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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korea Journal of Herbology
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Association of Herbology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Jul 2016
Volume 31, Issue 3 - May 2016
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Mar 2016
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Attenuation of insulin resistance using steamed Polygonatum odoratum var pluriflorum extract in rat skeletal muscle cells L6 myoblast
Choi, Mi-Ae ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 31, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2016.31.1.1.
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate inhibitory effects of steamed Polygonatum odoratum extract (POE) on insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle cells, L6 cells.Methods : Polygonatum odoratum (P. odoratum) extract was extracted with ethyl acetate. Activity of α-glucosidase in POE was measured for blood glucose regulation. MTT assay was examined for cell toxicity. Western blot analysis for measurement of adiponectine, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ), insulin receptor substrate (IRS), glucose transporter 4 (Glut-4) and phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (Akt) expressions were performed. Akt signaling pathway were analyzed with LY294002, which is a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor.Results : The results revealed that POE inhibited α-glucosidase activity. Treatment of POE in L6 cells inhibited the differentiation of L6 cells compared to those of vehicl control. Additionally, protein expressions of adiponectine, PPARγ, IRS and Glut-4 were significantly regulated compared to those of vehicle control (p < 0.05), respectively. Futhermore, phosphorylation of Akt was increased in L6 cells treated with POE compared to that of vehicle control (p < 0.05). pAkt expression was significantly accentuated with Akt inhibitor (LY294002).Conclusions : These results suggest that POE may have potential as a natural agent for prevention/improvement of diabetes, especially, regulation of blood glucose. Therefore, further additional study should be conducted to elucidate in depth the pharmaceutical efficacy of these.
Effects of Polygalae Radix on Brain Tissue Oxidative Damage and Neuronal Apoptosis in Hippocampus Induced by Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Rats
Koo, Yong-Mo ; Kwak, Hee-Jun ; Kwon, Man-Jae ; Song, Mincheol ; Lee, Ji-Seung ; Shin, Jung-Won ; Sohn, Nak-Won ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 31, issue 1, 2016, Pages 7~15
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2016.31.1.7.
Objectives : Polygalae Radix (POL) has an ameliorating effect on learning and memory impairment caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. In regard to POL's action mechanism, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of POL on oxidative damage and neuronal apoptosis induced by cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.Methods : The cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (pBCAO) in Sprague-Dawley rats. POL was administered orally once a day (130 mg/kg of water-extract) for 28 days starting at 4 weeks after the pBCAO. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the brain tissue were measured using ELISA method. Expressions of 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and 8-hydroxy-2'- deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were observed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, neuronal apoptosis was evaluated with Cresyl violet staining, TUNEL labeling, and immunohistochemistry against Bax and caspase-3.Results : POL treatment significantly increased SOD activities and significantly reduced MDA levels in the cerebral cortex. The up-regulations of 4HNE and 8-OHdG expression caused by pBCAO in the CA1 of hippocampus were significantly attenuated by POL treatment. POL treatment also restored the reduction of CA1 thickness and CA1 neurons caused by pBCAO and significantly attenuated the apoptotic markers including TUNEL-positive cells, Bax, and caspase-3 expression in the CA1 of hippocampus.Conclusions : The results show that POL attenuated the oxidative damage in brain tissue and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus caused by the cerebral hypoperfusion. It suggests that POL can be a beneficial medicinal herb to treat the brain diseases related to cerebral hypoperfusion.
Improving Effect of Extract of Ganoderma lucidum in Atherosclerosis from LDL Receptor Knockout Mouse
Kwon, O Jun ; Kim, MinYeong ; Roh, Seong-Soo ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 31, issue 1, 2016, Pages 17~23
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2016.31.1.17.
Objectives : This study was designed to protect effect on atherosclerosis through regulation of low density lipoprotein(LDL) by 70 % ethanol extract Ganoderma lucidum (GL) in LDL receptor knockout mouse (LDLr ko mice) fed Western diet.Methods : The LDLr ko mice were divided into 3 groups ; Control, GL100, and GL300. After grouping, LDLr ko mice were fed Western diet. The GL (100 or 300 mg/kg body weight/day, p.o.) was administered every day for 8 weeks. The body weight and food intake were measured every day. The changes in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in serum were analyzed after experiment.Results : The LDLr ko mice fed Western diet were increased body weight gain and blood biochemistry parameters such as ALT, AST, TG, TC, and LDL. However GL300 group significantly reduced the body weight. Also TG, TC, and LDL level did not increase. The levels of ALT, AST, HDL were not changed. Also, LDLr ko mice model liver were observed lipid drop, but GL groups did not appear. Futhermore, histological analysis of GL groups aorta tissue were similar to NOR groups.Conclusions : We confirmed that whether GL administration is protect atherosclerosis or not. As the results, blood biochemistry and histological analysis did not changed much in GL administration groups. This study provides scientific evidence that GL protect the atherosclerosis through the reduction of LDL cholesterol. Therefore GL has potential medicine inhibition of atherosclerosis.
Improving Effects on Rats with Reflux Esophagitis Treated with Combined Extract of Young persimmon fruit and Citrus peel
Kwon, OJun ; Lee, AhReum ; Roh, Seong-Soo ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 31, issue 1, 2016, Pages 25~31
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2016.31.1.25.
Objectives : The present study was conducted to evaluate protective effects of Combined Extract of young persimmon fruit and citrus peel (PCM) in Reflux Esophagitis(RE) rats.Methods : Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided four groups and each group had six rats ; Normal group, RE control group, RE group treated PCM 50 ,100 mg/kg body weight group. Reflux esophagitis was induced that tied the pylorus and fundus in SD rats stomach. PCM was administered at 50, 100 mg/kg body weight 2 hrs prior to induction of RE. After 6 hrs, the effects of PCM treated rats were compared with those of normal and control rats. We have performed an analysis such as pH of stomach secretion, oxidative stress biomarkers in serum, and western blot.Results : The increased esophageal mucosa damage by RE was markedly improved by PCM treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the administration of PCM decreased the elevated serum reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxynitrite (ONOO
) in serum. The protein expressions of anti oxidant such as SOD, catalase, GPx exhibited down-regulation by PCM treatment in tissues. And, PCM effectively reduce inflammatory cytokines such as inflammation-related proteins cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) in RE rats. In addition, NFκB and p-IκBɑ were decreased in PCM-adiministrated RE rats. But there was no difference on stomach secretion pH between reflux esophagitis rats and PCM administration rat group.Conclusions : In conclusion, administration of PCM (50, 100 mg/kg body weight) made esophagus have less inflammation and injury by decreased NFκB path way. These findings suggest that PCM could have Improving effects on reflux esophagitis.
Hepatoprotective effect of Paeoniae radix via Nrf2 activation
Lee, Soo Hwan ; Jung, Ji Yun ; Park, Sang Mi ; Jegal, Kyung Hwan ; Byun, Sung Hui ; Cho, Il Je ; Kim, Sang Chan ; Kim, Kwang Joong ; Kim, Young Woo ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 31, issue 1, 2016, Pages 33~40
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2016.31.1.33.
Objectives : Liver is one of the largest organs in the human, and has a function of detoxification and energy sensing to prevent severe disease. Paeoniae radix has been used to treat a variety of liver diseases such as hepatitis and chronic hepatic failure. Although P. radix has been used as an medicinal herb for a long time, the effects of P. radix on severe oxidative stress and its action mechanism on the liver was not clearly verified.Methods : This study investigated the protective effects of P. radix extract (PRE), and the underlying mechanism of its action in the liver. tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and carbon tetrachlroride (CCl
) were used to induce oxidative stress in the HepG2 hepatocyte cell line and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively.Results : t-BHP significantly induced cell death and ROS production in HepG2 cell, as indicated by MTT and FACS analysis. However, pretreatment of PRE inhibited a decrease in cell viability and H
production in the HepG2 cells. PRE also blocked the ability of t-BHP to damage in mitochondrial membrane transition. More importantly, PRE induced Nrf2 activation and antioxidant Phase II enzyme, which may have a role in the effects of PRE. In mice, PRE inhibited the liver damage induced by CCl
.Conclusions : PRE inhibited oxidative stress and hepatic damages as mediated with Nrf2 activation. This study unveil, in part, the effect and mechanism of old medicinal herb, P. radix.
A Herbological Study on the Plants of Amaryllidaceae in Korea
Jeong, Jong-Gil ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 31, issue 1, 2016, Pages 41~47
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2016.31.1.41.
Objectives : For the purpose of developing Korean herbology of the plants to Amaryllidaceae in Korea, the literatures of the successive generations have been thoroughly investigated to prepare this article.Methods : Books and research papers about Herbology which published at home and abroad were examined.Results : A list was made about Amarylliaceae plant which were cultivated or grew naturally in Korea, after investigated the data on domestic and foreign Amarylliaceae plants. Out of those lists, serviceable plants were selected and with those available plants, their distributions were analysed and parts which can be used as medicines were divided into 3 categories such as oriental medicine name, scientific name and non-official name. Amarylliaceae's properties flavor, channels they use, effects, and toxicity were also noted. Amarylliaceae (grew in Korea) were divided into 4 classes with 16 species. Out of those, 4 classes with 7 species were found serviceable which indicates 44 % of all. Out of all 16 specified Amarylliaceae plants, Lycoris plants were found 9 species, which were shown the most. And 4 classes of Lycoris plants were also selected the most in serviceable Amarylliaceae. Out of all serviceable parts in Amarylliaceae, bulbus parts took first place as 6 species.Conclusions : There were totaled to 4 genera and 16 species in Amarylliaceae in Korea and among them medicinal plants are 4 genera, 7 species, some 44 % in total.
A Herbological Study on the Plants of Amygdalaceae in Korea
Jeong, Jong-Gil ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 31, issue 1, 2016, Pages 49~59
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2016.31.1.49.
Objectives : This objective of this study was to develop the Korean herbology of the plants belonging to Amygdalaceae in Korea. The literatures of the successive generations have been thoroughly investigated to prepare this article.Methods : The 22 herbological books and research papers published at home and abroad were researched into their total catalog, medicinal plants, distribution, medicinal properties, actions etc.Results : There are totaled to 1 genus and 48 species in Amygdalaceae in Korea and among them, medicinal plants were 1 genus, 17 species, some 35 % in total. The Fructus is the main medicinal parts in the Amygdalaceae, which was used in 18 species. According to nature and flavor of medicinal plants in the Amygdalaceae, they were classified into balance 22 species, and warm 11; bitter taste 23, sweet taste 14 and sour taste 13 in the order. According to meridian propism of medicinal plants in the Amygdalaceae, they were classified into large intestine meridian 13 species, lung and liver meridian 11 species respectively. According to the properties and principal curative action, they were classified into drugs for activation of blood 11 species, drugs for detoxification 10 species, drugs for clearing away heat 9 species in the order. The number of toxic species in the Amygdalaceae was examined to be 5 species.Conclusions : Among 48 species in Amygdalaceae in Korea, medicinal plants are 17 species, and are mostly used for drugs for activation of blood, which are 11 species.
Anti-inflammatory Effect of Portulacae Herba Water Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 Macrophages
Joo, Jai-Kong ; Han, Hyo-Sang ; Lee, Young-Jong ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 31, issue 1, 2016, Pages 61~67
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2016.31.1.61.
Objectives : The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the water extracts of Portulacae Herba (PH).Methods : We measured the effects of the water extracts of Portulacae Herba (PH) on the cell viability of mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, the intracellular calcium production, and the proinflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, which are induced by the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and obtained the results shown below.Results : After the cultivation of the PH extracts along with the mouse macrophages, the cell survival rate did not decrease with the MTT assay. However, the PH extracts did significantly suppress the production of NO by the mouse macrophages induced by LPS at the concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 ㎍/mL. The PH extract also significantly suppressed the VEGF, PDGF-BB and intracellular calcium production of the mouse macrophages by LPS at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 ㎍/mL. As shown in the results above, the PH extracts do not have a toxic effect on the macrophages, but still have an anti-inflammatory effect that significantly reduces the intracellular calcium production as well as the production of NO, VEGF and PDGF-BB at concentrations above 25 ㎍/mL.Conclusions : In conclusion, the inhibitory anti-inflammatory effects of the PH extract can be used for a new treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases.
Anti-Oxidative and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Combined Extract and Individual Extract of GamiSaengmaeksan
Ji, Joong-Gu ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 31, issue 1, 2016, Pages 69~75
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2016.31.1.69.
Objectives : The aim of this study is to investigate the various effects of individual or combined extract of GamiSaengmaeksan (GSS) on cell viability, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activityMethods : In order to evaluate cytotoxicity, MTT assay was performed. We investigated the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 and interleukin (IL)-1β, and nitric oxide(NO) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells to check the effects on anti-inflammatory activity. The level of NO production in RAW 264.7 cells was measured by using Griess reagent. The levels of cytokines and ROS were measured by Luminex and Flow cytometry, respectively.Results : At concentration of 200 ㎍/㎖ GSS, cytotoxicity was observed in RAW 264.7 cells. However, at concentration less than 100 ㎍/㎖ of both combine and individual GSS, cytotoxicity was not observed in Raw 264.7 cells. However, the level of ROS in RAW 264.7 cells were decreased at both extract of 100 ㎍/㎖ GSS. Also, the level of NO in RAW 264.7 cells were decreased from extraction of concentration of 100 ug/ml in GSS and individual-extraction of Liriopis Tuber, White Ginseng and Glycyrrhizae Radix. In addition, productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells were decreased from extraction of concentration of 10 and 100 (㎍/㎖) in GSS and individual-extraction of Liriopis Tuber.Conclusions : It is concluded that combined extract of GSS appears to be more effective in anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effect than those in individual-extraction of GSS. These results may be developed as a raw material for new therapeutics to ease the symptoms related with inflammatory and oxidative stress.
Effects of Polygalae Radix Preparata Cum Glycyrrhizae Radix on 4-HNE-induced Apoptosis in PC-12 cell
Ham, Mee-Jin ; Kim, Youn-Sub ;
The Korea Journal of Herbology, volume 31, issue 1, 2016, Pages 77~82
DOI : 10.6116/kjh.2016.31.1.77.
Objectives : The study was designed to observe the effect of Polygalae Radix Preparata Cum Glycyrrhizae Radix on 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-induced apoptosis in PC-12 cell.Methods : A cytotoxic test on Polygalae Radix Preparata Cum Glycyrrhizae Radix (PG) was conducted and another MTT assay was conducted to observe the cytoprotective effect against 4-HNE that cause oxidative stress. In addition, in order to observe the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and TNF-α protein involved with apoptosis, western blot was conducted.Results : The groups treated with 25 ㎍, 50 ㎍ and 100 ㎍ of PG water extract had no toxicity for PC-12 cell. The groups treated with 25 ㎍, 50 ㎍ and 100 ㎍ of PG water extract showed a significant increase of cell survival rate in comparison with the control group injected by only 4-HNE. The groups treated with 25 ㎍ and 50 ㎍ of PG water extract showed a significant supression on increase of Bax protein expression in the control group. The group treated with 100 ㎍ of PG water extract showed a significant promotion on decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression in the control group. The group treated with 50 ㎍ of PG water extract showed a significant supression on increase of Caspase-3 protein expression in the control group. The group treated with 25 ㎍ of PG water extract showed a significant supression on increase of TNF-α protein expression in the control group.Conclusions : These results suggest that Polygalae Radix Preparata Cum Glycyrrhizae Radix is effective in reducing apoptosis by 4-HNE-dameged cell.