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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Dec 1991
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Oct 1991
Volume 7, Issue 1 - May 1991
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Reaction Pathways and Role of Alkyl Halides on the Methylation of 2-Methylnaphthalene
김대영 ; 김주희 ; 최상영 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 1~1
The methylation of 2-MN was studied to find out the reaction pathways and role of the alkyl halides used in the reactions. It was observed that the activity and product distributions of the methylation showed very specific behavior depending on the alkyl halides or solvents employed. The methylation of 2-MN only proceeded in the presence of alkyl halides, indicating that alkyl halides promote the methylation of 2-MN. The methylation seemed to be activated through the formation of an intermediate complex between the alkyl halides and the catalyst. It was found that the methylation of 2-MN proceeded via three different reaction pathways: the methylation of 2-MN with the methylating agent, the intermolecular transmethylation of 2-MN, and the methylation of 2-MN with methyl halides. All these pathways were activated by the formation of the intermediate complex.
Evaluation of Sampling and Analytical Methods for the Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Ambient Atmosphere
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 1~16
In this study, sampling and analytical procedures were evaluated for the determination of ambient levels of atmospheric PAH, both in gaseous and particulate phase. The method involves low-volume sampling and Soxhlet extraction of the filters and Tenax absorbent, followed by a clean-up stage using a silica column prior to analysis by reversed-phase HPLC with wavelength programmable fluorescence and UV detection. A total of 18 PAH were identified and quantified, all of which have been of environmental concern. In order to validate the methodology and to ensure compatibility of the results, the analytical method used for the determination of PAH was evaluated with respect to the efficiencies of extraction and clean-up procedure, HPLC separation, and lower limits of detection. In addition, substrate dependency of PAH recovery was investigated for the two types of fiters, i.e. glass fiber and PTFE filters.
Simulation Study of Circumstantial Factors on Behavior of Amyloid Peptide in Alzheimer's Disease
김상욱 ; 송욱영 ; 신미자 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 7~7
The effects of circumstantial factors on β-amyloid peptide (β-AP) behavior, penetration, and aggregation were studied using cellular automata (CAs). To identify the mechanisms and relationships between the factors and the resulting behavior, β-AP was simulated using over-critical, and under-critical conditions. In the case of the simulation using over-critical conditions, the β-AP penetrated and aggregated on the surface of the lipid membrane. However, when β-AP was simulated using under-critical conditions, it did not aggregate but only penetrated the surface of the lipid membrane. From the simulation results, circumstantial factors such as pH, oligomer concentration, and solubility were all found to have an important effect on beta -AP behavior
Preparation og Hollow Polymer Particles as Model Colloids
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 11~11
Multistage emulsion polymerization, consisting of three main stages, the preparation of alkali-swellable seed latexes, core-shell polymerization, and a neutralization stage, was carried out to make hollow polymer particles. The key points for the recipe are lower monomer partitioning in the seed particles, a higher instantaneous conversion, monomer-starved condition, and particle growth based on heterocoagulation. Before neutralization, TEM micrographs showed that the composite particles have one region of low electron density at the center of each particle, which implies the formation of concentric core-shell particles comprised of a carboxylated polymethylmethacrylate core and polystyrene shell. The transition layer between the core and the shell polymers was found to have a thickness of about 30 nm. The formation of closed voids inside the particles after drying the neutralized latexes was confirmed based on the change of particle morphology using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The collapse of the shell layer was also observed, and was attributed to insufficient shell strength. The undeformed spherical shape of freeze-dried latex particles established that the collapse occurred during the drying stage and was related to the osmotic pressure generated by the shrinkage of the swollen core. The collapse of the particles was effectively prevented by the incorporation of one more polymerization stage involving the crosslinking of the shell after neutralization. Model hollow polymer particles with void sizes ranging from 130 to 770 nm were prepared using a recipe including the incorporation of an intermediate shell layer between the hydrophilic polymer core and the outermost crosslinked polystyrene shell layer.
Atmospheric Concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Suspended Particulate
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 17~22
Total suspended particulates (TSP) in the atmosphere was collected and size-fractionated by Andersen high volume air sampler for one year (Mar. 1987 $\sim$ Feb. 1988) in Seoul. The concentrations of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were determined to investigate the atmospheric concentrations, seasonal variations and its relationship with the size distribution of suspended particulate matter. The arithmetic mean concentration of total suspended particulates was 200.44 $\mug/m^3$. The concentrations of heavy metals were 2433.80 for Fe, 629.49 for Zn, 600.71 for Pb, 143.87 for Cu, and 107.21 $ng/m^3$ for Mn, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs were 3.83 for benzo(a) pyrene, 2.95 for benzo(k)fluoranthene, and 4.42 $ng/m^3$ for benzo(ghi)perylene, respectively. PAHs, Pb and Zn abounded in particles below 2.0 $\mu$m, while Fe and Mn aboounded in particles above 2.0 $\mu$m. TSP and its chemical compositions showed the seasonal variations. The concentrations of anthrophogenic pollutants like TSP, PAHs and heavy metals in the fine particles were highest in winter and lowest in summer. PAHs and Pb analyzed showed significant correlations between each other and between TSP concentration in fine particles, indicating that the particles in which they are contained have a similar behavior in the atmosphere.
Ligth Scattering of Model Microvoid Films
박명종 ; 홍성민 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 23~23
Model microvoid coatings were prepared for a light scattering study using hollow polymer particles made by multi-stage emulsion polymerization. The light scattering efficiency of the microvoids was determined using a Cary 2300 spectrometer over a wavelength range of 400∼800 nm. The Kubelka-Munk scattering coefficients were determined and used to evaluate the hiding power of the microvoids. It was found that the scattering coefficients increased linearly with the void volume concentration (WC) within a range up to 20%, which indicates that there was no significant dependent scattering behavior within the given VVC range. The scattering efficiency was rather a function of the void diameter at a constant WC. The maximum specific microvoid scattering coefficient of 9.7/mil was observed at a void diameter of 280 nm, which was in good agreement with the theoretical prediction computed by another investigator. It was also found that the scattering power of a microvoid film with a reverse relative refractive index of 0.67 was almost the same as that of zinc oxide coating with a corresponding relative refractive index of 1.37.
A Study on the Analysis of
Concentration in the Metro Seoul
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 23~30
The major purpose of this study is to delineate and assess the regional $SO_2$ levels in Seoul. This study is based on 1988 year-round data from 20 air quality continuous monitoring stations in Seoul. Statistical analyses were attempted, statistical parameters such as average concentration, standard deviation, maximum concentration, minimum concentration and monthly highest concentration were included in the analyses. In addition, Larsen's averaging time analysis was evaluated in terms of 24-hr concentration. The $SO_2$ levels in 1988 were that most stations except Daechidong, Sinlimdong, Jamsil 2, Bangidong violate the long-term standard (annual average 0.05 ppm) and the percentage of number of days within a year in which the 24-hr average concentration observed exceeds short-term standard (0.15 ppm) are; 37% at Deungchondong, 30% at Sinseoldong, mor than 20% at Ssangmundong, Myunmogdong and Oryudong.
High Temperature Slag Viscometry
최동현 ; 문인식 ; 황수연 ; 오명숙 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 30~30
A high temperature viscometer was designed and constructed for the investigation of coal slag viscosity under gasification conditions. Using a Searle-type concentric cylinder viscometer configuration, a unique design with a square shape on the outside and cylindrical on the inside was used for the cup. The dimensions of the cell (the cup and rotor) were determined based on numerical simulations of the rotating flow so as to minimize the end effects. The cell, made of high-density alumina, was placed in a high temperature box furnace using a support system, and two gas-feed lines were installed From the bottom of the furnace to control the gas atmosphere. The slag samples were fed into the furnace using a hole made in the top and the rotor was connected to the viscometer head. Two coal slags, one glassy and another crystalline, were used to test the viscometer. The reproducibility of the glassy slag was excellent, as demonstrated by the overlapping results of repeated measurements. When the reproducibility of the crystalline slag was compared using T(cv), the difference between the two measurements was found to be 17 ℃, which is an acceptable result for this type of slag.
A Study on the Reduction of
Emission from Dual Fuel Engine for Co-generation System
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 31~40
This study shows the correlation between $NO_x$ emission in the exhaust gas and various operation factors of dual fuel engine for Co-generation system. General tendency was shown that the thermal efficiency was lowered by the change of operation factors. However these were not confirmed on this experiment. Increasing T4 temperature (exhaust gas temperature at turbo-charger inlet) reduces $NO_x$ emission rate. The higher T4 temperature requires lower excess air as the excess air ratio is controlled by T4 temperature on gas mode operation. Another tendency was that $NO_x$ emission rate is reduced in case of increasing boost air temperature, quantity of pilot oil or bypassing flue gas through the exhaust gas boiler. The diameter of the fuel injection nozzle was changed smaller than design value and the injection timing was readjusted. Thus $NO_x$ emission rate could be reduced as retarding injection timing and changing hole diameter of fuel injection nozzle, however maxium engine out-put was decreased by changing fuel nozzle on the diesel mode operation.
Preparation of Ba-Ferrite Particles Using the SuperCritical Water Crystallization Method
남성찬 ; 박상도 ; 김전중 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 38~38
Barium ferrite particles were synthesized from Ba(NO3)2, Fe(NO3)3 and KOH mixed solutions using hydrothermal crystallization in supercritical water. The experimental apparatus for production of barium ferrite is a flow-type apparatus. Fine barium ferrite particles were produced because supercritical water causes the metal hydroxides to be rapidly dehydrated before significant growth takes place. The effects of Fe/Ba ratio and reaction time on the formation, particle size, and magnetic properties of barium ferrite were studied. When the Fe/Ba molar ratio was varied from 0.5 to 12, single-phase barium ferrite powder was only produced at Fe/Ba molar ratios of 0.5 and 2. Also, with increasing residence time from 60 to 100 s, the BaO · 6Fe2O3 particle size grew smaller. Especially, uniform barium ferrite particles of size 100-200 nm were obtained at 100 s. In this study, therefore, single-phase barium ferrite particles can be produced continuously in a reaction time of less than 3 min.
A Study on the Air Pollution Potential in the Central Part of Korea
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 41~47
Air pollution potentials of the 7 cities in the central part of Korea were obtained with the mean wind speed within the mixed layer and the mixed layer height calculated by the Jump Model. Seasonal variation of the afternoon mixed layer height in Seoul area shows that low in winter and high in summer. Annual mean of the morning air pollution potential was lowest in Incheon and highest in Wonju. On the other hand annual mean of the afternoon air pollution potential was lowest in Incheon and highest in Chuncheon. Relatively low air pollution potential in Incheon can be explained as high mixed layer height and the effect of sea breeze.
Intercalation Behavior of Dodecylamine into Layered Silicates in Oranic Solvents
권오윤 ; 박경원 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 44~44
The intercalation behavior of dodecylamine into the interlayer of layered silicates was investigated in ethanol and n-hexane, using H-magadiite, H-kenyaite, and H-montmorillonite ion-exchanged with H(+) in a HCl solution. In ethanol, dodecylamine-magadiite and -kenyaite intercalates with well ordered basal spacing were obtained in 1.5 M and 1.2 M, respectively, whereas, in n-hexane, dodecylamine-magadiite and -kenyaite intercalates were formed with well ordered basal spacing at lower concentrations of 0.9 M and 0.5 M, respectively. This indicates that dodecylamine intercalates are formed well in n-hexane. In both solvents, the basal spacings of dodecylamine-magadiite and kenyaite intercalates, were ∼48 Å and ∼53 Å, respectively, thereby showing an abnormally large increase of ∼36 Å in their gallery height. In the dodecylamine-montmorillonite intercalates, the basal spacing were significantly increased from 26.2 Å to 41.4 Å between 0.9 M and 1.2 M, resulting in an increase of 15.4 Å and 26.0 Å in the gallery height. This implies that the intercalated dodecylamine molecules have quite different molecular configurations, such as an interlamellar bilayer that is parallel or perpendicular to the silicate sheet, dependent upon the amount of intercalated dodecylamine. In ethanol, the basal spacing of the dodecylamine-kenyaite intercalates were more ordered with a decreasing temperature, yet, in n-hexane, the spacing become more ordered with an increasing temperature.
A Study on the Relation of Urban Heat Island and Air Pollution in Seoul Area
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 49~53
Relations of urban heat island and air pollution are analyzed by using $SO_2$ concentration data (winter season in 1985) from 10 sites of Seoul area and differences of wind speed and air temperature in urban and rural area. Urban heat island is developed when daily mean wind speed at urban site is lower than 1.5m/sec or in the interval of 3.0 $\sim$ 3.5m/sec. When differences between urban and rural air temperature is greater than the overall average of those differences, $SO_2$ concentrations of those above-average differences are 1.3 $\sim$ 1.8 times higher than those of below-average differences. The trends are shown obviously at north-eastern area of Seoul (Gilum Dong, Ssangmun Dong, Myeonmog Dong). When intensity of Urban Heat Island is weak, $SO_2$ concentration was reduced in propotion to a rise of wind speed. But $SO_2$ concentration is on the partial increase in spite of a rise of wind speed when intensity of urban heat island is strong.
TESPT and Different Aliphatic Silane Treated Silica Compounds Effects on Silica Agglomerate Dispersion and on Processability During Mixing in EPDM
김광재 ; James L. White ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 50~50
Treated silica particles with four different silane coupling agents with different silane chain length were compounded in EPDM using an internal mixer, and their agglomerate sizes, viscosity, and extrudate swell were investigated. The treated silica compounds showed a smaller agglomerate size, lower viscosity, and lower swell reduction than the untreated silica compound after equivalent mixing times. The bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfane (TESPT) treated silica compound exhibited a lower viscosity than the other treated compounds, however exhibited a large agglomerate size, whereas the short chain silane (SN203) treated compounds exhibited a smaller agglomerate size with a higher viscosity. The long chain silane (SN116) treated compound exhibited a lower viscosity with a better dispersion than the TESPT treated compound. TESPT acted as a processing aid in the silica/EPDM compounds. The extrudate swell reduction of the TESPT, SA2T, SN203, SN208, and SN116 treated silica compounds was less than that of the untreated silica compounds.
A Study on the Selection of Adaptable Tree in Air Pollution Area
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 55~65
The study was performed to select a adaptable tree species under stressed field conditions where there are a industrial plants operating with a number of smoke stacks emitting pollutants, such as hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide. As a result of the study, a tree species selected are due to construct a forest belt in a zones near industrial plants to reduce the concentrations of air pollutants. The concentrations of atmospheric hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide were very higher at experimental sites near industrial plants (air-pollution sites) than at control site. The leaves of 7 tree species grown at air pollution sites contained more sulfur and, specially, fluorine than at those control site. Among the tested tree species, Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. and Euonymus japonica Thunb. grown at air pollution sites did not at all break out a foliar injury but appeared to be healthy, as well as those grown at control site. Acer pseudo-sieboldianum Kom., Pinus virginiana Mill., Larix leptolepis Gordon., Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc., Pinus strobus L., Picea abies Karst and Ligustrum obtusifolium Sieb. et Zucc., however, showed a severe fluoride-type foliar injury such as necrosis on tip or margin of leaves, etc. Fluorine found in leaves was proved to be correlated to sulfur found in leaves whereas index of foliar injury hadn't a good correlation to pollutants found in leaves. It appears that Euonymus japonica Thunb., Ligustrum japonica Thunb., Platanus acerifolia Willd, Chamaecyparis pisifera Endl., Populus tomentiglandulosa T. Lee and Sophora japonica L. grown at both experimental sites had a high value of percent survival whereas Pinus virginiana Mill., Pinus koraiensis Sib. et Zucc., Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. and Alnus hirsuta Rupr. had an extremely low value of that. In comparison with control site, the percent tree height increments in Chamaecyparis pisifera Endl., Ligustrum japonicum Thunb., Quercus acutissima Carruth., Populus tomentiglandulosa T. Lee, Pinus thunbergii Parl and Euonymus japonica Thunb. and the percent upmost root diameters in Populus tomentiglandulosa T. Lee, Chamaecyparis pisifera Endl., Euonymus japonica Thunb., Ligustrum japonicum Thunb., Betula platyphylla var. japonica Hara and Pinus thunbergii Parl. cultivated at air polluted sites showed very high value above 90%, respectively. A significant negative correlation (r=-0.662) was recognized between the index of foliage injury and the percent collective character, which was the mean of tree characters such as percent survival, percent tree height increment and percent upmost root diameter increment which compared to those at air polluted site with those at control site. Based on the percent collective character Ligustrum japonicum Thunb., Euonymus japonica Thunb., Chamaecyparis pisifera Endl., Populus tomentiglandlosa T. Lee, Betula platyphyla var. japonica Hara and Platanus occidentalis L. have large value about 90%, respectively. Therefore, the results indicate that this tree species are adaptable species in air polluted regions. For better understanding of the adaptable tree species, furthur studies concerning the effects of various air pollutants on the tree growth are required.
Effect of Auto-generation of Pt/Mo
Based Catalyst for
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 58~58
Carbon dioxide (CO2) known as a cause of the green house effect was converted into an industrially useful product such as CH4, C(2+) and CO by the use of a batch type recirculation reactor within the temperature range of 25 ℃∼400 ℃ at 1 atmospheric pressure. The isothermal temperature oxidation (ITO) result suggests that the oxygen dissociated from the rupture of CO2 reacts with Pt/MoO2, thereby forming Pt/MoO3 and CH4. Products formed from the reaction between CO2 and H2 via the surface of the Pt/MoO2 based catalysts may be explained based on 2 presumed reaction pathways: first, the reaction to produce CH4 and H2O between hydrogen spillover from Pt and adsorbed CO2 over the MoO2 surface at a low temperature; second, the formation of CO and H2 based on a reaction between the surface MoO3 and CH4 at a high temperature.
Catalytic Activity of Mesoporous Molecular Sieve Rb-AIKIT-1 in Oreganic Reactions
장원길 ; 신지혜 ; 안병준 ;
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 62~62
The catalytic activity of alkali metal-exchanged Al-containing KIT-1(Na-AlKIT-1, K-AlKIT-1, and Rb-AlKIT-1) as a base catalyst for Knoevenagal reaction was tested. The reaction of the benzaldehydes with ethyl cyanoacetate proceeded very well in toluene solution and the yield of the product is good to excellent. A solvent-free system, i.e. the neat reaction without solvent heating on a 160∼180 ℃ sand bath, gave the desired condensed products, diethyl phenylmethylidenepropanedionate from diethyl malonate and ethyl phenylmethylidenecyanopropanonate from ethyl cyanoacetate in 10∼90% yield, respectively.
The Procedure of the Establishment of Ambient Air Quality Standards
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 67~71
Recent International Cooperations and Response Strategies to Arrest Global Warming
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, volume 7, issue 1, 1991, Pages 73~80