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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korea Journal of Herbology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Association of Herbology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Effect of modified-Okbyungpoongsan on mast cell-mediated allergic responses in RBL-2H3 mast cells
Jung, Jin-Ki ; Park, Yong-Ki ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1~7
Objectives : In this study, we investigated the effect of modified-Okbyungpoongsan (mOP) on mast cell-mediated allergic response in basophilic leukemia cell line, RBL-2H3 mast cells. Methods : Cells were stimulated with anti-DNP-IgE after the treatment of DNP-HSA (AI/D), and then incubated with different concentrations of mOP (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/
) in RBL-2H3 cells. Cell toxicity was determined by WST-1 assay. The degranulation of mast cells was observed by microscope with toluidine blue staining and also the levels of beta-hexosaminidase, histamine and TNF-alpha were measured in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results : mOP inhibited anti-DNP-IgE-imduced degranulation of mast cells in RBL-2H3 cells. mOP also significantly decreased the levels of histamine and inflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha in RBL-2H3 cells, but slightly decreased the level of beta-hexosaminidase. Conclusions : These results indicate that mOP, an oriental prescription could be inhibit the allergic response through suppressing the mast cell activation.
The effect of Gyungokgo-gamibang extract on hair growth and protein expression in mice
Do, Eun-Ju ; Hwang, Mee-Yul ; Kim, Seung-Yeon ; Lee, Jin-Sang ; Yang, Dae-Seok ; Yang, Chae-Ha ; Kim, Mi-Ryeo ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 9~14
Objective : Present study was carried out to investigate the effect of Gyungohkgo-gamibang extract on hair growth and protein expression in an alopecia model of C57BL/6 mice. Methods : Mice were divided into 3 experimental groups including normal (vehicle), Gyungohkgo-gamibang extract (YNS-10) and 5% minoxidil-treated group. The test materials were daily applied with 0.1 ml per mouse on shaved dorsal skin for 3 weeks. The hair growth was monitored by photograph at 5, 10, 15, 21 days after topical application. Then the changes of hair density and hair thickness in the hair-removed area were evaluated by phototrichogram using folliscope. Also the expression level of growth factors related to hair growth was measured by western blotting. Results : Application of minoxidil or YNS-10 stimulated the hair growth compared to vehicle treatment. Therefore hair density of minoxidil or YNS-10 application was increased about 200% and 210% more than in vehicle application on 14 day, respectively. And hair thickness of both minoxidil group and YNS-10 group was increased about 220% and 210 % more than in vehicle spreading on 14 day, respectively. Futhermore the protein expression of IGF-1 and VEGF were significantly up-regulated on 7 day in YNS-10 and minoxidil-spreaded group compared to vehicle-applied group. Conclusion : These data suggest that YNS-10 has potent stimulating activity on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and potential usefulness as ingredients of hair tonic and hairrestore.
Review of the domestic research trends in the study of Korean herbal medicine with anti-inflammation effects
Ha, Hee-Jung ; Kim, Yun-Jung ; Kweon, Kee-Tae ; Kim, Jin-Ju ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 15~22
Objective : This paper analyzed the research trend of the experiment papers where inflammation was treated based on the oriental herbs among the issued papers of many areas such as oriental medicine and pharmacy, etc. Method : All experiment papers on the oriental herbs have been searched with the keyword of 'inflammation' in the internet sites like KISTI, OASIS, etc., and then they are analyzed on the basis of the effective classification of Korean herbal medicine, the frequency of research on Korean herbal medicine, and so forth. Result & Conclusion : It is presumed that anti-inflammation, the concept of Western Medicine, is related to clearing away heat, the concept of Korean herbal medicine, because it is ascertained that the highest cases is kinds of Korean herbal medicine effectively classified as clearing away heat medicine in the research of anti-inflammation. Also, it is checked that a ginseng is the most researched among the 138 Korean herbal medicine.
Effect of Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba water extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats
Han, Yun-Kyung ; Park, Yong-Ki ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 23~30
Objectives : This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba water extract on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Methods : Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups ; normal, STZ-control and Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba (A) water extract-administrated group. Rats in which diabetic was induced by intraperitonal injection with STZ(60 mg/kg body weight). STZ-induced diabetic rats were orally administrated A extract daily for 5 weeks at doses of 200 or 500 mg/kg. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and blood urea nitrogen were measured in sera of rats. Total volume of urine and urinary creatinine were also measured. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining for the expression of insulin and
-SMA in pancreas and kidney were performed, respectively. Results : There were no differences in body and kidney weights between STZ-control and A extract-administrated groups. However, serum triglyceride level was significantly decreased in A extract-administrated groups compared with those of STZ-control group. Histopathological analysis of pancreas and kidney revealed increased the number of islets and insulin-positive beta-cells in pancreas, and decreased morphological changes of glomerulus and
-SMA expression in kidney after the administration of A extract. Conclusions : These results suggest that Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba has a biological action on STZ-induced diabetes in rats via decreasing the serum levels of total triglyceride, and suppressing the morphological changes of pancreas and kidney.
Anti-inflammatory effects of Chrysanthemum boreale flower
You, Ki-Sun ; Bang, Chan-Sung ; Lee, Kyung-Jin ; Ham, In-Hye ; Choi, Ho-Young ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 31~37
Objectives : Chrysanthemum boreale flower is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Eastern countries. C. boreale flower is also one of the herbs used for the treatment of various inflammatory disease in Korean Medicine. So, this research was designed to study anti-inflammatory effect of C. boreale flower and its mechanism. Methods : We investigated nitro oxide (NO) and prostaglandin
) production by ELISA. And expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor-
P65) were measured in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells induced by LPS. Results : MeOH ex., EtOAc fr.,
fr. and Water fr. of C. boreale flower showed anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of NO and PGE expression respectively. Among them, EtOAc fr. and
fr. inhibited production of NO and
through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. And MeOH ex., EtOAc fr. and
fr. inhibited translocation of NF-
P50 by inhibiting phosphrylation of
. Conclusions : MeOH ex. EtOAc fr,
fr., and Water fr. of the C. boreale flower have anti-inflammatory activity.
Antioxidative and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Extracts from Different Organs of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense
Mok, Ji-Ye ; Kang, Hyun-Ju ; Cho, Jung-Keun ; Jeon, In-Hwa ; Kim, Hyeon-Soo ; Park, Ji-Min ; Jeong, Seung-Il ; Shim, Jae-Suk ; Jang, Seon-Il ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 39~47
Objective: The roots, leaves, flowers, stems and seeds of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense are often used in treatment of human diseases such as hemorrhage, blood congestion and inflammation. Focusing our attention on natural and bioavailable sources of antioxidants and anti-inflammation, we undertook to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense used as a folk medicine in Korea. Methods: The extracts of the leaves, stems, flowers, seeds and roots from C. japonicum var. ussuriense were prepared by extracting with water or 80% ethanol. Total flavonoids and polyphenols were measured by a colorimetric assay. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was analyzed by the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and Griess reagent assay. An oxidative product of nitric oxide (NO), was measured in the culture medium by the Griess reaction. The level of prostaglandin
) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were measured by Western blot analysis. Results: Total flavonoid and polyphenol amounts of the leaves (CLE) and flowers (CFE) showed higher than those of the seed extract (CSE), stem extract (CSTE) and roots (CRE). CLE and CFE also showed the high antioxidant activities such as DPPH, NO-like and ABTS radical scavenging activity. An antioxidant activities of these water extracts showed higher than those of 80% ethanol extracts. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of CLE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. CLE significantly suppressed the levels of the inflammatory mediators such as NO and prostaglandin
) in dose dependant. Furthermore, the levels of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions were markedly suppressed by the treatment with CLE extract in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: These results suggest that CLE water extract has a higher anoxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, these properties may contribute to the oxidative and inflammatory related disease care.
The therapeutic effect of Drynariae Rhizoma in a mouse model of allergic asthma
Kim, Seung-Taik ; Lee, Jang-Cheon ; Lee, Young-Cheol ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 49~57
Objective : Allergic asthma is a chronic airway disease that affects millions of people in the developed world. The disease is characterized by concurring airway inflammation, Th2 cytokine production, increased mucus secretion, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled antigen, and pulmonary fibrosis. To investigate the therapeutic and anti-asthmatic effects of Drynariae Rhizoma (DR), we examined the influence of DR on the development of pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Methods : In this study, BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) followed intratracheally, intraperitoneally, and by aerosol allergen challenges. We investigated the effect of DR on airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, various immune cell phenotypes, Th2 cytokine production and OVA specific IgE production in a mouse model of asthma. Results : In asthmatic mice, we found that DR.treated groups had suppressed eosinophil infiltration, allergic airway inflammation and AHR by suppressing the production of IL-5, IL-13 and OVA specific IgE. Conclusions : Our data suggest that the therapeutic mechanism by which DR effectively treats asthma is based on reductions of Th2 cytokines (IL-5), eotaxin, OVA-specific IgE production and eosinophil infiltration.
A herbalogical study on the plants of Aspleniaceae in Korea
Jeong, Jong-Gil ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 59~65
Objective : For the purpose of developing Korean herbalogy of the plants to Aspleniaceae in Korea, the literatures of the successive generations have been thoroughly investigated to prepare this article. Methods : The examined herbalogical books and research paper which published at home and abroad. Results : 1. There are 2 genera and 21 species in Aspleniaceae in Korea and among them medicinal plants are 2 genera and 10 species, some 48% in total. 2. Asplenium genus is a main kind in that it has 20 species among 21 species in Aspleniaceae of which medicinal plants are 9 species. 3. The Herb play medicinal parts if most plants in the Aspleniaceae have the effect of a medicine, the 10 species of which are used for medical care. 4. According to nature and flavor of medicinal plants in the Aspleniaceae, the cold medicinal plants and the bitter medicinal plants take the highest number of them 5. According to the properties and principal curative action, they were classified into drugs for hemostatic 10 species, drugs for clearing away heat 8 species, drugs for detoxification 7 species respectively. 6. None of the species of Aspleniaceae have been found to be toxic. Conclusions : There are totaled to 2 genera and 21 species in Aspleniaceae in Korea and among them medicinal plants are 2 genera and 10 species some 48% in total.
Neuroprotective effects of Angelicae Acutilobae Radix water extract against ischemia·reperfusion-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH neuronal cells
Oh, Tae-Woo ; Park, Ki-Ho ; Lee, Mi-Young ; Choi, Go-Ya ; Park, Yong-Ki ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 67~74
Objectives : The purpose of the study is to determine the neuroprotective effects of the water extract of Angelicae Acutilobae Radix(AA) on ischemia reperfusion-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH human brain neuronal cells. Methods: SK-N-SH cells were treated with different concentrations of AA water extract (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) for 2 hr and then stimulated with Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline containing CI-DPBS: 3mM sodium azide and 10 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose for 45 min, reperfused with growth medium, and incubated for 24 h. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, and ATP/ADP levels were measured by ADP/ATP ratio assay kit. The levels of caspase-3 protein were determined by Western blot and apoptotic body was observed by Hoechst 33258 staining. Results : AA extract significantly inhibited decreasing the cell viability in ischemia-induced SK-N-SH cells. AA also increased the ratio of ADP/ATP in ischemia-induced neuronal cells and decreased the expression levels of apoptotic protein, caspase-3 and apoptotic DNA damage. Conclusions : Our results suggest that AA extract has a neuroprotective property via suppressing the apoptosis and increasing the energy levels in neuronal cells, suggesting that AA extract may has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of ischemic brain injury.
The Effects of Magnoliae officinalis Cortex and Machili thunbergii Cortex on Small Intestinal Motility
Lee, Kyung-Jin ; Park, Geun-Yong ; Park, Gyu-Ha ; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Ham, In-Hye ; Bu, Young-Min ; Choi, Ho-Young ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 75~81
Objectives : Magnoliae officinalis Cortex (MOC) has been used in traditional medicine for digestive diseases in Korea, China and Japan. However, Machili thunbergii Cortex (MTC) also has been used as a substitute of MOC in Korea sometimes. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate and compare the effects of MOC and MTC on intestinal motility of isolated small intestinal segments from ICR mouse. Methods : Changes in motility were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system and amplitude, frequency and area under the curve (AUC) of intestinal spontaneous phasic contraction were compared. Results : The MOC extracts (
) dose-dependently decreased both amplitudes and frequencies of the spontaneous phasic contraction, but not AUC. However, high concentration of MOC (100
/mL) evoked tonic contraction. And it was not inhibited by tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, and nifedipine, a L-type
channel antagonist. These results suggested that MOC (100
/mL)-induced tonic contraction is not mediated by nerve or L-type
channel. On the other hand, the MTC extracts dose-dependently inhibited amplitude and AUC, but not the frequency. Conclusions : Although both MOC and MTC affected intestinal motility, MOC is more effective on intestinal motility than MTC. And MOC has been used as a traditional medicine for a long time but not MTC. Thus, we suggested that MTC should not be used in Korea as a substitute of MOC and MOC might be useful traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disease. The mechanism of MOC is still remained to elucidate.
The Experimental study on the Immuno-regultory effect of Notopterygii Rhizoma Extract on OVA-induced asthma in mice
Yoo, Ji-Hyun ; Bae, Jin-Hyun ; Doh, Eun-Soo ; Chang, Jun-Pok ; Seong, Nak-Sul ; Kil, Ki-Jung ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 83~88
Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate the asthma-suppressive and immuno-regulatory effect of Notopterygii Rhizoma(NR) extract on OVA(ovalbumin)-induced asthma in mice. Methods : C57BL/6 mice out of all the experimental groups, except the Normal group and the NRI group, were sensitized and challenged with OVA. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to OVA three times a week for 12 weeks and analyzed by flow cytometer, ELISA, H&E stain. Results : The concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IgE in serum of the OVA-NRII group decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA-Control group. The number of
cells in the OVA-NRI group decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA-Control group. The collagen accumulation in the lung sections of the OVA-NRII group decredased signi- ficantly compared with that of the OVA-Control group. Conclusions : These results suggest that Notopterygii Rhizoma(NR) would be a effective candidate for herbal-originated anti-asthmatic drug. However, this drug should be further studied for characterization of the accurate action and underlying mechanism using variant disease model in the future.
A study on the extracting characteristics of velvet antlers using kyenegum protease
Park, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Do-Wan ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 89~94
Objective : Kyenegum has been frequently used for characterizing digestive symptoms in the traditional and oriental medicines. This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of extracts from velvet antlers using the 4 different kinds of extracting methods. Methods : The extracts of velvet antlers were extracted using a
DW (9hrs), a Kyenegum crude enzyme, a
DW (2hrs), and a Kyenegum protease. To evaluate the characteristic of velvet antler extracts, we examined the brix, soluble solid, amino acid, mineral composition, and collagen protein. Results : As a result of the comparisons of velvet antlers extracted by the traditional extraction and the crude enzyme of kyenegum, the brix and soluble solid showed the higher contents for kyenegum enzymes. Also, mineral contents of the extracted velvet antlers were higher, particularly in Ca and P for those. The contents of collagen protein, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, were found to be more than twice in kyenegum protease compared with other extracting methods. Conclusion : These results indicated that the Kyenegum crude enzyme and protease are very effective to extract of velvet antlers.
Antioxidant Activities and Inhibitory Effect on Oxidative DNA Damage of extracts from Abeliophylli distichi Folium
Park, Jae-Ho ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 95~99
Objective : In this study, we demonstrate the protective effect on oxidative DNA damage of leaf extracts from Abeliophylli distichi Folium via its antioxidant activity for the establishment of new value for the herbal medicine. Methods : Abeliophylli distichi Folium leaves were extracted with hot-water and ethylacetate (EtOAC). The 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and hydroxyl scavenging assay and
chelating assay were performed for antioxidative effect and
X-174 RF I DNA cleavage assay and intracellular DNA damage assay were used for inhibitory effect of intracellular DNA damage. Results : In DPPH, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and
chelating activity of EtOAC extracts were 94.72%, 62.88%, 41.13%, and hot-water extracts were 88.86%, 56.7%, 37.4% at 200
, respectively. Also, those extracts showed protective effect of DNA damage against the oxidative stress. Conclusion : These results indicated that the leaf extracts of Abeliophylli distichi Folium can be used as a natural antioxidants, which effectively inhibits the oxidative DNA damage.
Acute Toxicity Study on Socheongryong-Tang and Fermented Socheongryong-Tang extracts in Mice
Lee, Ji-Seon ; Hwang, Youn-Hwan ; Lee, Ji-Hye ; Oh, Su-Young ; Kim, Tae-Soo ; Ma, Jin-Yeul ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 101~107
Objectives : Socheongryong-Tang (小靑龍湯, SCRT) has been widely used to treat respiratory disease. In this study, we investigate the acute toxicity and safety of fermented Socheongryong-Tang extract. Methods : To evaluate the acute toxicity and safety, 0 (control group), 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg of Socheongryong-Tang and fermented Socheongryong-Tang extracts were orally administered to male and female ICR mice. After single administration, we observed survival rates, general toxicity, changes of body weight for the 14 days and autopsy. Results : Compared with the control group, we could not find any toxic alteration in all treated group (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg). Conclusions :
of Socheongryong-Tang and fermented Socheongryong-Tang extracts might be over 5000 mg/kg and it is safe to ICR mice.
Studies on Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effects of Fermented Cnidium officinale Makino
Yong, Si-Eun ; Park, Pil-Sang ; Lim, Ji-Min ; Kwon, Hyuk-Jin ; Choi, Ji-Ho ; Choi, Yoon-Hee ; Kim, Eun-Mi ; Park, Shin-Young ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 109~113
Objectives : We investigated the antioxidant and Antidiabetic effects of Cnidii Rhizoma Fermentata by Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus Kawauchi for 3days. Methods : In this study we compared Cnidii Rhizoma Fermentata with Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus Kawauchi that examined using reducing sugar, DPPH radical scavenging activity,
-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Also determined changes of pH and sugar content during fermentation for 3days. Results : The values for DPPH radical scavenging activity of Cnidii Rhizoma fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (86.6%) was higher than that of Aspergillus Kawauchi (77.9%). In
-amylase inhibitory activity, fermented by Aspergillus Kawauchi had the highest inhibitory activity among other groups. But in
-glucosidase inhibitory activity, fermented by Aspergillus oryzae had the highest inhibitory activity among other groups. While all groups of the sugar content increased During 3days fermentation, the pH was decreased. Conclusions : Based on these results, It was suggested that Cnidii Rhizoma Fermentata can be a useful and cost-effective resource for fuctional food and medicine.
Therapeutic Effect of the Impatiens balsamina Linne Extract on the Membranous Nephropathy
Wi, Gyeong ; Yoo, Ji-Hyun ; Doh, Eun-Soo ; Chang, Jun-Pok ; Kil, Ki-Jung ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 115~124
Objective : Membranous nephropathy(MN) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults. MN has been defined as granular subepithelial deposition of IgG immune complexes along the glomerular basement membrane(GBM). However, there is not a satisfactory treatment for MN. We aimed to identify the effect of Impatiens balsamina Linne(IBL) treatment on cationic bovine serum albumin(cBSA)-induced MN in a mouse model. Methods : Mice were divided into 4 groups. The normal group was injected with saline. The Control group was treated with cBSA(50 mg/kg i.p) only. The third group IBL-100, was treated with cBSA(50 mg/kg, i.p) and IBL(100 mg/kg, p.o). The fourth group IBL-400, was treated with cBSA(50 mg/kg, i.p) and IBL (400 mg/kg, p.o). After cBSA and IBL treatment for 6 weeks, we measured change of body weight, proteinuria, serum albumin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, creatinine, IgA, IgM, IgG, TNF-
, IL-6 and IL-
levels. The morphologic changes of renal glomeruli were also observed with a light microscope. Results : The level of proteinuria significantly decreased and serum albumin increased in groups treated with cBSA and IBL extract compared with the control. The levels of serum triglyceride, BUN, IgG, TNF-
significantly decreased in both IBL groups. In histological findings of kidney tissue, thickening of GBM decreased in both IBL groups. Conclusions : This study shows that IBL might be effective for treatment of acute stage MN. More clinical data and studies are to be done for efficient application.
Effects of Curculiginis Rhizoma on anti-thrombotic activity
Roh, Seong-Soo ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 125~132
Objectives : An aim of study is to investigate effects of curculiginis rhizoma in vitro (factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor assay, prothrombinase assay, prothrombin time (PT) assay, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) assay) and in vivo experiment (blood clotting time, thromboxane B2 content assay in serum and weight of thrombus by AV-shunt rat model). Methods : We gained a human serum and used serum in vitro study such as factor X activity (FXa) inhibition, prothrombinase inhibition, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time. Fifteen SD rats were divided into three groups (intact control group and two experimental group treated with extract of Curculiginis Rhizoma(ECR)). Rats were orally administrated DW (intact control group), 600 mg/kg concertration of ECR and 200 mg/kg concertration of ECR. After one hour, we anesthetized rats and made arteriovenous (AV) shunt rat models to study weights of thrombus, took a hole blood to study content of thromboxane B2 and blood clotting time. Results : In vitro, ECR increased a inhibitory activity of FXa, prothrombinase and aPTT compared than intact control group. Especially ECR made significant increase of FXa and prothrombinase inhibitory activity (p<0.05, p<0.01). And PT were increased in ECR control group compared with intact control group. In vivo, a blood clotting time of experiment group treated with ECR 600 mg/kg were significantly increased compared with that of intact control group (p<0.05) and content of thromboxane B2 was significantly decreased in group treated with ECR 600 mg/kg in seum. The weight of thrombus were significantly reduced in group treated with ECR 600 mg/kg compared with intact control group (p<0.05). But in vivo experiment study, those of group treated with ECR 200 mg/kg were reduced compared with those of intact control group without statistical significance. Conclusions : ECR has a antithromboic activity in internal course with inhibitory activity of FXa and prothrombinase in vitro, it required to research more study for effective compounds.
Protective effect of Socheongryong-Tang on hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatotoxicity
Lee, Ji-Seon ; Oh, Su-Young ; Seo, Sang-Hee ; Kim, Tae-Soo ; Ma, Jin-Yeul ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 133~137
Objectives : Socheongryong-Tang (小靑龍湯, SCRT) has been widely used to treat respiratory disease. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of SCRT on hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods : In the mouse primary liver cells, SCRT was pretreated for 1 h, and 1 mM
was treated to mouse primary liver cells. Cell viability was analyzed by using 3- 4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Also, the activity of AST, ALT and LDH were measured for the evaluation the protective effect of SCRT on
-induced hepatotoxicity. Intracellular ROS level was analyzed by FACS. Results : SCRT pretreatment decreased
-induced hepatotoxicity and intracellular ROS production. Pretreatment of SCRT significantly reduced the cytotoxic effect induced by
, associated with reducing DNA fragmentation and AST, ALT, LDH activities. Conclusions : These results suggest that SCRT has protective effect against
Effects of Aqueous Extract of Diospyros Kaki Calyx on Anti-thrombotic Activity in vitro and in vivo
Baek, Kyung-Min ; Roh, Seong-Soo ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 139~147
Objectives : The aim of this study is to research an anti-thrombus effect by Diospyros Kaki Calyx. Methods : The healthy human plasma were gained and used in vitro study such as factor X activity (FXa) inhibition, prothrombinase inhibition, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time. Fifteen SD rats were divided into three groups ; intact control group (orally administrated with distilled water 5ml/kg) and two experimental group treated with extract of diospyros kaki calyx (EKC). Experimental rats were orally 600 mg/kg concentration of EKC and 200 mg/kg concentration of EKC. After an hour from administration, we anesthetized rats and made arteriovenous (AV) shunt rat models to study weight of thrombus, took whole blood to study content of thromboxane B2 and blood clotting time. Results : In vitro, EKC significantly increased inhibitory activity of FXa, prothrombinase compared with intact control group (
<0.05). PT and aPTT were increased in EKC treated (600 mg/kg) group compared with intact control group (
<0.05). In vivo, blood clotting time of experiment group treated with EKC 600 mg/kg were significantly increased compare with that of intact control group (p<0.05) and content of thromboxane B2 was significantly decreased in group treated with EKC 600 mg/kg in serum. The weight of thrombus were significantly reduced in group treated with EKC 600 mg/kg compared with intact control group (p<0.05). But in vivo experiment study, those parameters of group treated with EKC 200 mg/kg were relatively decreased compared with those of intact control group without statistical significance. Conclusions : EKC has an antithrombic activity because of inhibition internal course such as FXa and prothrombin. And EKC inhibited a hole blood clotting in vivo experiment by low content of thromboxane B2.
Protective Effect of Cortex Fraxini on Heart Injury in a Rat Model of Myocardial Infarction
Lim, Sun-Ha ; Lee, Jong-Won ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 149~154
Objectives : Myocardial infarction is caused by heart cell death in a region where coronary arteries supplying blood to the region are occluded. In the present study, we determined whether ethanol extract of Cortex fraxini (HY5053) could attenuate heart injury by inhibiting apoptosis. Methods : Improvement of survival of HepG2 cells, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, and reduction of apoptosis under hypoxic conditions (3%
) were assessed by trypan blue staining and DNA fragmentation assay, respectively. To assess the impact of HY5053 on the heart injury, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 1 day of the left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. HY5053 was given by intraperitoneal injection (200 mg/kg) 1 hr prior to the occlusion. Subsequently, the heart were harvested, excised into 4 slices, and the slices were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. Finally, the extent of heart injury represented as ischemic index (%) was assessed. Results : Addition of HY5053 (400
/mL) into the culture medium for 1 day under ischemic conditions improved the cell survival by 50%, compared with control (0
/mL), consequently delayed apoptosis in 6 hr difference. Also, HY5053 (200 mg/kg) reduced the ischemic index by 44%, compared with control (0 mg/kg). Conclusions : These findings suggested that HY5053 attenuated myocardial infarction by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, Cortex fraxini could be developed as a novel cardioprotectant to complement a currently available treatment, coronary angioplasty.
A Research on the origin and Daily Dose of Gardeniae Fructus in Shanghanlun
Kim, In-Rak ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 155~161
Objective : The purpose of this study is to determine the origin and daily dose of Gardeniae Fructus in Shanghanlun. Methods : Define the origin and daily dose of Gardeniae Fructus by searching Shanhanlun and Herbology Books(本草書). And Compared these with those of current Gardeniae Fructus. Results : According to Shanhanlun, the origin of Gardeniae Fructus is Gardenia jasminoides, but G. jasminoides f. longicarpa must excluded since originally it was used for dyeing. Among the 8 prescriptions containing Gardeniae Fructus, 15 Gardeniae Fructuses for the daliy dose in Chijabekpi-tang(Zhizibopi-tang) is assumed to be 14 Gardeniae Fructuses, as it is found 14 in many other prescriptions same in other prescriptions. The quantity of 14 Gardeniae Fructuses in Shananlun is 3 Ryang(兩), which is equal to 19.5 g in the current measurement. 1 Gardeniae Fructus is equal to 1.4 g. The length of the Gardeniae Fructus in the market which is produced in korea is 22-27 mm, and the diameter is 15-19 mm, whereas in China it is 20-25 mm, and the diameter is 13-18 mm. This meets the standard requirements of the Pharmacopoeia. Conclusions : As a result from above, the origin of Gardeniae Fructus is Gardenia jasminoides, but G. jasminoides f. longicarpa must be excluded. The recommended dose in a day is 14 Gardeniae Fructuses, which is equivalent to 19.5 g, the amount generally used in Shanhanlun.
A Research on the origin of Aquilariae Lignum based on its production area and trading status in history
Kim, Kwang-Min ; Kim, In-Rak ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 163~168
Objective : The purpose of this study is to determine the origin of Aquilariae Lignum. Method : Firstly identify the production areas of Aquilariae Lignum and its trading status with China in Chinese history through Chinese historical books such as Twenty-Five Histories(二十五史) and the records of the Chosun Dynasty and then, compare the distribution of the genus Aquilaria in the concerned areas. Result : Since the records in the NanfangCaomuZhuang(南方草木狀) written in 304 saying that Aquilariae Lignum was produced in Vietnam and had white flowers, Vietnam had led production and trading of Aquilariae Lignum until Qing Dynasty(淸代). Even though Thailand traded Aquilariae Lignum during Qing Dynasty, however, the volume was at a low level. Aquilariae Lignum from southern Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia was rated as low quality and low-priced because of its fishy smell and strong flavor. Conclusion : These results show that the origin of Aquilariae Lignum comes from Vietnam and this species is distinguished from the ones of Indodesia or Malaysia.
Effects of Rhodiola Rosea on Brain Edema and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expressions Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the Rat
Ryu, Sa-Hyun ; Lee, Joon-Suk ; Shin, Jung-Won ; Kim, Seong-Joon ; Sohn, Nak-Won ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 169~180
Objectives : This study aimed at evaluation of the effects of Rhodiola rosea on brain edema and expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) related to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Methods : Brain edema following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was induced by the stereotaxic intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase type VII in rats (Sprague-Dawley). Then ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea was treated once a day for 3 days. Brain edema % and water contents, and BBB leakage were examined. Immunohistochemistry was processed for MMP-9, MMP-12, and iNOS expressions in the brain sections and each immuno-labeled cells were analyzed with image analysis software. Results : 1. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced brain edema following ICH in rats significantly. 2. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced excessive brain tissue water contents following ICH in rats significantly. 3. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced BBB leakage in the cerebral cortex following ICH in rats. 4. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced cellular edema of neurons in peri-hematoma and the cerebral cortex following ICH in rats significantly. 5. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced MMP-9 positive cells in the cerebral cortex following ICH in rats significantly. 6. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced MMP-12 positive vessels in the cerebral cortex following ICH in rats significantly. 7. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced iNOS positive cells in the cerebral cortex and external capsule following ICH in rats significantly. Conclusions : These results suggest that Rhodiola rosea reveals protective effect against brain edema and cytotoxic edema of neurons by means of down-regulation of MMPs and iNOS expressions, and inhibition of BBB leakage.
A Study on the Anti-microbial Effect on S. mutans and Anti-oxidant Effect of Zanthoxylum pericarpium Extract
Lee, Sang-Gon ; Park, Chan-Ik ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 181~185
Objectives : The Zanthoxylum pericarpium has been used as oriental spicy seasoning and a medicinal plant from old times. This study was performed to determine the anti-oxidant efficacy of Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract and the anti-microbial effects. Methods : We got Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract using PSE (pressurized solvent extraction) method. The anti-microbial effect of Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract was assessed on Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans) and anti-oxidant effect of the extract was assessed by measuring DPPH radical scavenging activity and SOD like activity. Results : 1. Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract had high anti-microbial activity on S. mutans. 2. DPPH radical scavenging activity significantly increased in the Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract. 3. SOD like activity also significantly increased in the Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract. Conclusions : The PSE extract from Zanthoxylum pericarpium has good anti-microbial and anti-oxidant effects in a concentration-dependent manner.
Comparative analysis on immune response of combination with Astragali Radix and Cinnamomi Cortex
Jung, Da-Young ; Ha, Hye-Kyung ; Lee, Ho-Young ; Lee, Nam-Hun ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 26, issue 4, 2011, Pages 187~194
Objective : Astragali Radix (AR) and Cinnamomi Cortex (CC) are used to enhance immune response in Asian traditional medicine. Immuno-potentiation of the combination of AR and CC were evaluated on the cellular and humoral immune response using murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and OVA-immunized mice. Methods : This study was designed to investigate the immuno-potentiative effects of AR, CC, and AR with CC on nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells and proliferation and production levels of Intereukin-2 (IL-2) in mouse splenocytes. In addition, we evaluated the plasma-specific antibody responses and splenocyte proliferation on ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized mice treated with herbal extracts. Results : Combination treatment with AR and CC increased nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells and IL-2 level in splenocytes (p<0.001). Combination of AR and CC significantly enhanced the Concanavalin A- (Con A ; T cell mitogen) and lipopolysaccharide-(LPS ; B cell mitogen) induced splenocyte proliferation on the OVA-immunized mice. Combination of AR and CC also significantly enhanced plasma levels of OVA-specific IgG (p<0.01), IgG1 (p<0.05) and total IgM (p<0.01) compared with the OVA-immunized control group. Conclusion : These results suggest that combination of AR and CC could be used as therapeutic profile on activation of immune response.