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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Nov 1989
Volume 5, Issue 1 - May 1989
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Characterization of WO₃ Supported on TiO₂-ZrO₂ and Catalytic Activity for Acid Catalysis
손종락 ; 조해석 ; 김해원 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 1~1
Tungsten oxide supported on TiO₂-ZrO₂ was prepared by drying powdered
with ammonium metatungstate aqueous solution followed by calcining in air at high temperature. The characterization of prepared catalysts was performed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by measuring surface area. The specific surface area and acidity of WO₃/50-TiO₂-ZrO₂(500) increased in proportion to the tungsten oxide content up to 20 wt % due to the interaction between WO₃and TiO₂-ZrO₂. Since the TiO₂-ZrO₂ stabilizes the tungsten oxide species, for the samples equal to or less than 20 wt %, tungsten oxide was well dispersed on the surface of TiO₂-ZrO₂, but for the samples above 20 wt % the triclinic phase of WO₃ was observed at any calcination temperature. The high acid strength and high acidity of WO₃/TiO₂-ZrO₂ were responsible for the W=O bond nature of complex formed by the interaction between WO₃ and TiO₂-ZrO₂. The catalytic activities of WO₃/TiO₂-ZrO₂catalysts for cumene dealkylation were correlated to their acidity
A Study on the Sensitivity Analysis of Line Source Air Quality Models
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 1~10
The sensitivity analysis is a method to quantify to what extent the output of a model changes with the values of input parameters. This will lead to increase model accuracy through measurement validation. Three line source air quality models, HIWAY 2, PAL, and CALINE 3 were selected for this study. The input parameters analysed included wind speed, wind direction, stability, emission rate, mixing height, receptor distance, initial dispersion coefficient, surface roughness, and averaging time. It turned out that PAL model generally showed higher concentration than other two models, and that between CALINE 3 and HIWAY 2, CALINE 3 showed higher concentration than HIWAY 2 model near the line sources, but beyond a certain downwind distances HIWAY 2 model showed higher concentration. The modesl were very sensitive to wind speed especially in the range of 0 $\sim$ 1 m/s and to wind direction near the parallel wind to streets. In case of emission rate, the output concentration was directly proportional to these input parameters. And the sensitivity of the input parameters such as stability, mixing height, initial dispersion coefficient, surface roughness, and averaging time were not very significant.
Synthesis and Characteristics of CoAPSO-34s, and Their Catalytic Performance on Methanol, Conversion
강미숙 ; 이철태 ; 음명헌 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 10~10
The influence of cobalt incorporation into the framework of SAPO-34 on the catalytic performance on methanol conversion was investigated. CoAPSO-34 catalysts with a high crystallinity and a sharp particle size distribution with various Si/Co(Si/Co=∞, 40, 20, and 5) were acquired employing the rapid crystallization method. From the results of MAS-NMR of
, incorporation of Co into the framework of SAPO-34 was confirmed. These CoAPSO-34 catalysts exhibited a minor methanation on methanol conversion compared with that with Ni-incorporated SAPO-34 catalysts(NiAPSO-34) reported in previous papers and the methanol conversion increased. On the other hand, the ethylene selectivity after 1 h of time on stream on CoAPSO-34 decreased compared with non-metal incorporated catalyst. In particular, high methanol conversion(over 98%) was maintained for 6 hs for CoAPSO-34 with Si/Co = 5.
Study on the Behavior of Gaseous Mercury and its Influencing Factors in Urban AMbient Air
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 11~21
Atmospheric gaseous mercury was automatically measured by a mercury air monitor (Mercury monitor AM-1). The sample air was led to a scrubber and washed with buffer solution, and mercury was trapped with gold coated chromosorb P(AW) was successively eluted by heating the chromosorb and then detected by the cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. $SO_2, TSP, NO_x, CO, THC$. and some of meteorological factors were also measured simultaneously with mercury. A significant correlation between the concentration of mercury and those of 2,513 measurements, gaseous mercury concentration ranged from 4.73 to 112.8 $ng/m^3$ with an annual mean of 14.7$ng/m^3$ in urban area. At this place there was a clear seasonal variation with a maximuminDecember-January and aminimum in March-June. A secondary maximum existed in August to September. THe seasonal variation was found that the gaseous mercury in ambient air has a tendency to become low in spring and high in winter. Namely, the average of concentration in winter was about two times, 19.2 $ng/m^3$, higher than that in spring. In Seoul mercury levels on some months mainly Septermber-October increase with increasing relative humidity of the atmosphere. In Olympic park air levels were 8.2 (range 4.4-23.7)$ng/m^3$ with an coefficients of variation of 0.34 and in Seoul sports complex those were 7.7 (rnage 4.4-25.5) $ng/m^3$ with an coefficients of variation of 0.38 within the Seoul olympiad holding period of time. A significant diurnal mercury variation occurs both at the measuring sites and in the period of observation.
Microstructure and Oxygen Reduction Performance of Gas Diffusion Electrode in 4 M KOH Solution
박권필 ; 문일식 ; 오재규 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 16~16
The microstructure and performance of the oxygen reduction electrodes in 4 M KOH solution usually used for aluminum-air cell are investigated. The microstructure of the electrodes were varied by using different preparative condition (320∼380 ℃ sintering temperature and 18∼50% PTFE content). Electrolyte uptake and pore size distribution for each electrodes were measured. From these data, microstructure properties of electrodes were calculated. The microstructure and alkali uptake are not affected by the sintering temperature variation. The porosity and alkali absoprtion of electrode decrease as PTFE content increases. The agglomerate porosity and the macropore porosity are not influenced significantly by the preparative conditions. Maximum performance for oxygen reduction was obtained at 22% PTFE content in 4 M KOH solution.
Survey on Air Pollution in Underground Commercial Floor of Pusan Areas
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 22~32
In order to assess the level of atmospheric pollution and to contribute the health improve ment of residents in Pusan, the authors measured the $CO, SO_2, NO_2, TSP, Noise, Pb, Cd, Cr and V$ level at 3 place by time from Jan. 1988 to Feb. 1988. THe places were Kukje, Daehyeon, Pujeon underground commercial floor. The results were as follows; 1. The range of concentration of air pollutants (1) CO : 0.5 - 3.0 ppm (2) $SO_2$ : 0.012 - 0.360 ppm (3) $NO_2$ : 0.018 - 0.089 ppm (4) TSP : 30 - 330 $\mug/m^3$ (5) Pb : 0.219 - 3.116 $\mug/m^3$ (6) Cd : 0.000 - 0.070 $\mug/m^3$ (7) Cr : 0.378 - 4.098 $\mug/m^3$ (8) V : 0.000 - 1.010 $\mug/m^3$ (9) Noise : 47 - 77 dB(A) 2. The level of all air pollutants were higher in the afternoon or night than in the morning. 3. The mean concentration of $SO_2$ in all places exceede the ambient air quality standard of $SO_2$,.
Kinetics of Destabilization for Oil-in-Water Emulsions in Oily Wastewater
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 22~22
The kinetic stability of oil droplets in water phase was studied in the presence and absence of chemical demulsifiers. In the demulsification process, the flocculation and coalescence processes were investigated, by fitting the experimental data to a model kinetic equation, as a function of temperature, agitation speed, demulsifier concentration and type, etc. Without any demulsifier, the demulsification process followed a simple flocculation mechanism. In the presence of demulsifier, however, the destabilization kinetics was complicated, including both flocculation and coalescence processes. The rate of demulsification was controlled by coalescence process in the beginning and by the flocculation process at later under a batch experimental condition. As temperature or demulsification concentration increased, the coalescence behavior increased with the flocculation rate constant followed Arrehenius-type. It was observed that an optimal demulsifier concentration and agitation speed existed to procure a maximum demulsification accomplishment.
Pneumatic Transportation of Powder in Horizontal Pipelines
조영민 ; Madhumita B. Ray ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 32~32
The present work was undertaken in order to improve the feeding of the test dust dispersion into a cyclone separator. In order to solve the problem of deposition of the test dust in inlet pipes, a comprehensive investigation was carried out taking the powder mixing into account. With regard to the powder transportation, the effects of pertinent variables such as flow velocity, mass loading and amount of dispersant were closely examined. This work showed that the tapped density may be a decisive property to estimate the quality of dispersion of the admixed powder with dispersant. It was also found that the effective flow velocity to transport powder must be 2∼3 times greater than the semi-theoretical and empirical estimations available in the open literature
Radiological Methodology for Calculating Radiation Dose from Airborne Radioactivity Released to the Environment
黃善泰 ; 黃義煥 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 33~42
Nowadays, nuclear power production plays a principal role in the electrical energy supply. However, a nuclear power plants emit small amounts of radio-activity due to mostly fission product gases to the local environment during their normal operation. They may release considerably more radioactivity when accidents occur. It is quite necessary to be able to calculate the radiation doses to the general public from such radioactivity releases in order to evaluate the environmental impact of the normally operating nuclear power plant, to assure that this is within acceptable radiation standards, and to ascertain the radiological consequences of nuclear reactor accidents. Such computations also play an important role in determining the acceptability of a proposed nuclear reactor site. Before radiation dose calculations can be carried out, therefore, it is necessary to determine how the concentration of the radioactive effluents is distributed in the environment following their emissions into the atmosphere. This matter is considered and radiation dose calculations are mentioned in conclusions.
Preparation of Liquid-Crystalline Diacetylenes Using Coupling Reactions of Alkynyliodonium Salts with Alkynylcopper Reagents
이치한 ; 정노희 ; 남기대 ; Tsugio Kitamura ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 40~40
Alkynyl(phenyl)iodonium tosylates with long alkoxy chains, such as (dodecyloxy)-and (tetradecyloxy)phenyl groups are prepared and reacted with aryl-substituted alkynylcopper reagents. The coupling reaction proceeded under mild conditions and provided unsymmetrical and symmetrical diacetylenes. The selectivity of the formation of these diacetylenes was dependent on the substituent on the alkynylcopper reagents. The diacetylenes prepared here displayed mesogenic properties.
Acid Rain Model Development Considering Altitudinal Precipitation Rate
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 43~51
Denitration of Simulated High-Level Liquid Waste by Formic Acid
황두성 ; 이일희 ; 김광욱 ; 이규일 ; 박진호 ; 유재형 ; 박소진 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 45~45
In this study, the denitration tests of the raffinate aqueous solution from the TBP solvent extraction part by formic acid were carried out to know the behavior of the minor actinides and the occurable troubles on the interface between the processes. The solution was heated up to 90 ℃ under refluxing for 5.5 hrs after the addition of formic acid. The initial concentration ratio of formic acid to nitric acid in the solution ranged from 1.5 to 2.0 by increments of 0.25. As a result, the denitration reaction occurred much more drastically, comparing with the experiments using the simulated solution. This was considered to be due to the presence of some amount of dissolved organic components from the TBP solvent extraction part and some complex organic compounds of some metals. It was found that the optimum condition was the 1.5 molar ratio of [HCOOH]/[
] and 2.5 hrs denitration. At this condition, the acidity of the denitrated solution could be reduced to 0.44 M, which provided a favorable condition for the following steps of the partitioning process. Zirconium and molybdenum could be removed over 99% and 95%, respectively. Also, minor actinide elements as americium and neptunium were not precipitated.
Effects of Anionic Center on Properties of Polyurethane Anionomer Dispersion
최희성 ; 노시태 ; 최근배 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 52~52
Polyurethane anionomer dispersions (PUDs) were prepared from 4,4-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate, poly (tetramethylene glycol) and diol bearing pendant carboxylic acid. The type and concentration of diol were varied in order to investigate the influence of anionic center on state of dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties. The diols used in this study were dimethylol propionic acid, THPP-MA and THPP-PA which were synthesized from the esterification reactions of 1,2,3-tri (2-hydroxypropoxy) propane (THPP) with maleic anhydride (MA) and phthalic anhydride (PA), respectively. The particle size of PUD was observed to be dependent on the molecular structure of anionic center, even though it was largely governed by the concentration of acid group. This was attributed to the fact that hydrophilicity of PU ionomer at a given ionic concentration was increased with the flexibility of anionic center, which was in the order of THPP-MA > THPP-PA > dimethylol propionic acid. Surface tension and water swelling were also higher for the PUD with more flexible acid group. The morphological property of PUD film was characterized by DSC. These variations in phase morphology were reflected in the tensile properties of PUD films.
A Study of Hydrodenitrogenation of Quinoline Catalyzed by Sulfided
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 52~61
The hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline dissolved in n-heptane was studied over sulfided Ni-Mo/$\gamma-Al_2O_3$ catalyst at the range of the temperature between 553 K and 673 and the total pressure between $20 \times 10^5$ Pa and $60 \times 10^5$ Pa in a fixed bed flow reactor. Quinoline conversion was very high at relatively low temperature and total pressure, and decreased with quinoline partial pressure. The thermodynamic equilibrium between quinoline and Py-THQ existed in wide ranges of experimental conditions and shifted in favor of quinoline at higher temperature. At the range of the temperature betwwen 553 K and 673 K and at the total pressure $60 \times 10^5$ Pa, the quinoline reaction rate was 1st order with respect to the concentr4ation of quinoline and its apparent activation energy was 7.15 Kcal/mole.
Preparation and Characteristics of Two-Component Polyurethane Coatings by Alkyd-Lactone-Modified Polyester/TDI-Isocyanurate
박홍수 ; 박은경 ; 김성길 ; 신판우 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 59~59
Alkyd-polycaprolactone (lactone)-modified polyester (ALMP) was synthesized by introducing 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoic acid and lactone chosen as the component of alkyd and lactone polyol into modified polyester. Two-component polyurethane coatings were prepared by blending tolyrene diisocyanate (TDI)-isocyanurate, pigment, flowing agent, and wetting/ dispersing agent into the synthesized ALMP. After the film was coated with the prepared polyurethane coatings, the various physical properties were measured. They showed drying time of 2∼3 h and pot-life time of 20∼25 h, which could belong to the coatings with long pot-life time. They showed good physical properties such as thermal resistance, flexibility, impact resistance, cross-hatch adhesion, fineness of grind, abrasion resistance, yellowness index, lightness index difference, and the rest of properties were comparable to existing coatings. These advantages are the results of introducing alkyd and lactone polyols.
Genotoxic Effects of Diesel Emission Particle Extract,
by the Mouse Bone Marrow Micronucleus Test
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 62~67
The clastogenic effects of the diesel emission particle extract (DEPE), mercuric chloride and lead acetate were examined by the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. DEPE had a potent clastogenic effect by intraperitoneal injection with dose-response between 100 and 300mg/kg b.w.. Mercuric chloride and lead acetate also gave a clastogenic effects but mercuric chloride only had a dose-response between 1 and 3mg/kg b.w.. When DEPE was administrated with mercuric chloride or lead acetate, the frequency of micronucleated cells was slight but not significant increase in comparision to a single treatment with DEPE alone.
Laser-induced Polyacrylamide/PVA Film with Large Diffraction Index
김휘성 ; 경천수 ; 성기영 ; 곽종훈 ; 이진국 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 65~65
Polyacrylamide film was fabricated using polyvinylalcohol as a binder with He-Ne laser(633 nm). The methylene blue/triethanolamine system was used. The formation kinetics was proved by Ar-ion laser (488 nm). Diffraction efficiency for different amounts of acrylamide was measured and an optimizing amount of monomer (6%) was determined. The photobleaching rate constant by Beer-Lambert equation was also determined. Photochemical bleaching and diffraction properties of photo-polymer was explained. The holographic grating with 1000 lines/mm and maximum diffraction efficiency (80%) were obtained.
A Study of Heavy Metal Pollutants in the Respirable Dust in Seoul Area
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 68~78
The heavy metal of suspended particulates with human health has long been studied in environmental interest concerned. This study was intended to identify harmful heavy metals of the ambient air borne dusts which were related with the respirable sizes in the aerodynamics. Two sampling sites were selected comparatively; one was in the Shinchon area, which is the commercial district with heavy traffic and the other site was in the Bulgwang area which is residential area. The supended particulates were sampled by high volume air sample with 6 cascade impactor stages. The heavy metals in terms of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn were determined by stomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The samples weretaken bimothly for seven consecutive days from May 1987 to March 1988. The annual average concentration of the respirable suspended dust of which diameter is less than 10$\mum$ was 152.59 $\mug/m^3$ of the Shinchon air samples; the respirable dust was equivalent to approximately 85% of the total suspended particulates. The annual average concentration of the respirable suspended dust of the Bulgwang air samples was 112.56 $\mug/m^3$; that was approximately 86% of the total suspended particulates. The concentration of heavy metals was investigated in relation to the particle size. The concentration of Cr, Fe, Mn and V were tended to be much more in the coarse particles than in the fine particles. Cd and Pb in the fine particles were more than in the coarse particles. In the partial correlation coefficients; in the Shinchon area, high correlations among Fe, Se and Mn were determined; it is assumed that those sources would be originated from coal, gasolineand diesel. In Bulgwang area, would be high correlation among Fe, Se, Hg and Mn considered to be originated from coal, Bunker-C and heavy oil as well. From the above results, the hazardous heavy merals in air should be measured and controlled in originally their sources.
Membranes Composed of Carboxylated Poly(vinyl chloride) and Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-graft-polystyrene: Preparation and Gas Permeability
김희준 ; 정용섭 ; 이윤식 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 69~69
Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-graft-polystyrene (PDMS-g-PS) was synthesized, and blended with carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (CPVC) in tetrahydrofuran in order to prepare gas-permeable and enzyme-immobilizable membranes that can be used for biosensors. The blend polymers form flexible free-standing membranes when the ratio of CPVC to PDMS-g-PS is 5 : 1 or greater. The permeability coefficients for carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blend membranes increase with the content of PDMS-g-PS. For example, the permeability coefficients for carbon dioxide and oxygen in the membranes composed of CPVC and PDMS-g-PS in 5 : 1 ratio by weight are 13 and 21 times greater, respectively, than those in the CPVC membranes. According to the experimental results obtained from differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the membranes composed of the two polymers are phase-separated, and the size of PDMS domain in the CPVC matrix increases with the content of PDMS-g-PS. This suggests that the gases permeate through mainly the PDMS domains dispersed in the continuous CPVC phase.
Synthesis of a Novel AB₂ Monomer with a Stilbene Chromophore and Its Polymerization Study via the Heck Reaction
김용만 ; 김영규 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 74~74
A novel monomer 1 containing a stilbene chromophore was synthesized efficiently in four steps starting from 4-acetoxystyrene and 4-bromobenzaldehyde. The polymer product poly-1 was prepared from the polycondensation of monomer 1 using the Heck reaction and showed
at 508 nm in the photoluminescence spectrum. Variation of the reaction conditions was carried out in order to improve the homogeneity of the reaction mixture. The polymer produced with the optimal conditions showed
= 12,100 with the polydispersity index of 1.85.
Synthesis and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Some Poly(carbonate-co-sulfone)s
Kang, Byung U. ; Lee, Jung A. ; Jho, Jae Y. ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 77~77
To study the nature of the molecular motion of bisphenol A polysulfone (PSF) in the glassy state, the molecular motions of copolycarbonates containing the structures of PSF were investigated. Two copolymers were prepared through the multi-step low temperature solution copolycondensation; one with bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) trimers linked by sulfone units and the other with polycarbonate trimers linked by ether units. The dynamic mechanical spectra of the copolymers showed single secondary relaxation peaks at around 90 ℃: The strength and position of the peaks were not altered from that of PC. The results indicated that the intramolecular cooperativity observed in the motion of PC be not broken by either sulfone or ether linkage, and that the secondary relaxation motion of PSF be also a cooperative motion. The width of the peaks of the copolymers, however, were smaller than that of PC, which suggested the lesser degrees of intermolecular interactions in the copolymers.
The Evaluation of Catalytic Trap Oxidizer on a City Bus
趙康來 ; 金良均 ; 嚴明道 ; 金鍾春 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 79~87
In order to reduce the smoke emission from the in-service city bus, this study was evaluated the particulate reduction efficiency and regeneration ability of the catalitic trap oxidizer (CTO) on the city bus (D0846HM engine) equipped with it. Before the on-road CTO test, the laboratory test of CTO on engine test-bench was performed. Reduction efficiencies of smokes and particulates were 54 and 45%, and those of gaseous pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) were 90 and 60%. In order to evaluate the regeneration ability of the CTO by the catalytic oxidation of trapped particulate, field test was performed on the in-service road. The regeneration temperature was 350$^\circ$ which was same with the exhaust temperature of city bus.
Statistical Aspects and the Extimation Scheme of the Short Term Concentration of Air Pollution
李鍾範 ; 姜寅求 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 1, 1989, Pages 88~95
The aspects of the occurence frequency of $SO_2$ concentration were studied with the observed data in Seoul and the scheme that is capable of estimating not only highest concentration for a variety of averaging times but also concentrations for arbitary occurrence frequency with long term arithmatic mean and geometric standard deviation data, was evaluated. The results of the statistical analysis show that the occurrence frequency is almost log normal except a few cases, and 3rd highest values of daily mean concentration were about 4.2 $\sim$ 5.2 times higher than annual arithmatic mean. The evaluation with the observed hourly concentration shows that the scheme fairly well estimate the short concentration of arbitary occurrence frequence and it can be used for air quality management and environmental impact assessment.