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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korea Journal of Herbology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Association of Herbology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Nov 2012
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Sep 2012
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Jul 2012
Volume 27, Issue 3 - May 2012
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Mar 2012
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Current Status of Prescribed Drugs in Oriental Health Insurance and their Improvement
Kwon, Yong-Chan ; Yoo, Wang-Keun ; Seo, Bu-Il ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 1~16
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.1
Objective : To investigate the current status of prescription drugs in Oriental medical institutes and to draw up a future plan for the revitalization of Oriental medical health insurance, this survey has been performed. Method : The survey has been made with 321 doctors working at Oriental medical institutes in Daegu and Kyungbuk areas for a period of 3 month from June 1, 2010 until September 1, 2010. Result : 1. When it comes to the current status of the use of herbal drugs in Oriental Health insurance, most of doctors surveyed prescribe insurance drugs, and they prescribe insurance drugs to patients, who are less than 20% of total patients visiting their clinics. 2. The awareness of Herbal Health Care Drugs is investigated. When it comes to the understanding of the difference between insurance drugs(powder type drugs) and granular type drugs, doctors admit that they differ only in one aspect, whether or not their being covered by health insurance. Based on the survey results on the understanding of insurance coverage of granular type drugs, doctors, even though they long for granular type drugs to be accepted as insurance drugs, are worrying whether the number of outpatients might dwindle due to increased insurance co-payments. They also point out that the biggest obstacles in the expansion of the granular type drugs as insurance drugs are the lack of understanding of the government and the objection of the Health Insurance Review and Assesment service (HIRA) for fear of increased insurance claims. 3. Upon investigation on Oriental medicine doctors' understandings of herbal pharmaceutical industry, it is found that doctors' responses on pharmaceutical industry are not all positive ones('new product development and neglect of R&D infrastructure' and 'smallness of industry'). When it is investigated what area needs the greatest improvement in herbal pharmaceutical industry, 'securing sufficient capital, good manufacturing, and strengthening quality control', is the highest. 4. When it is asked what are the most needed in order to improve herbal health insurance medicine, responses such as 'the increase in the accessibility to and the utilization of Oriental medical clinics through the diversification of the means of prescriptions', 'the improvement of insurance benefits(cap adjustments)', 'increase the proportion of high quality medicinal plants', 'the ceiling of co-payments(deductible) at 20,000 won or more', 'expansion of the choices of formulations', 'formulational expansions of tablets and pills', and finally 'admittance and expansion of granular type drug as insurance drug' are the highest. 5. Upon investigating the general characteristics of the current status of the usage of Oriental health care herbal drugs, the followings are observed. First, the frequency of use of health insurance drugs by the doctors who use health insurance with general characteristics shows similar differences in case of total monthly sales amount (p<0.001), average number of daily patients (p<0.05). Secondly, as to the willingness of the expanded usage of insurance drugs, similar differences are observed in case of total monthly sales amount (p<0.05). 6. Upon investigating the general characteristics of the perception of Herbal health care drugs, the followings are observed. First, inspecting general characteristics and insurance claims due to increased co-payments(deductible amount) reveals similar differences in case of working period (p<0.01) and in case of total monthly sales amount (p <0.01). Secondly, inspecting general characteristics and the obstacles that hinder granular type drugs from being accepted as health care insurance drugs shows similar differences in case of working period (p<0.05). 7. Upon investigating the general characteristics of the understanding of Oriental Herbal pharmaceutical companies, the followings are observed. First, opinions on the general characteristics of pharmaceutical companies, when examined with variance analysis, shows similar differences in case of total monthly sales amount (p<0.05). Secondly, when opinions are examined on general characteristics and the problems of herbal pharmaceutical companies, similar differences are found in case of working period (p<0.01) and in case of total monthly sales amount (p<0.001). Lastly, opinions on the general characteristics and reforms of pharmaceutical companies, similar differences are observed in case of working period (p<0.001). 8. Upon investigating the general characteristics of the improvement of insurance Herbal drugs, the followings are observed. First, regarding general characteristics and insurance benefits, similar differences are observed in case of working period (p<0.05), in case of total monthly sales amount (p<0.05), and in case of average number of daily patients (p<0.01). Secondly, opinions on the general characteristics and the needs for the improvement of Herbal insurance drugs are examined in 5 different aspects, which are the approval of granular type drugs as insurance drugs, the expanded practices of the number of prescription insurance drugs, the needs of a variety of formulations, the needs of TFT of which numbers of Oriental medical doctors are members for the revision of the existing system, and the needs of adjusting the current ceiling of the fixed amount and the fixed rate. When processed by the analysis of variance, the results show similar differences in case of average number of daily patients (p<0.01). Conclusion : From the results of this study the first measures to take are, to reform overall insurance benefit system, including insurance co-payment system(fixed rate cap adjustment), to expand the number of the herbal drugs to be prescribed matching with insurance benefit accordingly, and to revitalize herbal medicine insurance system through the change of various formulations. In addition, it is recommended to improve the effectiveness of herbal medicine by making plans to enhance the efficacy of herbal medicine and by enabling small pharmaceutical companies to outgrow themselves.
A herbological study on the native plants of Dokdo island
Roh, Seong-Soo ; Seo, Bu-Il ; Park, Ji-Ha ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 17~24
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.17
Objective : For the purpose of investigating the herbal resources of Dokdo island, this study was designed. Method : For the first time, we searched the native plants of Dokdo island from research data. And we examined herbological books on the plants of Dokdo island. Result : The native herbaceous plants in Dokdo island were 27 family and 73 species, and the medicinal plants were 49 species among them. The woody plants in Dokdo island were 12 family and 13 species, and the medicinal plants were 10 species among them. The main medicinal parts of medicinal plants were the whole body of herbs, roots, and seeds in order. The herbal medicines with cold or cool nature were 45 species, they took the top nature of the herbal medicines. According to the properties and principal action of native herbal medicines in Dokdo island, the major parts were classified into drugs for clearing away heat, eliminating toxin, activating blood flow and removing blood stasis, urination, removing heat from the blood and stopping of bleeding. The number of native herbal medicines with small toxicity in Dokdo island were 7 species. Conclusion : For the purpose of preserving the native plants of Dokdo island, we should recognize not only medical benefits but also matters that demand special attention.
A Research on Management System of Herbal Medicine in Common Use for Food and Medicine
Kweon, Kee-Tae ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 25~29
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.25
Objectives : This article reviews a solution preventing the illegal distribution of herbal medicine in common use for food and medicine and risks on public health by conducting safety management of food and medicine. Also, this article would like to contribute to improvement of public health treating diseases in compliance with accurate diagnosis and prescription of Oriental Medicine Doctor("OMD")'s. Methods : An approach in this research can be categorized into two : first, to examine the current administrative situation and problems of herbal medicine in common use for food and medicine based on policy documents of Ministry of Health and Welfare and Korea Food and Drug Adminstration("KFDA") and academic articles of the herbal medicine;second, to find reasonable administrative solutions to solve the problems. Solutions : A solution is to strengthen the management level of herbal medicine in common use for food and medicine by selecting 117 items as target items requiring concentrated management. In case herbal medicine is imported for food, KFDA strengthens the quality management level of herbal medicine by making use of inspection frequency at random, collecting and verifying herbal medicine on the market. However, KFDA decides to maintain current different quality specification system of food and medicine reflecting a civil complaint that quality specification of food and medicine should separately managed according to the purpose of use. Herbal medicine as medicine that is functioned as treating diseases and alleviating symptoms, unlike herbal medicine for food, can cure all kinds of diseases by recovering inner balance of human body, making use of other properties of herbal medicine. Medicine has its own properties. If a doctor uses properties of medicine appropriately, he cures diseases. If a doctor uses herbal medicine inappropriately. he may damage human body. Thus, whether side effects of medicine depend on a doctor who uses herbal medicine. Conclusions : All herbal medicine will be supplied into the market after strict safety control of manufacturers of herbal medicine according to the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act, beginning in April, 2012. Thus, people can take safer and more reliable herbal medicine through strengthening safety management of herbal medicine and improving quality and transparency in the distribution system. Herbal medicine should appropriately be prescribed by licensed OMD because herbal medicine is used to treat diseases and alleviate symptoms, unlike herbal medicine for food.
A herbological study on the wild edible plants of Ulleung island
Seo, Bu-Il ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 31~36
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.31
Objective : For the purpose of making use the wild edible plants of Ulleung island smoothly, this study was designed. Method : For the first time, I searched the wild edible plants of Ulleung island from various data. And I examined herbological books and research papers on the wild edible plants of Ulleung island. Result : The herbaceous plants in Ulleung island were 12 family and 22 species, Compositae and Liliaceae plants take the highest number of them. The woody plants in Ulleung island were 1 family(Araliaceae) and 2 species. The herbal medicines that originated from the wild edible greens of Ulleung island were 25 species. The herbal medicines that have the effects of clearing away heat(淸熱), eliminating toxin(解毒), subduing swelling(消腫) and promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis(活血祛瘀) take the highest number of the effects of these herbal medicines. Conclusion : For the purpose of making use the wild edible plants of Ulleung island smoothly, we should recognize not only medical benefits but also matters that pay special attention.
Study of Antioxidant Effects of Platycladi Semen on Male Reproductive cells
Kim, Ju-Sung ; Hong, Min-Jung ; Kim, Do-Rim ; Park, Eun-Hwa ; Chang, Mun-Seog ; Park, Seong-Kyu ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 37~42
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.37
Objectives : The purpose of this study is to examine the antioxidant effects on male mouse reproductive cells of the extract of Platycladi Semen. Methods : The extract was studied for diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, cell viability by a modified MTT assay, the effects on
-induced cytotoxicity by MTT assay, lipid peroxidation by malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and super oxide dismutase (SOD), respectively. Results : The results showed that the extract scavenged DPPH radical in a dose-dependent manner by up to 74.87%. The cell viability of the extract was within 72~96% on Leydig cells and GC-2 cells at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 ug/ml. The hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity of Leydig cells was protected to 72.09% by the extract at concentration of 100
. The hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation of MDA formation was decreased to 1.80 and 1.65 nmoles/mg protein by the extract at concentrations of 50 and 100
. The extract at all concentrations, SOD activity was not significantly changed. Conclusions : In conclusion, the extract of Platycladi Semen has antioxidant effects on Leydig cells and protect male reproductive system against oxidative stress.
The research of pharmacological activation for Sanguisorbae Radix Fractions as cosmetic material
Jang, Young-Ah ; Yeo, Shin-Il ; Lee, Jin-Tae ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 43~46
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.43
Objectives : Sanguisorbae Radix(SO) is a plant in the family Rosaceae, which grows widely in open fields Korea. It has been used as traditional medicine for thousands of years, as a treatment for anti-inflammatory and it is widely used for throat infection, tonsilitis, conjuctivitis and lymphadentis. In this study, investigated skin antiaging and anti-bacterial by using SO fractions water, acetone and butanol, chloroform. Methods : The effects of anti-microbial on SO fractions and elastase inhibition activity, collagenase inhibition activity were experimented. Results : 1. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. 2. The elastase inhibition rate and collagenase inhibition rate of the water fraction of SO was the highest other factions. Conclusions : From the above results, it was confirmed the SO has sufficient potentiality applying itself to industry and also SO can be utilized as antimicrobial natural materials and antiaging cosmetics.
Effects of Ginseng Radix on sperm count and CatSper3, 4 proteins expression in Male Mice
Park, Eun-Hwa ; Kim, Do-Rim ; Park, Seong-Kyu ; Chang, Mun-Seog ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 47~51
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.47
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive effect of Ginseng radix on male mice. Methods : Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups ; normal group (vehicle-treated, n=8), Ginseng radix treatment group (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg, n=8). Ginseng radix extract was treated for 5 weeks. After treatment each group was examined for assessment of sperm count and CatSper protein expression using computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) system and the immunofluorescence. Results : Sperm count of normal and Ginseng radix extract treated group were 287.57 vs. 371.62, 364.83,
, respectively. The CatSper3, 4 proteins expression of Ginseng radix treated group were significantly increased than that of normal group. Conclusions : These findings suggest that the Ginseng radix improves male reproductive function by increasing sperm count and CatSper protein expression.
Ethyl acetate fraction of GGEx18 modulates fatty acid β-oxidizing enzymes
Joo, Byung-Soo ; Lee, Hee-Young ; Lee, Hye-Rim ; Yoon, Mi-Chung ; Seo, Bu-Il ; Kim, Beom-Hoi ; Shin, Soon-Shik ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 53~59
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.53
Objectives : This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the GGEx18 ethyl acetate fraction (EF) on lipid accumulation and gene expression of fatty acid-oxidizing enzymes using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, and NMu2Li liver cells. Methods : PPAR
, AMPK and UCPs transactivation was examined in NMu2Li hepatocytes, C2C12 myocytes, and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using transient transfection assays. Results : 1. Compared with control, EF significantly increased the mRNA expression of VLCAD in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 2. Compared with control, EF (0.1
) significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3. EF significantly increased the mRNA expression of AMPK
2 and PPAR
in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells compared with control. 4. EF significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid
-oxidation, such as thiolase, MCAD, and CPT-1 in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells compared with control. 5. EF significantly increased the mRNA expression of UCP2 involved in energy expenditure in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells compared with control. 6. Compared with control, EF (10
) significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. 7. EF (10
) significantly increased the mRNA expression of ACOX, HD, VLCAD and MCAD in NMu2Li liver cells compared with control. Conclusions : These results suggest that EF may prevent obesity by increasing the mRNA expression of mitochondrial fatty acid
-oxidizing enzymes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, by not only regulating the fatty acid oxidation through activation of AMPK and PPAR
, but also increasing the UCP2 mRNA expression in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, and by stimulating the mRNA expression of fatty acid-oxidizing enzymes in NMu2Li liver cells.
Neuroprotective effect of the water extract of Angelicae Gigantis Radix Palva in ischemic stroke rats
Park, Ki-Ho ; Oh, Tae-Woo ; Park, Yong-Ki ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 61~67
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.61
Objective : Angelica Gigas Nakai is a popular oriental medicine used for the treatment of vascular diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate neuroprotective effect of the water extract of Anelicae Gigantis Radix Palva (AG) in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)-induced ischemic rats via the regulation of angiogenesis-related molecules. Methods : Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally administrated with AG water extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 mg/kg body weight after tMCAO (90 min occlusion). reperfusion for 24 hr infarction volumes were measured by 2,3,5-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Brain tissues were observed neuronal cell injuries by nissl staining, and also brain-blood barrier (BBB) permeability change by evans blue. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Tie-2 receptor protein in brain tissues was determined by western blot. Results : AG water extract significantly reduced infarction volume in ischemic brains of rats, degradation of neuronal cell, BBB permeability and expression of VEGF protein dose-dependently. Ang-1 protein was increased dose-dependantly, not significantly. Conclusion : This study suggests that AG water extract shows neuroprotective effect by preventing BBB breakdown, with regulating angiogenesis factor VEGF and Ang-1.
Mountain cultivated ginseng water boiled extract decreases blood glucose level and improves lipid metabolism in male db/db mice
Kim, Eung-Lae ; Kim, Chang-Sik ; Lee, Hee-Young ; Lee, Hye-Rim ; Kim, Eung-Yeol ; Yoon, Mi-Chung ; Shin, Soon-Shik ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 69~75
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.69
Objectives : We investigated the effects of mountain cultivated ginseng water boiled extract(MCG) on blood glucose and insulin levels, and examined whether lipid metabolism are improved by it in male db/db mice(a murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus). Methods : 9 weeks old, male db/db mice were divided into 5 groups : C57BL/6J normal, control, MCG-250mg/kg (MCG-1), MCG-500mg/kg(MCG-2) and MCG-1000mg/kg(MCG-3). After mice were treated with MCG for 8 weeks, we measured body weight, food intake, fat weight, visceral organ weight and blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels. Results : 1. We found no difference in body weight, food intake, fat weight and visceral organ weight among the animal groups. 2. Compared with controls, MCG-treated mice had lower blood glucose level and higher blood insulin levels, the magnitude of which was prominent in MCG-2. 3. Compared with controls, MCG-treated mice had lower LDL-cholesterol and higher HDL-cholesterol levels. 4. Compared with controls, MCG-treated mice had blood triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, the magnitude of which was prominent in MCG-2. 5. Blood AST and ALT concentrations were not changed by MCG, indicating MCG do not show any toxic effects. Conclusions : These results demonstrate that MCG effectively increases blood insulin level and decreases blood glucose level, blood lipid levels, and prevents and improves diabetic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease.
Effects of the water extract from Achyranthis Radix on serum-deprivation-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and transient cerebral middle artery occlusion-induced ischemic brains of rats
Oh, Tae-Woo ; Park, Ki-Ho ; Lee, Mi-Young ; Choi, Go-Ya ; Park, Yong-Ki ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 77~83
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.77
Objectives : This work was designed to investigate the effect of The root of Achyranthes japonica Nakai (AJN) water extract on serum deprivation reperfusion-induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)-induced ischemic brains of rats. Methods : Apoptosis in PC12 cells was induced by serum deprivation and reperfusion. The cells were treated with AJN water extract at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml for 24 hr after inducing the apoptosis. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay. The expression of caspase-3 protein was determined by Western blot. Ischemic brains were prepared from tMCAO-induced ischemic rats after oral administration with AJN at dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and then brain infarction was measured by TTC staining. Results : AJN significantly increased the cell viability in apoptocic-induced PC-12 cells, and also decreased the expression of caspase-3 protein. Furthermore, the administration of AJN significantly inhibited tMCAO-induced brain infarction in rats. Conclusions : Our results suggest that AJN extract has a neuroprotective property via suppressing the apoptosis in PC12 cells and the infarction of ischemic brains.
Protective Effect of Myeongganbo Extract on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury
Kim, Hong-Jun ; Mok, Ji-Ye ; Park, Kwang-Hyun ; Jeon, In-Hwa ; Kim, Hyeon-Soo ; Hwang, Sung-Yeoun ; Jang, Seon-Il ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 85~91
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.85
Objective : Myeongganbo (MGB) composited with Hovenia Semen, Puerariae Radix and Dioscoreae Rhizoma is the prescription for protection of liver function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MGB extract against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury in mice. Methods : MGB extract was prepared by extracting with hot distilled water. The extract was freeze-dried following filtration through vacuum distillation system. Mice fasted for overnight were orally administrated with or without MGB extract of different doses (25-200 mg/kg/day). After 30 min, APAP was orally applied with a single dose (400 mg/kg). The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in plasmas of mice. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase GSH-px), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and tumor necrosis factor-
) level were investigated in liver homogenates. Liver sections were stained with haematoxylin & eosin, anti-TNF-
and anti-mouse COX-2 antibodies. Results : APAP treatment remarkably increased AST and ALT activities in plasma but inhibited GSH and GSH-px levels in liver homogenates. Also, liver injury was significantly accelerated by APAP treatment. Furthermore, APAP remarkably elevated COX-2 activity and TNF-
levels in liver homogenates. However, administration of MGB extract was able to counteract these effects. Histological studies provided supportive evidence for biochemical and molecular analysis Conclusions : These results suggest that MGB extract has potent hepatoprotective effect against APAP-induced liver injury, these properties may contribute to liver disease care.
Study on Effects of Anti-oxidant and Viscoelastic on Emulsion by the Extract of Astragalus membranaceus
Park, Chan-Ik ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 27, issue 2, 2012, Pages 93~97
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2012.27.2.93
Objectives : The Astragalus membranaceus has been used to diuretic, tonic, anti-viral, anti-oxidant activities in oriental herb medicine, and in each experiment, proved in this effects. Root of A. membranaceus includes according to flavonoid, saponin, polysaccharide, thus it has been studied for anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer activities. However, previous researches have been performed with being limited mainly to food industry. The present study was conducted anti-oxidative activity of A. membranaceus extracts. In addition, The objective of the present study was to determine the possibility for the application of emulsions in the development of A. membranaceus for cosmetics. Methods : In this study, aimed SOD like activity of A. membranaceus extract, effects of A. membranaceus extract on viscoelastic properties of emulsion was measured using rheometer. Results : In the results, 1, 3-butylene glycol extract of A. membranaceus efficiently reduce the active oxygen, SOD like activity of more than 40% decrement depend on concentration. And A. membranaceus extract increase the modulus of elasticity of emulsion, therefore A. membranaceus extract have not influence on stability loss. As such, the A. membranaceus extracts will remain stable when applied to emulsions or skin products. Conclusions : In consequence of this study, A. membranaceus extract can be effectively used in cosmetic emulsions when the relation between natural product extracts and formulation of cosmetics is elucidated. It is highly recommended that rheology be applied to determine the optimal extract concentration for cosmetic formulations.