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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korea Journal of Herbology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Association of Herbology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Nov 2015
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Sep 2015
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Jul 2015
Volume 30, Issue 3 - May 2015
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Mar 2015
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Anti-Diabetic Effects of Mori Folium Extract on High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Mice
Kwon, Tae-Oh ; Choi, Ji-Won ; Lee, Hyun-Seo ; Cho, Byoung-Ok ; Yin, Hong-Hua ; Jang, Seon-Il ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.1.
Objectives : The present study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of Mori Folium (Morus alba L. of Moraceae) extract (MFE) on high fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetes mellitus in mice. Methods : The mice (C57BL/6J) were fed HFD for 8 weeks and then was induced with a single injection of STZ (75 mg/kg). The diabetic mice were divided into four groups [(STD, HFD, HFD + MFE and HFD + quercetin (QUR)] and administered with MFE or OUR for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides and cholesterol etc.), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), insulin and leptin were measured every 2 weeks. Results : Body weight gain was lower in the MFE and QUR groups than HFD group. The fasting blood glucose was lower in the MFE and QUR groups. Oral glucose and insulin tolerance were decreased in the MFE and QUR groups. The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were reduced in the MFE and QUR groups. The HDL cholesterol was much higher in the MFE and QUR groups than HFD group. The levels of GOT, GPT and atherogenic index were decreased in the MFE and QUR groups. The serum insulin and leptin concentrations were reduced in the MFE and QUR groups. Conclusions : These results showed that MFE could decrease blood glucose level and lead to an amelioration in dyslipidemia states on HFD/STZ-induced type II diabetes mellitus in mice.
Antioxidant Activity and Component Change of Steaming-Drying and Fermented Gastrodiae Rhizoma
Doh, Eun-Soo ; Yoo, Ji-Hyun ; Kil, Ki-Jung ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 11~18
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.11.
Objectives : The objective of this study is to evaluate antioxidant activity and the main component content change of steaming-drying fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma extract. Methods : The antioxidant activities were determined for total polyphenol, flavonoid contents, SOD-like activity, electron donating activity, nitrite scavenging ability and major functional components(gastrodin and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol content) were also measured. Results : The polyphenol content of fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma by S. cerevisiae were higher than those of fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma by A. oryzae, and when the fermentation period is extended. SOD like activity of fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma showed to be increased by fermentation with S. cerevisiae than fermentation by A. oryzae. Electron donating activity of fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma were increased at almost parallel level as vitamin C, by fermentation. Notably, fermentation by A. oryzae was moderately better than fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Flavonoid content of Gastrodiae rhizoma showed to increasing by fermentation, particularly fermentation by S. cerevisiae was proven to be more effective than by A. oryzae. The more steaming-drying or increased period of fermentation would be resulted in more gastrodin contents but under the same conditions, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol content of fermentation by A. oryzae in case of steaming and drying 1 time and 3 time was higher than control. Conclusions : These results has strongly hint the possible applicability of fermentation might be effective to improve the diverse biological activities of Gastrodiae rhizoma and may further supports to develop a functional food materials.
A Study on Functional components, antioxidant activity of Gastrodiae Rhizoma and Gastrodiae Elata floral axis
Park, Jang-Pill ; Lee, Soong-In ; Jeong, Jong-Kil ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 19~24
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.19.
Objectives : This study was carried out to know the necessity of freezing and boiling process of Gastrodiae Rhizoma. Also we need to evaluate Gastrodia elata floral axis as a product ingridients. Methods : Frozen Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GF1, GF2) and Gastrodia elata floral axis (GFA) were prepared. They were divided into samples (GF1 : frozen at the freezer, GF2; frozen and boiled for 10 hours, GFA; dried at 7
for 120 hours) for experiment. They were extracted using water, freeze dried and powdered. And we analyzed proximate compositions, free sugars, gastrodin, p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and p-hydroxybenzyl aldehyde content, phenolic and flavonoid, electron donating ability and nitrate scavenging activity and antioxidant activity. Results : In moisture, crude ash, fructose, glucose, sucrose, p-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol GF2 showed lower level than GF1. But GF2 showed higher content than GF1, in crude fat (0.8% > 0.19%), gastrodin (
), and p-hydroxybenzyl aldehyde (
) content, phenolic (
) and flavonoid (
) content, electro donating ability (
), nitrate scavening activity (
). GFA has a relatively lower key indicators component, but has a enough impact on antioxidant effect in phenolic (
) and flavonoid content (
), electron donating ability (
) and nitrate scavenging activity (
). Conclusions : In the view of proximate compositions, free sugars, functional component and antioxidant activity, the results indicated that boiling process is effective for the frozen Gastrodiae Rhizoma. And Gastrodia elata floral axis has a significantly functional components and antioxidant activity.
Effect of Cassiae semen extract on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
Seo, Beom-Su ; Park, Yong-Ki ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 25~32
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.25.
Objectives : In this study, we investigated the effect of Cassia obtusifolia Linne (Cassiae Semen; CS) extract on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Methods : CR was extracted with 70% ethanol. For in vitro study, HMC-1, human mast cells were treated with CS extract at 0.2 and
for 1 h, and then stimulated with compound (C) 48/80 for 30 min. Primary spleenocytes were isolated from the spleen of mice, treated with CS extract for 1 h, and then stimulated with ConA for 24 h. For in vivo study, mice were sensitized at day 0, 7 and 14 with 0.2% OVA and then airway challenged using neublizer at day 21, 23, 25, and 27 to induced allergic asthma. CS extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight was orally administered during OVA challenge once per a day. The levels of allergic mediators such as histamine, OVA-specific IgE, IL-4, and
were measured in the sera of mice or culture supernatants by EIA and ELISA, respectively. The expression of IL-4 and
gene was determined by RT-PCR. The histopathological change of lung tissues was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining. Results : The treatment of CS extract in HMC-1 cells significantly inhibited C48/80-induced degranulation, and histamine release. The treatment of CS extract in spleenocytes suppressed the expression of IL-4 and
mRNA. The administration of CS extract in OVA-induced asthmatic mice significantly decreased the levels of OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 in a dose-dependent manner with OVA-control group. In addition, CS extract inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells and bronchiolar damage with epithelial thickening in lung tissues of OVA-induced asthma mice, and also mucin accumulation. Conclusions : These results indicate that CS extract prevents asthmatic damage through regulating the allergic immune response.
Effects of Cheongpyesagan-tang and YKK012 on in vitro and in vivo Colon Cancer Cell Growth with and without CPT-11
Ahn, Hun-Mo ; Han, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Rho, Tae-Won ; Chong, Myong-Soo ; Kim, Yun-Kyung ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 33~42
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.33.
Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of Cheongpyesagan-tang(CST) and YKK012 on colon cancer. Methods : MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Single herbs and combinations of CST and YKK012 on murine colon cancer cells, Colon 38. To explain effects of apoptosis in colon cancer, we performed the western blot. Effects of CST and YKK012 on antitumor activity of CPT-11 using the murine colon38 allograft tumor in BDF1 mice. Results : Single herbs and combinations of CST and YKK012 was tested in vitro, Rhei Radix (RH) and Scutellariae Radix (SC) and YKK012 showed dose-response cytotoxicity on Colon 38. This might be due to the apoptosis, as we see Bax and Caspase-3, which are apoptotic factors, was expressed in RH and SC treated cells. YKK012 also showed increased expression of Caspase-3. In mouse colorectal cancer xenograft model of colon38 cells, herbal combinations showed tendencies of tumor regression, but was not significant. Furthermore, because toxicity was observed in CST group, we reduced the dose of CST for the next experiment. The anti-tumor effects of herbal combinations were insufficient to be used as single anti-tumor agent. With simultaneous usage of CPT-11, contrary to that CST showed no synergistic effects, YKK012 which was composed by the combination of four
selective herbs, significantly reduced the size of tumor and Bax expression was increased. Conclusions : We suggest YKK012 can be a effective cancer adjuvant therapy with CPT-11 on colon cancer.
Effect of the ethanolic extract of cactus pear (Opuntiaficus-indica) fruit on net handling stress in zebrafish
Oh, Won-Bo ; Oh, Jun-Young ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Jung, Ji-Wook ; Lee, Seung-Heon ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 43~49
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.43.
Objectives : In this study, the anti-stress effects of ethanolic extract of Opuntiaficus-indica (OF70E) were investigated. Methods : To determine the effects of OF70E on physical stress, changes in whole-body cortisol level or behavior were monitored in zebrafish. After treatment with 0.9% saline or OF70E for 6 min, all fish underwent net handling stress (NHS), which induced physical stress. And then, we conducted open field test (OFT) or sacrificed fish for collecting body fluid from whole-body. We used the cortisol enzyme-linked immunoassay kit to measure the amount of cortisol in each zebrafish sample. Results : In result, compared with normal group which were not treated by NHS, whole-body cortisol levels were significantly increased in stressed-control group. Compared with control group, pretreatment with OF70E at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/L for 6min significantly inhibited the increase of whole-body cortisol levels induced by NHS(p<0.05). To anti-stress effects of OF70E on behavior, we conducted OFT after the induction of NHS following pretreatment of OF70E. As results of OFT, compared with unstressed-normal group, distance moved was significantly decreased by induction of NHS in stressed-control group (p<0.05). OF70E-pretreatment blocked decreases of distance moved increased by NHS (p<0.05). And meandering movement, immobility and turn angle were significantly increased by NHS in stressed-control group compared with unstressed-normal group (p<0.05). OF70E-pretreatment prevented the increases of meandering movement immobility and turn angle by NHS (p<0.05). Conclusions : In conclusion these results suggest that OF70E-pretreatment may prevent stress responses.
Effects of combination pear extract with Daekumeumjagami medication on hepatic injury induced by alcohol in mice
Youn, Dae-Hwan ; Kim, Wang-In ; Na, Chang-Su ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 51~57
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.51.
Objectives : The effect of pear extract with Daekumeumjagami and vitamin C medication(PDV) on alcohol metabolism and hepatic injury was assessed following hepatic injury induced by alcohol in mice. Methods : The model of alcoholic hepatic injury was established by orally administration with 3 g/kg 25% alcohol in mice. PDV was orally administrated once a day for 5 days. Mice were randomly divided into 5 groups : normal group, control group, and PDV groups (PDV-A, PDV-B and PDV-C). The activities of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in serum, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver were determined after alcohol exposure. Results : Compared with control group, treatment with PDV-B and PDV-C significantly elevated activities of ADH. Moreover, the index of hepatic injury in serum was significantly decreased by treatment with PDV-B and PDV-C in ALT activity and PDV-C in AST activity. Additionally, enhanced catalase activities in liver was found in PDV-C treated mice after exposure to alcohol. Also, WBC in blood was significantly lower by treatment with PDV-B and PDV-C. Conclusions : This study suggests that PDV treatment could enhance alcohol metabolism, and prevent hepatic injury after alcoholic hepatic injury and that this effect is likely related to its modulation on the alcohol metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes.
Effects of Polygalae Radix on Apotosis in PC-12 Cell
Lee, Sang-Chul ; Kim, Youn-Sub ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 59~65
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.59.
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of Polygalae Radix(PR) on 4-HNE-induced apoptosis in PC-12 cell. Methods : A MTT assay was conducted to observe the cytotoxicity of Polygalae Radix on the cell viability and the cytoprotective effect of Polygalae Radix against 4-HNE that causes oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity, and then a western blot was conducted to observe the expression of
, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 protein that are important factors involved with apoptosis signaling pathway. Results : The Polygalae Radix water extract
had no cytotoxicity on the PC-12 cell. The Polygalae Radix water extract
had the cytoprotective effect against 4-HNE that causes cytotoxicity on the PC-12 cell. The Polygalae Radix water extract
significantly suppressed the increase in
protein expression in PC-12 cell. The Polygalae Radix water extract
significantly suppressed the increase in caspase-3 protein expression in PC-12 cell. The Polygalae Radix water extract
suppressed the increase in Bax protein expression in PC-12 cell but had no significance. The Polygalae Radix water extract
significantly prevented the decrease in Bcl-2 protein expression in PC-12 cell, Conclusions : These results suggest that the Polygalae Radix water extract is effective in inhibiting apoptosis.
Protective Effect of Wheat Bran Extract against β-Amyloid-induced Cell Death and Memory Impairment
Lee, Chan ; Park, Gyu-Hwan ; Lee, Jong-Won ; Jang, Jung-Hee ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 67~75
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.67.
Objectives : The aim of this study is to examine the neuroprotective effect of wheat bran extract (WBE) against
)-induced apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and memory impairment in triple transgenic animal model's of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg AD mice). Methods : In SH-SY5Y cells, MTT assay and TUNEL staining were conducted to evaluate the protective effect of WBE against
-induced neurotoxicity and apoptosis. Alterations in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP), expression of proapoptotic Bax and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, cleavage of PARP, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were analyzed to elucidate the neuroprotective mechanism of WBE. To further investigate the memory enhancing effect of WBE, Morris water maze test was performed in 3xTg AD mice. Results : In SH-SY5Y cells, WBE protected against
-caused cytotoxicity and apoptosis as shown by the restoration of cell viability in MTT assay and inhibition of DNA fragmentation in TUNEL staining.
-induced apoptotic signals such as dissipation of MMP, decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and cleavage of PARP were suppressed by WBE. Moreover, WBE up-regulated the protein levels of BDNF, which seemed to be mediated by activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). In 3xTg AD mice, oral administration of WBE attenuated learning and memory deficit as verified by reduced mean escape latency in water maze test. Conclusions : WBE protects neuronal cells from
-induced apoptotic cell death and restores learning and memory impairments in 3xTg AD mice. These findings suggest that WBE exhibit neuroprotective potential for the management of AD.
Effects of Kaempferol on Lippolysaccharide-induced Inflammation in Mouse Brain
Lee, Hung-Gi ; Kim, Do-Hoon ; Kim, Youn-Sub ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 77~84
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.77.
Objectives : Brain inflammation early activates the microglia and activated microglia secrete a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Kaempferol, which is a flavonoid in Cuscutae Semen, shows a wide range of physiological activities, including neurons protection and anti-inflammatory actions through inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. The present study examined the modulatory effect of kaempferol on cytokines [tumor necrosis factor- alpha (
), interleukin-1beta (
) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression and microglia activation in the brain tissue of the mouse. Methods : Kaempferol was administered orally three doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg respectively, once 1 hour before the lippolysaccharide(LPS) (3 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. Brain tissue was removed at 4 hours after LPS injection. Cytokines and COX-2 mRNA expression in the brain tissue was measured by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Iba1 expression was calculated by western blotting method. Microglia was observed with immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry stained microglia was analyzed by using ImageJ software. Results : Kaempferol 20 and 30 mg/kg was significantly attenuated the expression of
and IL-6 mRNA. Kaempfrol 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg significantly attenuated COX-2 mRNA expression in the brain tissue. Kaempferol 30 mg/kg significantly suppressed the increase of Iba1 protein expression by LPS. Kaempferol 30 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of microglia in the cerebral cortex and the number and cell size of microglia in the hypothalamic region and the area percentage of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1(Iba1)-expressed microglia in the hippocampus. Conclusions : This results indicate that kaempferol plays an anti-inflammatory role in the brain.
The Effects of bilobalide Extracted from Ginkgonis Folium on Inflammation
Jung, Je-Ryong ; Kil, Ki-Jung ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 85~93
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.85.
Objectives : Bilobalide (BIL) is a predominant sesquiterpene trilactone constituent that accounts for a partial portion of the standardized Ginkgonis Folium extract, which has been widely used to treat a variety of neurological disorders involving cerebral ischemia and neurodegeneration. In this study, it was tested whether BIL exhibits anti-inflammatory activities on inflammation response, or not. Methods : To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of BIL on pharmacological and biochemical actions in inflammation, we examined the effect of BIL on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. The investigation was focused on how BIL affect on inflammation-related mediators including various signals such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin
), inducible NO synthase(iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis
), mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPKs) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (
) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Results : We found that BIL inhibited LPS-induced NO,
, IL-6 and
productions as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, BIL suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation for MAPK activation. Conclusions : These results suggest that BIL has inhibitory effects on LPS-induced
, NO, IL-6 and
production, as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in the murine macrophage. It seems that these inhibitory effects occur by blocking the phosphorylation of MAPKs for activation. Then, BIL suppressed the activation of nuclear factor
in nucleus. These observations suggest that BIL has anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting.
Effects of Lobophytum crassum extract(MC-1) on Various Immunological Factors Related to Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis in Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus Treated NC/Nga mice
Choi, Hak-Joo ; Sim, Boo-Yong ; Miyamoto, Tomofumi ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 1, 2015, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.1.95.
Objectives : The aim of this study was to confirm whether or not coral has a preventive effect on development of atopic dermatitis induced by house mite(dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) in NC/Nga mice. Methods : This study was undertaken by using a reliable Atopic dermatitis mouse model demonstrating similar immune response. Lobophytum crassum was administered orally to NC/Nga mouse for 3 weeks. In order to verify the effectiveness of Lobophytum crassum in atopic dermatitis treatment, its role in immune factors were observed in NC/Nga mice. Results : ALT, AST, BUN and creatine levels were all within in the normal ranges in MC-1 200 and 400 (mg/kg) treated groups, indicating no induced toxicity. MC-1 200 and 400 (mg/kg) groups decreased of atopic dermatitis skin manifestation in NC/Nga mouse of MC-1 200 and 400 (mg/kg) groups compared to that of the control group and decreased the ratio of WBC and lymphocyte in blood. Also, MC-1 200 and 400 (mg/kg) groups significant decreased the ratio of CD4+, CD8+, CD11b+/Gr1+, B220/CD23 and CD4/CD25 immune cell ratio in ALN. Finally MC-1 200 and 400 (mg/kg) groups significantly increased the ratio of CD4+, CD8+, B220/CD23 and CD4/CD25 immune cells in DLN. Conclusions : Theses results suggested that Lobophytum crassum has suppressive effects on aberrant and overactive immunological activities in dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-induced dermatitis mice of NC/Nga.