; 韓義正 ; 辛燦基 ; 韓振錫 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 53~61
Automatic and manual rain smaplers wre installed at the roof of National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER), and the rain sampling and measurement were conducted during the period April to August 31, 1987. The rain sampling and measurement were carried out in the following manners: The 1st : Acidity and conductivity were measured entirely by automatic rain sampler (continuous measurement) The 2nd : Acidity and conductivity wrer measured in the laboratory with the sample that was taken out of automatic rain sampler. The 3rd : Acidity and conductivity were measured in the laboratory with the sample that was taken out of manual rain sampler. Afterwards, those different measurement values were compared each other and the following conclusions were obtained: 1) The pH of the continous measurement by the automatic sampler was lower than that of the laboratory measurement, and it was reversed in case of the conductivity. 2) The significance was recognized at 5% risk ratio for the population mean of difference of the measurement values of the pH and conductivity from both samples. 3) The significance was not recognized at 5% risk ratio by the analysis of variance by one way layout for the pH and conductivity. 4) The significance was recognized at 5% risk ratio by the analysis of variance by two way layouts for the pH conductivity. 5) The significance was recognized at 5% rrisk ratio for the differences of the pH values obtained by oboth samplers, and no significance was recognized for conductivity. 6) In comparison of the measurement values from the two samplers were shown a good correlation for pH; correlation coefficient (r) = 0.63, and regression equation Y = 0.53X + 2.78. For conductivity, the correlation was also excellent; correlation coefficient (r) = 0.53 and regression equation Y = 0.63X + 5.65.
Study of Electrochemical and Electrochromic Properties of 9-Methyl-2,3,6,7-tetramethoxyfluorene in Dichloromethane-TFA-TFAn(Ⅰ)
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 73~73
Cyclic voltammetric analysis of 9-methyl-2,3,6,7-tetramethoxyfluorene in CH₂Cl₂-TFA-TFAn indicated that this electrochromic material undergoes reversible electron transfers for both charge transfers at all voltage sweep rates. The first oxidation peak at 625 mV is believed to correspond to the formation of the radical cation from the neutral species upon the removal of one-electron and the second oxidation peak at 1107 mV at a scan rate of 200 mv/s to the formation of the dication from the radical cation. The electroactive radical cation has to be regarded as very stable. This model compound may be used as an electrochromic display in the future. The △E-values of the 9-methyl-2,3,6,7-tetramethoxyfluorene have been found to be in a potential range from 472 to 490 mV. The comparison of the redox processes driven by light and by electrolysis indicates similar processes. The color of the solution always turns from pale green to deep blue.
Adsorption of Nonylphenyl Glycol and Sorbitan Fatty Acid Ester on Carbon Black from Aqueous Solution
이창우 ; 김지환 ; 홍영호 ; 장윤호 ; 홍인권 ; 함영민 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 79~79
Two types nonionic surfactants were adsorbed on carbon black. Interface characteristics of carbon black/water were changed by these surfactant adsorptions. In each maximum amount of surfactant adsorption was carried out in order to correlated with other measuring values : zeta-potential, contact angle and overall energy of dispersion. During aqueous phase adsorption, the longer EO chain and the higher hydrophobicity, the much surfactant adsorption. At this condition zeta-potential decreased with EO chain number increasing but had no effect on hydrophobicity of surfactant, and contact angle and overall energy of dispersion decrease according to increase EO chain number and higher hydrophobicity of surfactant. In the study solid/ liquid interface characteristics, wettability, stability and overall dispersion energy were compared with these results. These show that wettability and overall dispersion energy were dependent on the EO chain number and hydrophobicity, and the stability depends on the EO chain number.
Reforming of Carbon Dioxide by Methane over Ni/TiO₂Catalysts
서호준 ; 유의연 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 85~85
Reforming of carbon dioxide by methane was studied over Ni(10wt%)/TiO₂ catalyst in a fixed bed flow reactor at atmospheric condition. The optimal conditions of calcination temperature, reduction temperature, and the amount of Ni loading based on the catalytic activity are 550℃, 550℃, and 10wt%, respectively. Most of NiO phase peaks before reduction turn into
ions after reduction. The effect of promoters on the catalytic activity was investigated as follows Ca> Mg> K> Na. Adding alkali metal salts and alkali earth metals oxide to the catalyst could be inferred to increase the yield of carbon monoxide, and to remove carbon on catalyst surface resulted from reverse Boudouard reaction. The reverse water gas shift reaction also occurred depending upon the reaction condition.
Catalytic Properties of Vanadium Nitrides
최정길 ; Jung, M.-K. ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 93~93
Vanadium nitrides were synthesized by the temperature-programmed reaction of vanadium oxide (
) with pure NH₃. After the nitridation of vanadium oxides the resulting materials contained VN or a VN with a trace of V₂O₃ in the bulk, indicating that the structural properties of these materials were strong functions of the heating rate and space velocity employed. It was observed that the vanadium nitrides were active for NH₃ decomposition. Since the activity varied with changes in the surface area and particle size, ammonia decomposition over the vanadium nitrides appeared to be structure-sensitive. We believe that these responses were associated with the grain boundary length. The most active catalyst of VN-3 with the δ-phase had the greatest grain boundary length. The catalytic properties of vanadium nitrides were comparable or superior to those of Pt/C and Ni/SiO₂·Al₂O₃ catalysts, suggesting that the characteristics of active sites in the vanadium nitrides were similar to those in the Group 8-10 metal-based catalysts.
FT-IR Spectroscopic Studies of Uniaxial Orientation Changes in Poly(tetrafluoroethylene)
홍진호 ; 조병욱 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 99~99
Presence of transitions in the orientation function-strain profiles of poly(tetrafluoro-ethylene) (PTFE) has been studied spectroscopically. In contrast to polyethylene and other polymers, FT-lR strain dichroism measurements conducted on PTFE films show three transitions in the orientation function-strain curves. The first transition is detected in the 7-15% extension ratio range, whereas the other two transitions occur at ∼100 and ∼160% extensions. The first transition is believed to be attributed to the negative Poisson ratio, whereas the ∼100 and ∼160% strain transition are most likely attributed to yielding or cracking of PTFE.
The Reactions of C₁Chemistry over Supported Rh/MoO₃Catalysts : the Role of Promoter (MoO₃)
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 105~105
This study has contrasted the activity of a series of alumina and silica supported Rh/MoO₃ catalysts for reactions involving CO-H₂, CH₄-O₂, CH₄-CO at 30 atm. and temperature range of 220-350℃. Adlineation sites (kinds of active sites which are formed at the edge of Rh metallic sites and partially reduced MoOx sites by the addition of the promoter) significantly alter the selectivity of the CO-H₂ reactions and the activation energy increased by adding the promoter in both catalyst series. On the other hand, the selectivity of CH₄-O₂ and CH₄-CO reaction is unchanged and the activity is proportional to the number of exposed Rh sites in both series. From these results, it is concluded that Rh-MoOx sites open a new reaction pathway by parallel mechanism in CO-H₂ reaction, but CH₄-O₂ reaction appear to take place on the Rh surface. Also, adlineation sites interact with CO, but do not interact with CH₄.
A Study on the Ethylene Polymerization and Ethylene Copolymerization with Different Kinds of Catalysts
하진욱 ; 추경준 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 113~113
From the short time polymerization kinetics using different catalysts (TiCl₃1/3AlCl₃, TiCl₄/EB/MgCl₂ and Et(Ind)₂ZrCl₂) for ethylene polymerization, the role of methyl aluminoxane(MAO) as a cocatalyst is proposed. The MAO may act as an electron donor, via oxygen, to Lewis acidic sites in the catalyst. From the study of the ethylene polymerization and copolymerization with different comonomers (propylene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, 1-octene) over different catalysts, the catalytic activity shows enhancement of polymerization rate in the presence of comonomers. The thermal properties of the produced copolymers from metallocene catalyst depended on the kinds and the composition of comonomer in the produced copolymers. Especially, the ethylene copolymers having high comonomer composition fom the metallocene catalyst showed that the melting Point
as the polyethylenes from the two different Ziegler-Natta catalysts but this was not observed in the case of the ethylene copolymers having low comonomer composition. From the differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) analysis, the melting temperature change with scanning time may be dependent upon the catalyst system used in the polymerization.
Dynamic Surface Tension of Ionic Surfactant Solution
Kim, Young H. ; Darsh T. Wasan ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 119~119
Dynamic surface tension for an ionic surfactant solution was studied by both numerical calculations and experiment. As surfactant ions adsorbed on the surface, they produced a surface potential that inhibited further adsorption of the surfactant. A model which take into account the roles of the electric field created by the charged monolayer is presented. At a very early adsorption period, the electrostatic potential is negligible and the surfactant adsorption is controlled by the diffusion. As the surfactant adsorbs, the electrostatic potential retards further adsorption until it reaches an equilibrium. The model proposed in this paper is in agreement with the experimental result on an ionic surfactant solution when the electrostatic potential is considered, assuming that the surfactant molecules are fully ionized and the potential energy is dominant in the range of Debye length from the surface.
Film Thinning and Stability for Curved Emulsion Film
Kim, Young H. ; Darsh T. Wasan ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 128~128
Analytical equations for the drainage of spherically curved uniform thin films are obtained in terms of the variation in film curvature, film contact angle, and film thickness with position and time. These enable one to predict the effects of film curvature and polydispersity of the emulsion system on the stability of the spherically curved film corresponding to the emulsion stability. The rate of film thinning for small drops was in good agreement with the model over a narrow range of film thicknesses. The rate was greater than predicted when the film thickness is very thin and film size is large due to the movement of the film interface. When a surfactant is present, the film thinning rate can be predicted with the equation developed by assuming the film surface is immobile due to tangential gradient (Marangoni-Gibbs effect) on the film surface. Good agreement with available experimental values was obtained for drops resting at a stationary interface when the surfactant was present.
Mechanisms of Aqueous Foam Stability and Antifoaming Action
Kim, Young H. ; Kim, Chul U. ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 138~138
The effects of hydrophobic agents on aqueous foam stability were studied in the presence of an antifoamer, based on the destabilization mechanisms of aqueous foam. The stability of the foam film was dependent on both film rheology and structural modification by the hydrophobic agents, tertiary butyl phosphate (TBP) and lecithin. The hydrophobic agents reduced the elasticity of the foam film and the surface activity of the surfactant that stabilize the foam film. TBP effectively accelerated the film drainage and destabilization process of the foam film by depleting the surfactant. When the amount of TBP added is very high (above 500 ppm), the TBP generated colloidal hydrophobic drops inside the film phase. The TBP drops penetrated the film surface and spread on the surface during the film drainage. The TBP drops were accumulated and became larger in the Plateau border and effectively broke the foam. A new understanding of the TBP role on the antifoaming action is postulated.
Influence of the Melt Index of Low Density Polyethylene on the Properties in the Blends with Linear Low Density Polyethylenes
조규철 ; 안태광 ; Park, I. ; Lee, Byung H. ; 최순자 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 147~147
Melt flow index (MI) dependency of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the thermal, mechanical and rheological properties in the blends with linear low density polyethylene (1-octene comonomer) (LLDPE) has been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimeter, dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer, capillary rheometer, and rheotons. Two discrete melting and crystallizing peaks were observed regardless of the MI of LDPE in the crystalline phase. Mechanical properties of the blends were fairly dependent on the MI of LDPE. Complex shear viscosities of the blends were dictated by the LLDPE indicating that severe processing conditions may be necessary. Melt viscosity analyzed in terms of the Cole-Cole plot and the log additive rule resulted that the miscibility was improved at high shear rate and that the MI of LDPE does not affect the miscibility. However synergistic effect in the melt strength was observed for the entire blends systems used in this study. In particular, the blends containing 40∼60% LDPE are suggested to design for highly improved melt strength, processibility, and mechanical properties.
Novel Synthesis of Liquid-Crystalline 1,3-Butadiynes Using Coupling Reaction of Alkynyliodonium Salts with Organocopper Reagents
이치한 ; 정노희 ; 이승우 ; Tsugio Kitamura ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 155~155
The coupling reaction of alkynyl(phenyl)iodonium salts with alkynylcopper reagents proceeds under mild conditions to provide unsymmetrical and symmetrical 1,3-butadiynes. The length of the alkyl chains both in the alkynyl(phenyl)iodonium salts and in the copper reagents is not a significant factor of the coupling reaction and the unsymmetrical 1,3-butadiynes are selectively prepared. The prepared 1,3-butadiynes show mesogenic properties.
The Fluorination of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,2-dichloroethane to Pentafluoroethane over Cr-based Catalyst
이병권 ; 김훈식 ; 김홍곤 ; 이상덕 ; 서인석 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 3, issue 2, 1987, Pages 160~160
The fluorination reaction of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,2,-dichloroethane (CF₃CHCl₂, HCFC-123) to pentafluoroethane (CF₃CHF₂, HFC-125) has been studied under atmospheric prassure at the temperature range of 250-380℃ over Cr-based catalyst. The catalyst comprised Cr, one component selected from the group consisting of Mg or Ca and at least one metal component selected from the group consisting of Ce, Zn and Ni. The effects of catalyst compositions, molar ratio of reactants (HF/HCFC-123), reaction temperature, contact time on the catalytic activities were extensively investigated. The catalytic performance of chromium oxide mixed with metallic compounds has been found to be much improved as compared with that of chromium oxide catalyst alone. Especially, the presence of metallic compounds in the chromium oxide catalyst has shown the outstanding capability of slowing down the catalyst deactivation by retarding the carbon deposition on the catalyst.