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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korea Journal of Herbology
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The Korea Association of Herbology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Nov 2015
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Sep 2015
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Jul 2015
Volume 30, Issue 3 - May 2015
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Mar 2015
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Chemical composition, antioxidant potential and cyto-protecting activity of essential oil of Liriodendron tulipifera L. leaves
Yadav, Anil Kumar ; Kim, Sang Ho ; Kang, Sun Chul ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.1.
Objectives : The present study was under taken to characterize chemical composition, antioxidant and cyto-protecting capacity of essential oil obtained from leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera L. Methods : Essential oil from the leafof L. tulipifera L. (EOLL) was extracted by hydro-distillation process and further its chemical composition was evaluated by GC-MS analysis. The in vitro antioxidant potential of the EOLL was determined by DPPH
, superoxide and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activity using different concentrations in the range of 50-800 μg/mL. In addition, cyto-protecting property of the EOLLwas determined by MTT assay on Raw 264.7 macrophage cells challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H
). Results : The result of GC-MS analysis showed presence of 34 volatile compounds, principally germacrene D, spathulenol, and α -cadinol in EOLL. The in vitro antioxidant assays of EOLL at the highest used concentration of 800 μg/mL showed 81.62, 84.29, 83.59 and 58.59% inhibition of DPPH
, superoxide, and nitric oxide radicals, respectively. It also showed ferric reducing ability with 1310.04 mM Fe (II)/g of essential oil. The EOLL at three different concentrations (200, 400 and 800 μg/mL) protected the cells from H
-induced cell damage through scavenging intracellular ROS. Conclusion : The findings from the study suggest that essential oil isolated from leaves of L tulipifera L. is a potent sources of natural antioxidants, which could be used to treat the diseases associated with oxidative stress condition.
Quantitative Analytical Method for Eighteen Marker Compounds in Ongyeong-tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Quality Assessment
Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ; Seo, Chang-Seob ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 11~20
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.11.
Objectives : Ongyeong-tang (OGT) is a traditional herbal formula used to cure gynaecological disorders. OGT consists of 12 herbal medicines containing various bioactive components. Therefore, the development of suitable analytical method for the marker compounds is necessary for the quality control of OGT. Methods : Determination of the 18 marker compounds in OGT preparations was quantitatively performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection analysis. The marker compounds were separated on a reversed-phase C
column and the analytical method was successfully validated, which was applied to compare OGT extracts from laboratory preparation and commercial OGT granules. Results : Limit of detection and limit of quantification values were in the ranges of
, respectively. Precision was 0.03-3.71 % within a day and 0.03-3.81 % over four consecutive days. Recovery of marker compounds ranged from 90.63-108.26 %, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values < 4.0 %. Reproducibility was < 2.5 % of the RSD value. The 18 marker compounds were stable within 16 h at
, with the RSD value < 3.5 %. Quantitative analysis results showed that the quantities of the 18 marker compounds varied among OGT samples. Pearson coefficient evaluation and principal component analysis demonstrated that an OGT water extract produced by a laboratory method clearly differed from commercial OGT granules. Conclusions : The developed analytical method was simple, precise, and reliable. Therefore, it can be used for the quality assessment of OGT preparations.
Effect of the Samwondan Ethanol Extract on Obesity Inducer
Kang, Kyung-Su ; Lee, Hae-Jin ; Sim, Boo-Yong ; Bak, Ji-Won ; Choi, Hak-Joo ; Kim, Dong-Hee ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 21~27
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.21.
Objectives : In this study, we investigated the biological activities such as anti-obesity using Samwondan ethanol extract (SWD). SWD is a complex with Salicornia herbacea Linnaeus, Saururus chinensis Baill and Houttuynia cordata Thunberg as the main raw material.Methods : The SWD was extracted 80% ethanol. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced adipogenesis by differentiation media with SWD at 1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL. Effect of SWD performed using MTT assay, oil red O staining (observation by microscope), and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Also we measured production of triglyceride (TG), fatty acid, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC).Results : Non-cytotoxicity was in all test group from range of 1 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL on pre-adipocyte. The droplet and production of lipid were decreased significantly by the SWD. And TG was decreased by approximately 89%, 85% and 82%, upon the SWD treatment at concentration of 1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL. Moreover, the SWD showed inhibitory effects on the expression of the C/EBP (CCAAT/enhaner binding protein)β, C/EBPα, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγgenes in adipocytes. The SWD at 100 μg/mL concentration showed inhibitory effect on fatty acid production by 79%. Also ACC production were decreased dose-dependently.Conclusions : From the results above, we concluded that the SWD indicated significantly anti-obesity effects.
Antibacterial and Antioxidant activities of Bio-fermented Sanguisorbae Radix Extract
Kil, Ki-Jung ; Doh, Eun-Soo ; Chang, Jun-Pok ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Yoo, Ji-Hyun ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 29~35
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.29.
Objectives : The objective of this research was to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bio-fermented Sanguisorbae Radix extract.Methods : The Sanguisorbae Radix extract was fermented byStreptococcus thermophilus,and their products was tested for antibacterial activity against pathogenic microorganisms namely,Bacillus cereus,Bacillus subtilis,Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli,Vibrio parahaemolyticusandSalmonella typhimuriumby paper disc diffusion method and the antioxidant activities of extract was evaluated by five different assays as electron donating ability(EDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity, polyphenol, flavonoid contents and nitrite scavenging ability.Results : The bio-fermented Sanguisorbae Radix extract was safe from heat. Antibacterial activity of fermented Sanguisorbae Radix extract appeared relatively highly againstBacillus cereusandStaphylococcus aureusand didn't show any difference. EDA in comparison to Vitamin C showed over 90% activity at about the same time of Sanguisorbae Radix extract expressed highly. SOD activity showed 15% in fermentation before and after. The nitrite scavenging ability of Sanguisorbae Radix extract before and after fermentation showed higher numerical value over 70% in pH 2.5 than that of butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT). But SOD activity, EDA and nitrite scavenging ability were not different between the Sanguisorbae Radix extract before and after fermentation. Total polyphenol content expressed over about 20 mg/g, and that of the Sanguisorbae Radix extracts was increased than that of the fermented Sanguisorbae Radix extracts.Conclusions : The results suggest the usefulness of developing functional materials using antioxidant active Sanguisorbae Radix extract was fermented bySalmonella typhimuriumwith high polyphenol contents and nitrite scavenging ability.
Improving Effect of a Combined Extract of Rhei Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Rhizoma through Anti-oxidative Stress in Reflux Esophagitis rats
Kim, MinYeong ; Shin, YuOck ; Lee, JooYoung ; Lee, AhReum ; Shin, SungHo ; Kwon, OJun ; Seo, BuIl ; Roh, Seong-Soo ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.37.
Objectives : The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress activities through regulation of Nrf2-mediated genes by Rhei rhizoma and Glycyrrhiza rhizoma combined extract (RGE) in reflux esophagitis.Methods : The antioxidant activity of RGE in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity such as DPPH and ABTS. RGE was administered at 350 mg/kg body weight prior to induction of reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced that tied the pylorus and the transitional junction between the forestomach and the corpus in Sprague-Dawley rats.Results : RGE scavenged DPPH and ABTS effectively and IC
of RGE each were 4.9 μg/ml and 45.6 μg/ml. Our results show that RGE administration markedly ameliorated mucosal damage upon histological evaluation. In serum and esophagus tissue, RGE significantly suppressed the oxidative stress biomarkers. Reflux esophagitis induced rats exhibited down-regulation of antioxidant-related proteins in the esophagus; however, the levels with treatment of RGE were significantly higher than those of vehicle reflux esophagitis rats. RGE treatment caused significant reductions in activation of NF-κB transcription factor. Thus, RGE significantly exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the protein expression levels of pro-inflammatory proteins such as COX-2 and iNOS and inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-αin the esophagus tissue.Conclusions : Reflux esophagitis caused considerable levels of oxidative stress in the esophageal mucosa and the administration of RGE reduced the esophageal mucosa damage through the regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways. Our findings can considered as supplementary therapy in the prevention or treatment of reflux esophagitis.
A Study on Ambiguous Expression for Efficacy of Medicinal Material - Focusing on 'Salchung[殺蟲]' -
Kim, Sanghyun ; Kim, Sangkyun ; Nam, Boryeong ; Lee, Myeong-gu ; Lee, Seungho ; Jang, Hyunchul ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 45~49
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.45.
Objectives : Through this study, it would be confirmed that specific expression for efficacy of medicinal material has multiple meanings. And through the methodology to determine the multi meaning, it could be contributed to lighten ambiguous expressions for efficacy of medicinal material.Methods : The premise is that the efficacy and treatment target data are related to each other. Word cloud has been used analyzing the efficacy and treatment target data for medicinal materials. Then classic and modern documents were analyzed by the search.Results : Even though searching all related references as well as comparing the efficacy and treatment target data were done, some medicinal materials having 'Salchung[殺蟲]' as an efficacy are not expected to treat the disease associated with the parasite. Through the analysis of classic and modern documents, it was found that 'Salchung[殺蟲]' is not used only as a means of anthelmintic efficacy. But through the above analysis method some medicinal materials having 'Guchung[驅蟲]' as an efficacy are expected to treat the disease associated with the parasite, and 'Guchung[驅蟲]' seems to be almost used as a means of anthelmintic efficacy.Conclusions : If a certain expression for efficacy of medicinal material is used as a single meaning obviously, ambiguous expressions need to be clear. And if a certain expression for efficacy of medicinal material seems to have multiple meanings, the additional informations are to be supplemented for exact wording.
The Daily Dose of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Aconiti Lateralis Radix in Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases
Kim, In-Rak ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 51~55
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.51.
Objectives : The purpose of this study was finding out the daily dose of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Aconiti Lateralis Radix in Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases.Methods : In order to estimate the daily dose of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Aconiti Lateralis Radix, I researched Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases, Synopsis of Prescription of the Golden Chamber, Korean Pharmacoepia 10 and Science of Contemporary Chinese Medicine Product.Results : Daily doses of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata are 1, 2, or 3 pieces and those amount are respectively 1, 2, or 3 Ryang. Common dose of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata is 1 piece, Maximum Dose of it is 3 Pieces and that corresponds with dose of dried herb in Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases. Consider from Sovereign, Minister, Assistant and Courier, the dose of it in Buja-tang and Whyunmu-tang is 3 Ryang. 1 Ryang corresponds with 6.5 g. Aconiti Lateralis Radix is dried without baking so its weight is equal to Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. Daily doses of Aconiti Lateralis Radix are 1 piece or 1 big piece and those amount are respectively 3 or 6 Ryang. Common dose of it is 1 piece.Conclusions : From this study, in Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases, Daily Doses of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata are 1, 2, or 3 pieces(19.5 g, 39 g or 52 g), and that of Aconiti Lateralis Radix are 1 piece or 1 big piece(19.5 g, 39 g). Common Dose of two Herbal Medicine is 19.5 g.
Gleditsia Spina Extract Protects Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress through Nrf2 Activation
Kim, Jae Kwang ; Park, Sang Mi ; Jegal, Kyung Hwan ; Kim, Young Woo ; Byun, Sung Hui ; Kim, Sang Chan ; Cho, Il Je ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 57~64
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.57.
Objectives : Oxidative stress is one of the most causes of hepatocyte injury. Gleditsia spina, the thorns ofGleditsia sinensisLam., has been known for its anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects in Korean medicine. The present study investigated hepatoprotective effect of Gleditsia spina water extract (GSE) against oxidative stress induced by arachidonic acid (AA) + iron in HepG2 cells.Methods : To investigate cytoprotective effect of GSE, cells were pretreated with GSE and then subsequently exposed to 10 μM AA for 12 h, followed by 5 μM iron. Cell viability was monitored by MTT assay, and expression of apoptosis-related proteins was examined by immunoblot analysis. To identify responsible molecular mechanisms, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, GSH contents, and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured. In addition, effect of GSE on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation was determined by immunoblot and antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven reporter gene assays.Results : GSE pretreatment prevented AA + iron-mediated cytotoxicity in concentration dependent manner. In addition, ROS production, glutathione depletion, and mitochondrial impairment by AA + iron were significantly inhibited by GSE. Furthermore, GSE promoted translocation of Nrf2 to nucleus, which acts as essential transcription factor for induction of antioxidant genes. Increased nuclear Nrf2 that caused by GSE treatment promoted transcriptional activity of ARE. Finally, GSE up-regulated sestrin-2 which was widely recognized as target gene of Nrf2.Conclusions : This study demonstrates that GSE protects hepatocytes from oxidative stress via activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Microscopic Identification-keys for Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix and Cynanchi Auriculati Radix
Doh, Eui-Jeong ; Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Choi, Goya ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Song, Ho-Joon ; Ju, Young-Sung ; Lee, Guem-San ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 65~69
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.65.
Objectives : The root ofCyanchum wifordii(CW) had been used as herbal medicine, 'Baeksuo', in Korea. However, the root ofCynanchum auriculatum(CA) had also been mis-used as 'Baeksuo' in herbal markets, due to its morphological similarity with CW. This study aimed to compare discriminative features and establish the identification-keys between two herbal medicines using microscopic methods.Methods : Microscopic preparations including fixation, rapid dehydration, paraffin infiltration, paraffin embedding, sectioning, mounting, and staining, were performed and the microscopic features between CW and CA samples were compared.Results : The starch grain of parenchymal cells, the amounts of calcium oxalate crystals, cell sizes, and the shape of phloem were not different between CW and CA samples. However, the clusters of stone cells which were conglomerated at outer cortex were apparently observed in CA sample (4~8 layers of stone cells), but not in CW sample (2~4 layers of stone cells, or not). Xylem of CW consisted of several vessels and fiber bundles which were formed as linear shapes and discontinuous radial lines, while that of CA, in which radial lines was not observed, were shaped as a wedge and scattered near cambium with comparatively few fiber bundles enclosed vessels. Especially, in the xylem of CA, fiber bundles located towards cambium were relatively more developed than those located outward cambium.Conclusions : The identification-keys established in this study would be helpful to discriminate microscopic features between CW and CA.
The Relaxation Effects of Alpiniae Oxyphyllae Fructus on Isolated Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle
Park, Sun-Young ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 71~79
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.71.
Objectives : These present study was designed to investigate the relaxation effects of Alpiniae Oxyphyllae Fructus(AOF) on isolated corpus cavernosum smooth muscle.Methods : Rabbit corpus cavernous tissues were prepared in strip. Then relaxation responses of AOF at 0.01-3 ㎎/㎖ in contracted strips induced by phenylephrine(PE) were measured. To evaluate mechanisms, indomethacin(IM) tetraethylammonium chloride(TEA), Nω-nitro-L-arginine(
-NNA), methylene blue(MB) were treated before AOF extract(0.1-3 ㎎/㎖) infused into precontracted strips induced by PE. And 1 mM Ca
was infused into precontracted strips after pretreatment of AOF extract(3 ㎎/㎖) in Ca
-free krebs-ringer solution. NO concentration was measured by Griess reagent system. Ratio of smooth muscles to collagen fibers and eNOS positive reaction were measured by histocheminal and immunohistochemical process.Results : The cavernous strips were significantly relaxed by AOF extract 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 ㎎/㎖ and the pretreatment with IM 10 μM,
-NNA 100 μM, MB 10 μM inhibited relaxation of AOF compared to non-pretreatment, but the pretreatment with TEA 100 μM didn't affect relaxation of AOF. In a Ca
-free solution, pretreatment with AOF reduced increase on contraction of strips by Ca
supply than non-pretreatment. On HUVEC, NO concentration was increased. On corpus cavernosum of penis in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, ratio of smooth muscles to collagen fibers and eNOS positive reaction in AOF group were increased compared to PE groupConclusions : Taken this results, we can suggest that AOF extract exerts a relaxation effects on rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in part by suppressing influx of extracellular Ca
throughout prostacyclin, the NO-cGMP system.
Ethanol-Heated Processed Scutellariae Radix Improve Inflammatory Response through an Inhibitory Effect against Oxidative Stress in Mice with the Lipopolysaccharide-induced Intestine Injury of Mice
Shin, SungHo ; Shin, YuOck ; Lee, JooYoung ; Lee, AhReum ; Kim, MinYeong ; Park, ChanHum ; Seo, BuIl ; Roh, Seong-Soo ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 81~88
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.81.
Objectives : The aim of present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of Scutellariae Radix (SR) and Scutellariae Radix EtOH-heated at 200℃ (SR200) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated intestine of mice.Methods : Extract of SR and SR200 were orally administrated. Their effects were compared with vehicletreated LPS and normal groups. Subsequently, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide in the serum and western blotting in the intestine.Results : The average weight in LPS treated (Vehicle) group was lowered significantly compare to that in non-treated normal group and this weight loss in the vehicle group was effectively prevented by the administration of SR and SR200 respectively. The increased oxidative stress biomarker levels such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum was markedly decreased by treated with SR200. The decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) induced by LPS injection were significantly restored by both SR and SR200 treatment. Moreover, increased inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the LPS treated vehicle mice were significantly decreased through down-regulation c-JUN through reduction of oxidative stress.Conclusions : SR and SR200 could have benefit effect through down-regulation of abnormal oxidative stress in LPS induced intestine injury mice. Moreover, The anti-inflammatory activity of SR200 extract was better than SR extract in the LPS induced intestine injury mice.
Anti-inflammatory effects of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix extract on RAW264.7 cell. via anti-oxidative activities
Lee, Se-Eun ; Cho, Su-In ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 89~94
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.89.
Objectives : It had been reported that herbal medicines containing polyphenol and flavonoid have been shown to be associated with decreased the cause of aging and variety of disease such as reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species in several recent studies. Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix, origined fromSalvia miltiorrhizaBGE., is one of popular traditional herbal medicines that is commonly used by traditional medicine practitioners. To this date, Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix has more than 2000-year history of mature application. This study was conducted to investigate whether the Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix methanol extract has an inhibitory effect association with oxidation or inflammation.Methods : Cytotoxic activity of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix methanol extract on RAW264.7 cells was evaluated by using 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide solution. Nitric oxide production was measured using griess reagent system. Western blot analysis and measurement for changes of protein expression, nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, also performed.Results : The medicinal plant, Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix, does not impair the cell viability in tested concentration (25-100 μg/ml). SMR showed anti-oxiative effectsin vitroby decreasing electron donating ability, and also showed anti-inflammatory effects suppressing NO and COX-2 expressin in LPS induced RAW264.7 activation. SMR inhibited the generation of intracellular ROS production as dose dependant manner.Conclusions : These results indicate that Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix methanol extract has an anti-inflammatory activities via anti-oxidative effects, and the anti-inflammatory effect was presentedd as dose dependant manner.
Inhibitory Efficacy of Dioscoreae Rhizoma on MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, Tyrosinase, PKA and ERK Expression in Melanoma Cells (B16F10)
Lee, Soo-Yeon ; Yoo, Dan-Hee ; Joo, Da-Hye ; Lee, Jin-Young ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 95~100
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.95.
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to research the whitening effects and developing by cosmetics of the extract fromDioscoreae Rhizoma, which is one of the most popular health-promoting herb in herbal medications.Methods : We performed tyrosinase inhibition assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot for whitening effects. Also we measured MTT assay for cell viability.Results : The results were obtained as follows : For whitening effect, tyrosinase inhibition rate of extract fromDioscoreae Rhizomashowed more than 42.28% at 1,000 ㎍/㎖ concentration. Cell toxicity effect on melanoma cells (B16F10) of extract fromDioscoreae Rhizomashowed 81.97% with toxicity at 50 ㎍/㎖ concentration. So we were measured at a concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 ㎍/㎖ in all experiments involving cell. In addition, whitening related mRNAs including microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1), tyrosinase related protein-2 (TRP-2), tyrosinase were reduced byDioscoreae Rhizoma. We also foundDioscoreae Rhizomatransiently decreased protein kinase A (PKA) which is known to be upstream to the down regulation of MITF and tyrosinase. But phosphorylation of extracellular signal related kinase (pERK) were increased byDioscoreae Rhizoma. These results imply thatDioscoreae Rhizomadecrease melanogenesis via ERK activation and subsequent down regulation of MITF and tyrosinase.Conclusions : Therefore, all these findings suggested the potent usage ofDioscoreae Rhizomaas materials of functional cosmetics by confirming whitening activity related with melanin content.
Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Hydroponic-cultured Ginseng Folium by fermentation
Lee, Ah Reum ; Park, Jae Ho ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 101~108
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.101.
Objectives : Positive effects of Ginseng has great research attentions such as anticancer, anti-diabetic, antiaging, liver, immune function, CNS, etc. In this study, we investigated Hydroponic-cultured Ginseng Folium fermented byBacillus subtilisto establish fermentation conditions for enhancing functionality.Methods : Ginseng Folium were cultivated hydroponic-cultured and were extracted with methanol. We inoculateBacillus subtilisfor fermentation by adding to 0%, 3% and 5% sugar respectively and checked antioxidant activities, total phenolic content and total saponin content in 2 days intervals during 11 days. The antioxidant activities were studied by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl(DPPH) radical, 2, 2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid) diammonium salt(ABTS) radical scavenging assay and Reducing power assay. We analyzed the Total phenol content, crude saponin content and ginsenoside content. Moreever, Hepatoprotective effects by Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(GOT) and Glutamic pyruvic transaminase(GPT) in Sprague-Dawley rat.Results : The results of DPPH and ABTS were 66.89% and 96.72%, respectively. The reducing power was resulted in optical density of 0.7312 with 3% sugar after 9 days of fermentation. and the concentration at 200 ㎍/㎖. Total phenol content was 36.92㎎/g with 3% sugar after 9 days of fermentation, in which crude saponin content wasn't changed, and ginsenoside content such as Rg3, Re and Rb was increased. Activities of GOT and GPT concentration were decreased in rat.Conclusions : This study suggests that hydroponic-cultured Ginseng Folium fermented byBacillus subtilisin 9 days showed significant efficacy of hepato-protection as well as antioxidant compared to the others. In addition, it shows not only improved value but also utilized hydroponic-cultured Ginseng Folium by fermentation.
Effects of Mume Fructus on the Rat Hypothyroidism Induced by PTU(6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil)
Choi, Jae Young ; Roh, Seong Soo ; Park, Ji Ha ; Koo, Jin Suk ; Seo, Bu Il ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 109~119
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.109.
Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of Mume Fructus(MF) on the 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil(PTU)-induced rat hypothyroidism.Methods : Aqueous extracts of MF(yield = 19.38%) were administered, once per day for 42 days from 2 weeks before starting of PTU treatment as an oral dose of 300 and 150 ㎎/㎏(body weight), and hypothyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous treatment of PTU 10 ㎎/㎏ for 28 days. The changes in the body weight, thyroid gland weights, liver weight, serum levels of thyroid hormone-thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH), tri-iodothyronine(T
) and thyroxine(T
), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein(LDL), high density lipoprotein(HDL) and triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), liver antioxidant defense system-lipid peroxidation, H
, superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) were examined with histopathology of thyroid glands and liver.Results : Results were compared with LevoT
0.5 ㎎/㎏ treated rats. MF extracts recovered from the decreases in the body weight, liver weight, T
, TG, liver CAT activities as results of PTU treatment. And MF extracts recovered from the increases of thyroid gland weights, TSH, HDL contents, liver H
, AST as results of PTU treatment. In addition, these PTU-induced histopathological changes in thyroid glands and liver related to hypothyroidism were dramatically decreased by treatment of both different dosages of MF extract, respectively.Conclusions : According to the above results, it is suggested that MF extracts have advantageous effects on the thyroid hormone productions with beneficial effects on the hypothyroidism related liver injuries mediated by the modulation on the antioxidant system.
Inhibitory effect of by Ojeok-san lipid accumulation in high fat diet-induced obesity mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes
Choi, Hye-Min ; Moon, Sung-Ok ; Lee, Hee-Hyun ; 이, 화동 ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 121~128
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.121.
Objectives : Ojeok-san (OJS), an oriental herbal formula, has been used in Asian countries including Korea, China and Japan to treat the common cold and illnesses including fatigue and gastrointestinal disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effect and molecular mechanism of OJS, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Also, the effects of OJS in obese mice fed a high-fat diet on adiposity were examined.Methods : Preferentially, we analyzed the component of OJS and measured the stability of its component in OJS according to study periods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with OJS (50 to 200 μg/mL) during differentiation for 8 days. The accumulation of lipid droplets was determined by Oil Red O staining. The expressions of genes related to adipogenesis were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. For anti-obesty effect in vivo, we experimented for 8 weeks with four group (normal diet (CON), high-fat diet (HF), high-fat diet with OJS (HF+OJS) and high-fat diet with Bang-pung-tong-sung-san (HF+BTS) in comparison group HF+OJS).Results : OJS showed inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation at 3T3-L1 preadipocytes without affect cell toxicity as assessed by measuring fat accumulation and adipogenesis. In addition, OJS significantly reduced the expression levels of several adipocyte marker genes including proliferator activated receptor-γ(PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α(C/EBP-α). Also OJS-administered mice showed significant inhibitory of body weights and abdominal adipose tissue weights.Conclusions : This study showed that traditional medicine OJS has an anti-obesity effect in vitro and in vivo. Thus, OJS could be developed as a supplement for reduction of body weight gain induced by an obesity.
Effect of Clerodendron trichotomum Thunberg tea on anti-hypertension
Choo, Han-Na ; Lee, Soong-In ; Kim, Jeong-Sang ; Jeong, Jong-Kil ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 30, issue 4, 2015, Pages 129~135
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2015.30.4.129.
: Clerodendron trichotomumThunberg grows wild fields and mountains in South Korea and China. They have been used for anti-hypertension disease. This study was performed in order to observe the effects ofClerodendron trichotomumThunberg tea on anti-hypertension.
: For the study ofClerodendron trichotomumThunberg tea, we had divided male SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat) to ten groups. Control group is SHR. The treatment group is SHR which is administered tea extract at dose of 200 mg/kg/day and 500 mg/kg/day orally for 8 weeks. We measured systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, number of pulse, body weight, total cholesterol and triglyceride from blood serum.
: The level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased by 12.5% and 44.9% inClerodendron trichotomumThunberg tea groups than control group. Heart rate ofClerodendron trichotomumThunberg tea groups, 24.5%, was significantly lower than control group. We found that treatment with the water extract fromClerodendron trichotomumThunberg leave and flower significantly decreased weight of body, total cholesterol and triglyceride to 20.4% and 27.7% compared to untreated control group, significantly (P< 0.05).
: These results suggest that leaf and flower tea ofClerodendron trichotomumThunberg tea is effective in prevention and treatment of hypertension and decreasing cholesterol. Long term consumption ofClerodendron trichotomumThunberg leaf and flower tea can be help in lowering high systolic and blood diastolic pressure, heart rate and blood serum in SHR.