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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Development of Calorific Values and Carbon Emission Factors for Petroleum Energy in Korea from 2012 to 2013
Lim, Wan-Gyu ; Doe, Jin-Woo ; Kang, Hyung-Kyu ; Ha, Jong-Han ; Lee, Sang-Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 301~310
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2014.30.4.301
Country-specific data for net calorific values and carbon emission factors requires for a higher tier estimate of greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector. The objective of this study is to develop country-specific net calorific values and carbon emission factors for petroleum energy produced in Korea. Calorific values and carbon contents of the fuels were measured using the oxygen bomb calorimeter method and the CHN elemental analysis method, respectively. Sulfur and hydrogen contents, which were used to calculate the net calorific value, were also measured and then net calorific values and carbon emission factors were determined based on the measurement results. The net calorific values and carbon emission factors determined for the petroleum produced in Korea 2012 and 2013 were compared to those in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. Most of the values were different compared with the default values of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines although those were placed within their upper and lower limits. Time series analysis results showed inconsistent seasonal variation for the net calorific values and carbon emission factors.
Assessment of PM Emission Factors Made by Construction Machineries
Lee, Im Hack ; Lee, Kyoung Bin ; Kim, Jin Sik ; Kim, Shin Do ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 311~318
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2014.30.4.311
The goles of this study were that we calculated the difference between the emission factors currently used officially and the emission factors that calculated by atmospheric dispersion modeling results and actual field measurements of dust concentrations and that we investigated how we applied to the emission factors appropriate to the reality in Korea. At the results, we calculated the Business As Usual ambient dust concentration concerning U.S. EPA method emissions, and we thought that the emission reduction efficiency had to be 99.7% if the ambient dust concentration that measured in this study could be satisfied. In other words, U.S. EPA dust emission calculation method is very overestimated than reality, so it is important that our country obtain reliable construction site dust emissions estimation methods by continuous researches.
Emission Characteristics of Odor Compounds in a Charcoal Production Kiln
Park, Seong-Kyu ; Choi, Sang-Jin ; Hwang, Ui-Hyun ; Lee, Jeong-Joo ; Kim, Daekuen ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 319~326
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2014.30.4.319
Exhaust gas emitted as a result of the incomplete combustion of biomass in charcoal kilns includes odor compounds as well as other air pollutants such as particulate matters, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A number of offensive odor compounds affect quality of life. In this study, odor emissions were investigated from biomass burning in a pilot-scale charcoal kiln and a commercial-scale kiln. Complex odor from emission source reached up to 10,000 dilutions to threshold during the study period. Combustion fume was found to contain reduced sulfur compounds, aldehydes, and volatile organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan were the major odorants which highly contributed to the offensive odor.
Control Measures for Air Pollutant Emissions from In-Use Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles Regarding their Emission Control Technologies
Lee, Taewoo ; Park, Hana ; Park, Junhong ; Jeon, Sangzin ; Kim, Jeongsoo ; Choi, Kwangho ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 327~338
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2014.30.4.327
The objective of this study is to enhance the effectiveness of Korean Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) program. Three main tasks are: to measure pollutant emissions of in-use light-duty diesel vehicles (LDVs); to evaluate the validity of existing smoke control scheme for low-smoke-emitting vehicles, which have diesel particulate filters, DPF, to meet stringent Euro-5 emission limits; and to assess the necessity and the benefit of
inspection, which is not involved in current I/M program. We measured second-by-second smoke, particulate and gaseous emissions of 27 LDVs using opacity smoke meter, photo-acoustic soot sensor, and portable emissions measurement system, respectively, under the Korean I/M test driving cycle, KD-147. We find that the DPF plays a key role in controlling soot, which can be considered as black carbon contained in particulate matter. Thus, from an I/M perspective, we believe smoke inspection strategies for Euro-5 diesel vehicles should be more focused on the capability of detecting DPF malfunctions or failures, in order to keep DPF properly functional. Fleet averaged distance-specific
emissions are consistently higher than corresponding emission limits, and the values are similar among pre-Euro-3, Euro-3, and Euro-4 vehicle fleets. These findings indicate that the
inspection should be incorporated into current I/M program in order to manage urban
emissions. This research allows the Korean I/M program keep pace with developments in vehicle technologies, as well as the increased emphasis on
with respect to air quality and human health.
Numerical Analysis of a Gliding Arc Plasma Scrubber for CO
Kim, Seong Cheon ; Chun, Young Nam ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 339~349
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2014.30.4.339
emission has been gradually increased due to rising fossil fuel use. A gliding arc plasma scrubber (GAPS) was proposed to destruct
. For optimum design of GAPS, a CFD analysis has been conducted in different configuration for the system. The parameters considered included gas injection velocity at the nozzle and gas flow rate to gap between electrodes. The reactor configuration affected velocity fields which caused changes in the mixture fraction and the retention time. The mixing effect of
and supplied gas (
and steam) was enhanced by installing a orifice baffle. This revealed that the orifice baffle is effective in
conversion by positioning the reactants in the gas into the center of plasma discharge.
Removal of Air Pollutants from Charcoal Production Process Exhaust
Park, Seong-Kyu ; Choi, Sang-Jin ; Kim, Daekuen ; Hwang, Ui-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 350~361
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2014.30.4.350
Exhaust gas containing wood tar of high concentration is discharged from charcoal production kilns. The large amount of emissions are often found by operational failure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of an integrated treatment system in treating charcoal production exhaust. The system, which combined a tar collection device and a post-combustion unit, was proposed to remove moisture, wood tar, particulate matter, and other gas-phase pollutants (CO,
, total hydrogen carbons) from exhaust gases. Heat recovery units were also applied in the system to utilize waste heat.
Application of Adsorption Sampling and Thermal Desorption with GC/MS Analysis for the Measurement of Low-Molecular Weight PAHs in Ambient Air
Seo, Seok-Jun ; Seo, Young-Kyo ; Hwang, Yoon-Jung ; Jung, Dong-Hee ; Baek, Sung-Ok ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 362~377
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2014.30.4.362
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been of particular concern since they are present both in the vapor and particulate phases in ambient air. In this study, a simple method was applied to determine the vapor phase PAHs, and the performance of the new method was evaluated with a conventional method. The simple method was based on adsorption sampling and thermal desorption with GC/MS analysis, which is generally applied to the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air. A combination of Carbotrap (300 mg) and Carbotrap-C (100 mg) sorbents was used as the adsorbent. Target compounds included two rings PAHs such as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, and acenaphthene. Among them, naphthalene was listed as one of the main HAPs together with a number of VOCs in petroleum refining industries in the USA. For comparison purposes, a method based on adsorption sampling and solvent extraction with GC/MS analysis was adopted, which is in principle same as the NIOSH 5515 method. The performance of the adsorption sampling and thermal desorption method was evaluated with respect to repeatabilities, detection limits, linearities, and storage stabilities for target compounds. The analytical repeatabilities of standard samples are all within 20%. Lower detection limits was estimated to be less than 0.1 ppbv. In the results from comparison studies between two methods for real air samples. Although the correlation coefficients were more than 0.9, a systematic difference between the two groups was revealed by the paired t-test (
=0.05). Concentrations of two-rings PAHs determined by adsorption and thermal desorption method consistently higher than those by solvent extraction method. The difference was caused by not only the poor sampling efficiencies of XAD-2 for target PAHs and but also sample losses during the solvent extraction and concentration procedure. This implies that the levels of lower molecular PAHs tend to be underestimated when determined by a conventional PAH method utilizing XAD-2 (and/or PUF) sampling and solvent extraction method. The adsorption sampling and thermal desorption with GC analysis is very simple, rapid, and reliable for lower-molecular weight PAHs. In addition, the method can be used for the measurement of VOCs in the air simultaneously. Therefore, we recommend that the determination of naphthalene, the most volatile PAH, will be better when it is measured by a VOC method instead of a conventional PAH method from a viewpoint of accuracy.
Comparison of Air Pollution Characteristics in the Center Lane-Bus Stop and the Surrounding Areas
Lee, Yong-Ki ; Kim, Woong-Soo ; Hong, Soon-Mo ; Shin, Eun-Sang ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 378~386
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2014.30.4.378
The use of bus stop in the center lane has reduced the emissions of exhaust gas on the road due to the improvement of the traffic speed but has caused a health problem for the citizens who are waiting for the bus in the platform, and thus the air pollution control of bus stop in the center lane is emerging as a more important part. This study was conducted to investigate the air pollution degree for the center lane-bus stops in four regions using mobile air measuring vehicle, and to evaluate the characteristics of air pollution by comparing with the data measured at the urban air monitoring site close to the bus stops. In addition, the correlation analysis was performed to analyze the impact to neighboring region by vehicle exhaust gas. The regional mean concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the center lane-bus stops ranged from 0.025 to 0.043 ppm which shows from 2.5 times to 5.3 times higher than the values of urban air monitoring site selected as a control group. The regional mean concentration of ozone in the center lane-bus stops ranged from 0.023 to 0.034 ppm which shows from 3% to 28% lower than the values of urban air monitoring site selected as a control group. The concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone for the sampling regions did not exceed one hour-air quality environmental standard (0.1 ppm). The mean concentration of particulate matter for four center lane-bus stops was
which shows about 27% higher than the values of urban air monitoring site selected as a control group, and that of particulate matter did not exceed one day-air quality environmental standard (
). In the results of correlation analysis between data from center lane-bus stops and data from urban air monitoring sites, the correlation coefficient (r) of nitrogen dioxide was relatively low as 0.316 to 0.416, and the correlation coefficient was high as the distance was close and vice versa. However, the correlation coefficient of ozone ranged from 0.167 to 0.658 and the correlation coefficient was high as the distance was far and vice versa.
Estimation of The Global Warming Potential of Fluorinated Green House Gases
Kim, Jihye ; Lee, Jeongsoon ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 387~397
DOI : 10.5572/KOSAE.2014.30.4.387
This work aims at estimating global warming potentials (GWP) of
and HFC-134a among green house gases. It has been reported that they have much higher GWP than
in the atmosphere.
, halon 1301 which is well known to be a fire extinguisher, as one of the bromine-containing halons has been banned since 2003 due to destruction of ozone. HFCs, a kind of chiller which replaced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are one of greenhouse gases regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. In this study, we produced GWPs of
and HFC-134a by calculating a life time and measuring an absorption cross section to obtain a radiative forcing (RF). Their absorption cross sections were measured by using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTS) with a gas cell filled with their certified reference materials at room temperature. As a result, the RFs of
and HFC-134a were 0.32 and
, respectively and the GWPs were calculated as 7989, 6076, 3903 for
and 3855, 1300, 656 for HFC-134a for the time horizon of 20, 100, 500 years, respectively. Overall, uncertainty of the estimated GWPs can be estimated to be about 2.6%. Our results were compared with those proposed by the previous studies (IPCC, 2007; WMO, 1999).