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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korea Journal of Herbology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Association of Herbology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Nov 2014
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Jul 2014
Volume 29, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
The influences of extraction time and pressure on the chemical characteristics of Gyejibokryeong-hwan decoctions
Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Lee, Nari ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ; Seo, Chang-Seob ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.1.
Objectives : This study was aimed to compare Gyejibokryeong-hwan (GBH) decoctions produced using different pressure levels for various extraction times to find the optimal extraction conditions through extraction yield, total soluble solids content (TSSC), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), and the contents of chemical compounds. Methods : Decoctions of GBH were prepared under the pressure levels of 0 or
for 30-180 min using water as extraction solvent. The extraction yield, TSSC, and pH were measured, and the amounts of the chemical compounds were determined using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector. Results : The higher pressure and longer extraction time increased the values of TSSC and extraction yield, while decreased the pH value. The decoctions produced in 180 min by pressurized method and produced in 150 min by non-pressurized method showed maximum values of extraction yield and TSSC with minimum value of pH. The amounts of chemical compounds showed variations in pressurized and non-pressurized decoction during overall extraction times. The influences of pressure and extraction time on extraction yield, TSSC, pH, and the contents of chemical compounds were confirmed by regression analysis, which showed that all extraction values were significantly affected by at least one of two extraction factors, pressure and extraction time. Conclusions : This study suggests that the pressure and extraction time can significantly affect the extraction efficiency of components from GBH decoctions. However, optimal extraction conditions could not be chosen due to the variation of the amounts of chemical compounds.
Synergistic combination effect of anti-obesity in the extracts of Phyllostachys pubescence Mael and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi
Kang, Young Min ; Kim, Seung-Hyung ; Lee, Young-Cheol ; Kim, Ho Kyoung ; Kim, Dong-Seon ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 7~13
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.7.
Objectives : Anti-obesity drugs that have been developed so far have limited efficacies and considerable adverse effects affecting tolerability and safety. Therefore, most anti-obesity durgs have been withdrawn. We tried to develop anti-obesity agent by combinations from herbs that are used in food ingredients as well as in traditional medicines. Methods : The 80% (v/v) ethanol extracts from Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescence) leaf (BL) and Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) and their 1:1 combination (BLSB) was evaluated on high fat diet induced obese mice compared to Omega-3 as a positive control. The mice were divided into six groups (n=5), one group fed a normal diet (ND), and the others fed a high fat diets for eight weeks. Two weeks after starting feeding the diets, the high fat diet groups were orally administered vehicle and Omega-3, BL, SB, and BLSB at dosage of 200 mg/kg/day for six weeks. All groups were assayed for body weights, food efficiency ratio, blood biochemistry parameters, and organic tissue weights. Results : BLSB group showed significant reductions in body weight gain and fat weights of liver and epididymal adipose tissue compared to BL or SB alone as well as control. Total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly decreased, and HDL-cholesterol level increased. In liver tissue, macrovesicular steaotisis was remarkably improved and its fat cell size was also significantly decreased. Conclusions : These results suggested that a combination preparation of bamboo leaf and S. baicalensis has anti-obesity effect and have synergistic effect compared to bamboo leaf or S. baicalesis.
Protective effects of Commiphora myrrha on acute pancreatitis
Kim, Dong-Goo ; Bae, Gi-Sang ; Choi, Sun Bok ; Jo, Il-Joo ; Shin, Joon-Yeon ; Lee, Sung-Kon ; Kim, Myoung-Jin ; Kim, Min-Jun ; Choo, Gab-Chul ; Song, Ho-Joon ; Park, Sung-Joo ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 15~20
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.15.
Objectives : Commiphora myrrha (CM) has been used in traditional medicine for treating disease such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, diabetes and osteoarthritis. However, the protective effects of CM on acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of CM water extract on cerulein-induced AP. Methods : AP was induced in mice via intraperitoneal injection of supramaximal concentrations of the stable cholecystokinin analogue cerulein (
) every hour for 6 times. Water extract of CM (0.1, 0.2, or 0.5 g/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally 1 h prior to the first injection of cerulein. The mice were killed at 6 h after the final cerulein injection. Pancreas was rapidly removed for morphologic and histochemical examination, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. Blood samples were taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activities. Results : Administration of CM significantly inhibited pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, pancreas histological injury. And CM administration inhibited the serum digestive enzyme elevation such as amylase and lipase on cerulein-induced pancreatitis. In addition, Pancreas MPO activity which indicates neutrophil infiltration was inhibited by CM extract on cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Conclusions : In conclusion, our results could suggest that pre-treatment of CM reduces the severity of cerulein-induced AP. Therefore, CM could be used as a protective agent against AP. Also, this study could give a clinical basis that CM could be a drug or agent to prevent AP.
The anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum coreanum on lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory response on RAW 264.7 cells
Kim, Min-Jun ; Bae, Gi-Sang ; Choi, Sun Bok ; Jo, Il-Joo ; Kim, Dong-Goo ; Shin, Joon-Yeon ; Lee, Sung-Kon ; Kim, Myoung-Jin ; Park, Sung-Joo ; Song, Ho-Joon ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 21~26
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.21.
Objectives : Taraxacum coreanum (TC) have been used as a traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases and anti-oxidant effect in Korea. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of TC water extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation is not well-known. Therefore, this study was performed to identify the anti-inflammatory effect of TC on LPS induced inflammatory. Methods : RAW 264.7 cells were treated with 500 ng/mL of LPS. Water extracts of TC (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 mg/ml) was treated 1 h prior to LPS. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Levels of nitric oxide (NO) were measured with Griess reagent and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). We also examined molecular mechanisms such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-B (
) activation by western blot. Results : Water Extract from TC itself did not have any cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 cells. TC treatment inhibited the production of NO production, and pro-inflamamtory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and
on protein and mRNA levels. In addition, TC treatment inhibited the LPS-induced activation of MAPKs such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 kinases (p38), c-Jun
-terminal kinase (JNK) and
. Conclusions : In summary, our result suggest that treatment of TC could reduce the LPS-induced inflammation. Thereby, TC could be used as a protective agent against inflammation. Also, this study could give a clinical basis that TC could be a drug or agent to prevent inflammation.
Effects of Imperatae Rhizoma Extract on T helper 2 cell differentiation
Kim, Bok-Kyu ; Lim, Jong-Soon ; Kil, Ki-Jung ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 27~33
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.27.
Objectives : The aims of this study were to exploring the therapeutic effect of Imperatae Rhizoma Extract(IRE) on Asthma. Methods : To investigate biological modulation activities of IRE, we conducted the cell-based assay whether IRE could regulate T helper 2 cells activity with EL4 T cells and mouse splenocytes, and followed animal study to conform the efficacy of their therapeutic potential on OVA-induced asthmatic mouse. Results : In cell study, IRE suppress the nuclear translocation of GATA binding protein-3 protein in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/Ionomycin-stimulated EL4 T cells and Interleukine(IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 production in splenocytes at concentration dependent manner. In animal study, IRE-treated groups both 100mg/ml and 200mg/ml improve airway hypersensitibility reaction(AHR) response to methacholine about 30% and 40% with positive control group. Peritoneal blood analysis reveal that eosinophil number and ovalbumin-specific IgE is reduced by IRE treatment. Cell number of eosinophil is also reduced in bronchoalveolar lavage of IRE group like to peritoneal cell and real time-polymerase chain reaction data show that expression levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 were down regulated in lung tissue. Finally, histological analysis indicate that IRE protect the bronchial tissue damages through the accumulation of inflammatory cells and collagen, and these effect may be cause by interfering Th2 cells activity. Conclusions : Our data represent that IRE potentiates therapeutic activities to the allergic diseases such as asthma by regulating Th2 cells differentiation.
Identification of Marker Nucleotides for the Molecular Authentication of Arisaematis Rhizoma Based on the DNA Barcode Sequences
Kim, Wook Jin ; Lee, Young Mi ; Ji, Yunui ; Kang, Young Min ; Choi, Goya ; Kim, Ho Kyoung ; Moon, Byeong Cheol ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 35~43
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.35.
Objectives : Official Arisaematis Rhizoma is described only three species, Arisaema amurnse, Arisaema erubescens, and Arisaema heterophyllum, in national Pharmacopoeia. However, other Arisaema species, Arisaema ringens, Arisaema takesimense and Arisaema serratum, also have been distributed as an inauthentic Arisaematis Rhizoma in the herbal market. To develop a reliable molecular authentication method for Arisaematis Rhizoma in species level, we analyzed DNA barcode regions using six Arisaema species. Methods : Thirty-eight samples of six Arisaema plants species (A. amurense, A. amurense f. serratum, A. heterophyllum, A. takesimense, and A. serratum) were collected from different habitate and nucleotide sequences of DNA barcode regions (rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL gene) were analyzed after PCR amplification. The species-specific sequences and phylogenetic relations were estimated using entire sequences of three DNA barcodes based on the analysis of ClastalW and UPGMA, respectively. Results : The comparative analysis of DNA barcode sequences were revealed inter-species specific nucleotides to distinguish the medicinal plant of Arisaema Rhizoma in species levels excluding between A. amurense and its subspecies (A. amurense f. serratum) and A. takesimense and A. serratum, respectively. However, we obtained sequence differences enough to discriminate authentic and inauthentic Arisaematis Rhizoma. Therefore, we suggest that these SNP type molecular genetic markers were an reliable method avaliable to identify official herbal medicines. Conclusions : These marker nucleotides could be useful to identify the official herbal medicines by providing definitive information that can identify original medicinal plant and distinguish from inauthentic adulterants and substitutes.
Development of Molecular Marker for the authentication of Patriniae Radix by the analysis of DNA barcodes
Kim, Wook Jin ; Ji, Yunui ; Lee, Young Mi ; Kang, Young Min ; Choi, Goya ; Kim, Ho Kyoung ; Moon, Byeong Cheol ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 45~53
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.45.
Objectives : Due to the morphological similarity of in the roots of herbal medicine, the official herbal medicine is very difficult to authenticate between the original plants of Patriniae Radix and two adulterant Patrinia species. Therefore, we introduced DNA barcode analysis to establish a powerful tool for the authentication of Patriniae Radix from its adulterants. Methods : To analyze DNA barcode regions, genomic DNA was extracted from twenty-nine specimens of Patrinia scabiosaefolia, Patrinia villosa, Patrinia saniculifolia, and Patrinia rupestris, and internal transcribed spacer 2(ITS2), matK and rbcL genes were amplified. For identification of species specific sequences, a comparative analysis was performed by the ClastalW based on entire sequences of ITS2, matK and rbcL genes, respectively. Results : In comparison of three DNA barcode sequences, we identified 22, 22, and 12 species-specific nucleotides enough to distinguish each four species from ITS2, matK and rbcL gene, respectively. The sequence differences at the corresponding positions were available genetic marker nucleotides to discriminate the correct species among analyzed four species. These results indicated that comparative analysis of ITS2, matK and rbcL genes were useful genetic markers to authenticate Patriniae Radix. Conclusions : The marker nucleotides enough to distinguish P. scabiosaefolia, P. villosa, P. saniculifolia, and P. rupestris, were obtained at 22 SNP marker nucleotides from ITS2 and matK DNA barcode sequences, but they were confirmed at 12 SNP marker nucleotides from rbcL. These differences could be used to authenticate Patriniae Radix from its adulterants as well as discriminating each four species.
A study of functional components antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of Gastrodiae Rhizoma by steaming-drying cycles
Park, Jang-Pill ; Chu, Han-Na ; Kim, Jeong-Sang ; Kim, Kyeong-Ok ; Lee, Soong-In ; Jeong, Jong-Kil ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 55~62
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.55.
Objectives : The objective of this study is to determine the best numbers of steaming-drying cycles of Gastrodiae Rhizoma for both efficacy and taste. We investigated various characteristics among Gastrodiae Rhizoma samples (GSD1, GSD3, GSD5 and GSD7) through the number of steaming-drying cycles increased. Methods : Gastrodiae Rhizoma were steamed and dried at different repeated numbers. They were divided into samples (GSD1; steamed and dried once, GSD3; steamed and dried three times, GSD5; steamed and dried five times, GSD7; steamed and dried seven times) for experiment. They were extracted using water, freeze dried and powdered to analyze proximate composition, free sugar amount, functional components, antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation. Results : Proximate composition and the amount of free sugars of Gastrodiae Rhizoma did not have meaningful differences among samples. Phenolic and flavonoid content of samples were increased by increasing steaming-drying numbers. Gastrodin content had different values and GSD7 was the highest in comparison with others. Increasing steaming-drying numbers led to a increasing in radical and nitrate scavenging activity in samples. Regarding to sensory evaluation, GSD5 was selected as the best sample according to its highest hedonic score mean (5.54/7) among all samples for appearance, color, taste and overall acceptability. Conclusions : The results indicated that 5th-cycling sample was effective in views of functional components, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics. Moreover, it was suggested that steaming-drying process improved remarkably the effects of Gastrodiae Rhizoma.
The antioxidative and cytoprotective effect of Lonicerae japonicae Flos water extracts on the ultraviolet(UV)B-induced human HaCaT keratinocytes
Seo, Seung-Hee ; Bae, Gi-Sang ; Choi, Sun Bok ; Jo, Il-Joo ; Kim, Dong-Goo ; Shin, Joon-Yeon ; Song, Ho-Joon ; Park, Sung-Joo ; Choi, Mee-Ok ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 63~71
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.63.
Objectives : Lonicerae japonicae Flos(LJF) has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-rheumatoid properties. However, it is still largely unknown whether LJF inhibits the ultraviolet(UV)B-induced oxidative damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Therefore in this paper, we investigated the anti-oxidative capacity and protective effect of LJF against UVB-induced oxidative demage in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Methods : To evaluate the anti-oxidative activity of LJF extracts, we measured total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, antioxidant capacity, and superoxide scavenging activity. To give an oxidative stress to HaCaT cells, UVB was irradiated with
to HaCaT cells. To detect the protective effect of LJF against UVB, we measured cell viability, DNA fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In addition, we performed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to find a major component of LJF. Results : LJF contained phenolic and flavonoid contents, and showed the anti-oxidant and superoxide scavenging activity. The UVB-induced oxidative conditions led to the cell death, DNA fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, pretreatment with LJF reduced oxidative conditions, including inhibition of cell death, DNA fragmentation and ROS production. In addition, we found out chlorogenic acid as major component of LJF. Conclusions : These results could suggest that LJF contained anti-oxidative contents and exhibited protective effects against UVB on human HaCaT keratinocytes. And the effective compound of LJF which could show protective activities against UVB is chlorogenic acid. Thus, LJF and chlorogenic acid would be useful for the development of drug or cosmetics treating skin troubles.
Effects of Polygalae Radix on β-Amyloid Accumulation and Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Rats
Son, Young-Ha ; Kim, Sung-Jae ; Chung, Min-Chan ; Cho, Dong-Guk ; Cho, Woo-Sung ; Shin, Jung-Won ; Park, Dong-Il ; Sohn, Nak-Won ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 73~83
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.73.
Objectives : This study was investigated the effects of the root of Polygala tenuifolia (POL) on learning and memory impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Methods : Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was produced by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (pBCAO). POL was administered orally once a day (130 mg/kg of water-extract) for 28 days starting at 4 weeks after the pBCAO. The acquisition of learning and the retention of memory were tested on 9th week after the pBCAO using the Morris water maze. In addition, effects of POL on
generation and expressions of APP and BACE1 were observed in the hippocampus of rats. Results : POL significantly prolonged the swimming time spent in target quadrant and significantly reduced the swimming time spent in the quadrant far from the target. POL significantly increased the percentage of swim in the targer quadrant in the retention test, while POL was not effective on the escape latencies in the acquisition training trials. POL significantly reduced the levels of
in the cerebral cortex and the level of
in the hippocampus produced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. POL also significantly attenuated the up-regulation of APP and BACE1 expression in the hippocampus produced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Conclusions : The results show that POL alleviated memory deficit and up-regulation of
and BACE1 expressions in the hippocampus. This result suggests that POL may exert ameliorating effect on memory deficit through inhibition of
-secretase activity and
Effects of different parts of Angelica gigas Nakai on brain damages and neuronal death in transient middle artery occlusion/reperfusion-induced ischemic rats
Shin, Yong-Joon ; Park, Yong-Ki ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 85~93
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.85.
Objectives : We compared with the effects of different parts (root head, root body and hairy root) of Angelica gigas Nakai (Angelicae Gigantis Radix, AG) with on middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)-induced ischemic rats, and on LPS-induced inflammatory response in BV2 microglia. Methods : The 30% ethanol and water extracts of different parts of AG were prepared. Each extract (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally once in MCAO-induced ischemic rats. We measured infarction volumes by TTC staining, and investigated the expression of iNOS, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 by Western blot. BV2 cells were treated with each extract for 30 min, and then stimulated with LPS. The levels of NO was measured by Griess assay. The expression of iNOS, Cox-2 and proinflammatory cytokines (
, and IL-6) were determined RT-PCR and Western blot. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK was determined by Western blot. Results : Among different parts of AG, the 30% ethanol and water extracts of hairy root significantly decreased infarction volume in ischemic brains and inhibited the expression of iNOS, bax and caspase-3. The extracts of hairy root significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of NO,
and IL-6 in BV2 cells, and suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2. The hairy root extracts attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK in BV2 cells. Conclusions : Our results indicate that the root hairy of AG has a good neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in ischemic stroke compared to other parts.
Effects of GamiBangkeehwangkee-tang (fángjǐhuángqí-tāng) ethanol extract on Collagen-induced Rheumatoid Arthritis model of DBA/1 mice
Sim, Boo-Yong ; Choi, Hak-Joo ; Bak, Ji-Won ; Kim, Dong-Hee ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 95~102
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.95.
Objectives : The purpose of this study is to prove the effect of GamiBangkeehwangkee-tang (f
ng, BHT) ethanol extract on the immunity and rheumatoid arthritis related inflammatory cytokines. Methods : We checked viability in RAW 264.7 cell after treat by BHT. Then we measured inflammatory and immunity factors of DBA/1 mice with rheumatoid arthritis induced by collagen after BHT oral administration. Also, we checked micro-CT image, bone volume and bone inflammation ratio in micro-CT and structural parameter test. Results : BHT showed cell viability of 95% or higher in all concentration in RAW 264.7 cells. BHT treated group decreased level in serum of IgM and IgG test by 36% and 25% respectively. And BHT treated group showed significant decrease in WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocytes immune cell ratio in blood by 47%, 22%, 56% and 85% respectively. Also, BHT treated group decreased level in serum of
, IL-6, IL-17,
and hs-CRP tests by 29%, 33%, 32%, 24% and 56% respectively. Finally, BHT treated group showed increase ratio of bone volume that decrease ratio of bone inflammation. Conclusions : In this study, the results were observed rheumatoid arthritis factors cytokine decrease in serum. And BHT showed immunoglobulin and immune cells ratio decrease in serum and blood. Also, BHT depending on effects of inflammatory and immunity in hs-CRP test, micro-CT, structural parameter test. Thus, these results can used as a effective drug of BHT for inflammation and immunity.
Effect of Ecklonia cava Extracts Supplementation on cognitive ability in mice
Oh, Jae-Keun ; Song, Ki-Jae ; Ji, Mu-Yeop ; Yoon, Jin-Ho ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 103~109
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.103.
Objectives : The purpose of this study aimed to investigate that dieckol - isolated from Ecklonia cava - supplementation can improve cognitive ability in mice. Methods : 48-male mice(6 weeks old) were divided into four groups; High-Dieckol group(n=12), Low-Dieckol group(n=12), Placebo group(n=12), Control group(n=12) and they were administered orally 5 days per week for 4 weeks at the same time. We performed Morris water maze test, Passive avoidance test, Blood serotonin analysis. And there was examined on neurogenesis in dentate gyrus of hippocampus using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label proliferating cells. Results : The results are as follows; As a Morris water maze results, Trial duration was significantly decreased in high dieckol group comparing to placebo group and control group. Distance to target was significantly decreased in high dieckol group and low dieckol group comparing to placebo group and control group. Mean speed was significantly low in high dieckol group comparing to low dieckol group, placebo group and control group. As a Passive avoidance test results, latency time was significantly long in high dieckol group comparing to low dieckol group, placebo group and control group. BrdU cell count was significantly high in high dieckol group comparing to low dieckol group, placebo group and control group. Conclusions : As a conclusion, it is considered that dieckol supplementation might improve learning and cognitive ability.
The Antioxidant Activity of Cnidii Fructus and Torilis Fructus in Leydig cells
Oh, Ji Hoon ; Kim, Do Rim ; Park, Soo Yeon ; Chang, Mun Seog ; Park, Seong Kyu ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 111~116
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.111.
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to estimate the antioxidant activity of water extract of Cnidii Fructus (CF) and Torilis Fructus (TF) in Leydig cells. Methods : Free radical scavenging activity of CF and TF against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was determined spectrophotometrically. We investigated the effect of CF and TF in Leydig cells by MTT assay. The protective effects of CF and TF against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in Leydig cells. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase activity assays were performed in Leydig cells. Results : The results showed that CF scavenged DPPH radical in a dose-dependent manner by up to 81.2%, TF scavenged DPPH radical in a dose-dependent manner by up to 63.8%. CF showed cell viability as 121.0, 132.7, 126.6% in 5, 10,
concentrations. TF showed cell viability as 127.5, 111.8% in 5,
concentraions, respectively. The hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity of Leydig cells were protected to 86.3% by CF at concentration of
and protected to 83.5% by TF at concentration of
. Both CF and TF at all concentrations, SOD activity was not significantly changed. Catalase activity was significantly increased at 10,
concentrations of CF, respectively. TF's catalase activity showed no significant difference from that of the control. Conclusions : These results suggest that CF, as an antioxidant, protects Leydig cells in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. know that "Kwangjebikeup" played a role in settlement and spreading of foreign knowledge to civilians.
Anti-inflammatory effect of Sinhyowoldo-san Extract with regard to Pro-inflammatory Mediators in PMA plus A23187-induced Human Mast Cells
Wi, Gyeong ; Yang, Da-Wun ; Kang, Ok-Hwa ; Kim, Sung-Bae ; Mun, Su-Hyun ; Seo, Yun-Soo ; Kang, Da-Hye ; Lim, Jae-Soo ; Kim, Ma-Ryong ; Kwak, Nam-Won ; Kong, Ryong ; Kwon, Dong-Yeul ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 117~123
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.117.
Objectives : Sinhyowoldo-san (SHWDS) is said to be a traditional medicine used for shigellosis, abdominal pain, diarrhea. But mechanism of SHWDS mediated-modulation of immune function is not sufficiently understood. To ascertain the molecular mechanisms of SHWDS 70% EtOH extract on pharmacological and biochemical actions in inflammation, we researched the effect of pro-inflammatory mediators in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)+ A23187-activated human mast cell line (HMC-1). Methods : In the present research, cell viability was measured by MTS assay. pro-inflammatory cytokine production was measured by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis to analyze the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (
). The investigation focused on whether SHWDS inhibited the expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), MAPKs and
in PMA+A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. Results : SHWDS has no cytotoxicity at measured concentration (50, 100, and
). SHWDS (
) inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in PMA+ A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, SHWDS inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression. In activated HMC-1 cells, SHWDS suppressed phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK 1/2). Then, SHWDS suppressed activation of nuclear factor
in nuclear, degradation of IkB
in cytoplasm. Conclusions : We propose that SHWDS has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential, which may result from inhibition of ERK 1/2, JNK 1/2 phosphorylation and
activation, thereby decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes.
The Study of Anti-inflammatory Effect of Suryeon-hwan Water Extract in RAW 264.7 Cells
Yoon, Yeo-Hwan ; Kim, Sung-Bae ; Kang, Ok-Hwa ; Mun, Su-Hyun ; Seo, Yun-Soo ; Yang, Da-Wun ; Kang, Da-Hye ; Wi, Gyeong ; Lim, Jae-Soo ; Kim, Ma-Ryong ; Kwak, Nam-Won ; Kong, Ryong ; Kwon, Dong-Yeul ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 125~132
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.125.
Objectives : Suryeon-hwan (SRH) exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity with an unknown mechanism. However, there has been a lack of studies regarding the effects of SRH on the inflammatory activities and effector inflammatory disease mechanism about macrophage before is not known. So, the investigation focused on whether SRH inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin
) productions, as well as the expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Methods : Cells were treated with 200 ng/mL of LPS 30 min prior to the addition of SRH. Cell viability was measured by MTS assay. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by reacting cultured medium with Griess reagent. The content of level of cytokines (PGE, IL-6) in media from LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells was analyed by ELISA kit. The expression of COX-2, iNOS and MAPKs was investigated by Western blot, RT-PCR. Results : We found that SRH inhibited LPS-induced NO,
and IL-6 productions as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, SRH suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) activation. Conclusions : These results suggest that SRH has inhibitory effects on LPS-induced
, NO, and IL-6 production, as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in the murine macrophage. These inhibitory effects occur through blockades on the phosphorylation of MAPKs following activation.
Identification of 11 species of Paemo through each original plant and medicines
Lee, Seungho ; Ju, Youngsung ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 133~140
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.133.
Objectives : Paemo is a phlegm-resolving drug with cold properties and classified 5 kinds which come from 11 species of original plant. All the more, according to literature record, 20 species of original plant were used. As a natural result, these are easily to confuse and there are a lot of counterfeit product. So we are to present a differential standard of Paemo. Methods : It was planed a differential standard form through outer appearance of the original plant and outer appearance in the form of each medicines which was collected local market or field for 11 species which is listed in Korea or China pharmacopeia. Results : It was possible to distinguish the orignal plant between Fritillaria and Bolbostemma through its stem shape. In Fritillaria of original plant, it was possible to distinguish through its width of leaf, number of leafy bracts, color and position of flower and shape of leaf apex. In outer appearance in the form of each medicines, there are difference in color and texture of medicine between Fritillaria and Bolbostemma and there are difference in size, shape, size of inner and outter fleshy leaf of bulb, pattern of surface and apex of fleshy leaf of bulb among 10 Fritillaria species. Conclusions : This study presents various differences in the outer appearance of the original plant and the outer appearance in the form of each medicines among Paemo. It will be helpful to further applied research.
Effects of Onion Peel Water Extract on the Blood Lipid Profiles and Glucose
Lee, Hyun-A ; Han, Sang-Jun ; Hong, Sunhwa ; Lee, Yun-Seong ; Kim, Dong-Woo ; Kim, Okjin ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 141~148
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.141.
Objectives : Onion (AlliumcepaL.) is one of the richest sources of flavonoids in human diet. In this study, we studied the effects of onion peel water extract (OPE) on the blood lipid profiles and glucose in rats. Methods : The experimental groups were divided with 5 groups (n = 6) of SD rats: normal diet + distilled water (NC), high-fat diet + Quercetin (PC), high-fat diet + onion peel water extract 4 mg/kg (OPE-4), high-fat diet + onion peel water extract 20 mg/kg (OPE-20), high-fat diet + onion peel water extract 100 mg/kg (OPE-100). Results : The liver fat showed significantly lower weights and size in the OPE-100 group as compared with NC group (p<0.05), The epididymal fat and retroperitoneal fat showed significantly lower weights and sizes in the OPE-4 and OPE-20 group as compared with NC group (p<0.05). The serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly lower in the OPE-4 and OPE-20 group as compared with NC group (p<0.05). The OPE-4 and OPE-20 group showed higher HDL cholesterol concentration than NC group (p<0.05). Atherogenic index of OPE-4 and OPE-20 group was significantly lower in as compared with NC group (p<0.05). The serum levels of glucose significantly lower in the OPE-20 group as compared with NC group (p<0.05). Conclusions : In these results, we suggests that onion peel water extracts supplementation can reduces the serum lipid components and improves the lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic SD rat induced with a high-fat diet.
Comparison of Gangjihwan-1,2,3,4 and Combination of Gangjihwan-1 and Gamisochehwan in the Improvement Effects of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a High Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mouse Model
Jung, Yang Sam ; Kim, Jong Hoon ; Kim, Byeong Chul ; Seok, Hoa Jun ; Yoo, Jae Sang ; Ku, Ja Ryong ; Yoon, Ki Hyeon ; Jo, Ju Heum ; Jang, Du Hyon ; Yun, Ho Young ; Yoon, Michung ; Shin, Soon Shik ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 149~156
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.149.
Objectives : This study investigated the improvement effects of Gangjihwan-1,2,3,4 (DF-1,2,3,4) and combination of DF-1 and Gamisochehwan (GSH) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a high fat diet-fed obese mouse model. Methods : Eight-week-old C57BL/6N mice were divided into eight groups: a normal lean group given a standard diet, an obese control group given a high fat diet, and atorvastatin, DF-1,2,3,4, and DF-1+GSH groups given a high fat diet with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg), DF-1,2,3,4 (40, 80, 160, 80 mg/kg), and DF-1+GSH (80 mg/kg), respectively. After 8 weeks of treatment, body weight gain, blood lipid markers, ALT concentrations, liver weight and histology were examined. Results : Body weight gain was significantly decreased in DF-1,2,3,,4, DF-1+GSH and atorvastatin groups compared with control. The extent of decreases was eminent in DF-1+GSH group. Circulating concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased in DF-2, DF-4, DF-1+GSH and atorvastatin groups compared with control. Liver weights, hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic fibrosis were significantly decreased in DF-1,2,3,4, DF-1+GSH and atorvastatin groups compared with control, and the magnitude of which was more effective in DF-1+GSH group than in DF-only group. Circulating ALT concentrations were significantly decreased only in DF-4 and DF-1+GSH groups. Conclusions : In conclusion, these results suggest that DF decreases body weight gain, improves blood lipid metabolism, and reduces liver weight and hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic fibrosis, contributing to the improvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition, these effects were more effective in DF-1+GSH combination group than in DF-only group.
Inhibition Effect of Gamisoyo-san on MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, Tyrosinase mRNA Expression in Melanoma Cells (B16F10)
Joo, Da-Hye ; Lee, Soo-Yeon ; Yoo, Dan-Hee ; Lee, Jin-Young ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 157~163
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.157.
Objectives : Gamisoyo-san complex prescription were made with Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Paeoniae Radix, Atractylodes rhizome white, Hoelen, Bupleuri Radix, Moutan Cortex Radicis, Gardeniae Fructus, Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus, Menthae Herba. The purpose of this study was to research the whitening effect of the extract from Gamisoyo-san, which is one of the used herbal complex prescription. Methods : This study investigated inhibitory effect of Gamisoyo-san in tyrosinase activity. Cell viability were performed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Then, Gamisoyo-san measured reversed-transcription-PCR for mRNA expression using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Results : For whitening effects, the tyrosinase inhibition effect of extract was shown to 52.4% at
concentration. The cell viability on B16F10 melanoma cells of Gamisoyo-san extract showed higher than 75% at
concentration. In this study, an experiment was performed by setting the non-toxic concentration range of 50, 150,
. The Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as a positive control. The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1), tyrosinase related protein-2 (TRP-2), tyrosinase mRNA expression inhibitory by reverse transcription-PCR of Gamisoyo-san extract were decreased by 95.3%, 98.8%, 96.3% and 49.5% at
which the highest concentration. Conclusions : All these findings could verify that whitening effects of Gamisoyo-san extract by tyrosinase inhibitory activity and mRNA expression. The Gamisoyo-san could be used as material for functional cosmetics, such as skin whitening products.
Anti-pruritic Effect of Ethanol Extracts from Platycodon grandiflorum and its fermented production in Scratching Behavior Mouse Models
Ha, Mi-Ae ; Kim, Jin-Woo ; Lee, Shin-Woo ; Chun, Hyun-Sik ; Cho, Young-Son ; Shin, Yong-Wook ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 29, issue 6, 2014, Pages 165~173
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2014.29.6.165.
Objectives : Platycodon Root is frequently used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases of the throat. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of the EtOH extract of fermented Platycodon grandiflorum on the ameliorative effects on the Antipruritic Effect of atopic dermatitis mouse model induced by compound 48/80 and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic responses in mice. Methods : In the present study, we examined the anti allergic effect of Platycodon grandiflorum (PR) and its fermented production (FPR) in several mouse model. We measured acute ear edema in a mouse model caused by TPA and consecutively histological change of Ear tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. and also Scratching behaviors by compound 48/80 was investigated. The levels of allergic mediators such as immunoglobulin (Ig) E, and anti-oxidant markers such as SOD and MDA in the sera of OVA induced allergic mice were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results : FPR inhibited compoud 48/80-induced scratching behavior in mice, as well as acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The anti-scratching behavioral effect of FPR was more potent than PR. FPR extract significantly decreased the serum levels of IgE and MDA compared with those of OVA control group. Conclusions : These results indicate that Anti allergic effect of Platycodon grandiflorum is enhanced by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisae and FPR may be useful for protection from the itching reactions, which are IgE-mediated representative skin allergic diseases.