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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction
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Journal DOI :
Architectural Institute of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 31, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 31, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 31, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 31, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Extreme Wind Fragility of Balcony Window Systems in Apartments
Yun, Woo-Seok ; Ham, Hee Jung ; Kim, Ho-Jeong ; Lee, Sungsu ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 3~11
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.3
In this paper, the wind fragility is estimated for balcony window systems of the apartment in the multi-story residential building. The wind fragility is defined as the probability of failure of a system over the entire range of wind speeds to which the system could be exposed. In this study, eight prototypes of balcony window systems were selected to estimate their wind fragility using a Monte Carlo simulation, which is the most commonly applied method to develop the wind fragility. All estimated fragility curves were represented by log-normal cumulative distribution parameters; the mean and standard deviation values. With the aim of determining the crucial factors affecting wind fragility, five factors were considered herein: the exposure categories(B, C, and D according to ASCE 7-10), building height, building roof type, unit plan area of the apartment, and increasing internal pressure. The results show that wind fragility is worsened as the exposure category changes from B to D and the building changes from low-rise to high-rise. In terms of roof type, a gable roof is more vulnerable than a flat roof. A gable roof takes a heavier wind load on the wall than a flat roof, because ASCE 7-10 provision specifies lower pressure coefficients for roof angles of less than
, such as in flat roof. As unit area of the plan increases, the wind fragility is worsened because of the increasing number of windows. In addition, the probability of window failure is also increased proportionally. In future research, the estimated wind fragility will be validated using post-disaster survey data.
Damage Assessment of Neinforced Concrete Column under Combined Effect of Axial Load and Blast Load by Using P-M Interaction Diagram
Kim, Han-Soo ; Choi, Hyung-Bin ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 13~20
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.13
In this paper, the damage contour of reinforced concrete columns under blast load was compared with its P-M interaction diagram to evaluate the simplified analysis for blast resisting performance of reinforced concrete column. Autodyn which was specialized for analysis of explosion and impact was used to simulate the structural behavior of the columns under combined effect due to axial and blast loading. The weight of explosive is fixed on most threatening weight, 20kg, and distance of explosive is varied from 1m to 5m. According to the analysis, the damage contour of reinforced concrete column showed very similar shape to P-M interaction diagram as its axial load and blast induced additional bending moment changes. Therefore, the damage and failure behavior of reinforced concrete column can be predicted from damage contour on P-M interaction diagram.
A Semi-analytical Solution of Shallow Sinusoidal Arches by using Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method
Shon, Su-Deok ; Lee, Seung-Jae ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 21~28
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.21
The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of multistage homotopy perturbation method (MHPM) to shallow sinusoidal arches in order to obtain a semi-analytical solution. For this research purpose, a nonlinear governing equation of the arches was formulated and a homotopy equation was derived using the formulated differential equation. The result of a dynamic analysis on a symmetric mode and an asymmetric one was compared with the classical homotopy perturbation method and the
order Runge-Kutta method. From the comparison results, it was found that the dynamic response by MHPM concurred with the numerical results. Besides, the pattern of the response and the attractor by semi-analytical solution could delineate the dynamic snapping of the arches under excitations, and the attraction of the model in consideration of damping reflected the convergence and asymptotic stability well.
Evaluation on Shear Strengths of Single High-Shear Ring Anchors
Chun, Sung Chul ; Kim, Young Ho ; Jeon, Sang Hyeon ; Kim, Jae Yeol ; Oh, Myoung Ho ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 29~38
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.29
The usage of anchors has increased in joints of new and old concretes for the purposes of seismic retrofits, remodeling, strengthening of existing structures, and so on. In most cases, the shear capacities of the anchors are governed by the steel strength of anchor rods. A lot of anchors should be installed to develop full strength of new structures. In this study, high-shear-capacity ring anchors consisting of steel ring and rod were developed and their shear capacities were examined through shear tests with varying beam width, concrete compressive strength, embedment depth of anchor rod, ring shape, epoxy types, and anchor types. For the specimens with the shallow width that is less than 3.33 times of the ring diameter, splitting failures occurred with the side cover concrete spalling. In splitting failure, the shear capacity increased as the specimen width increased. For the specimens with the wide width, the ring anchors failed due to bearing and the width did not affect the shear capacity. The shear capacities of the ring anchors are at least 1.75 times and up to 4.37 times of the shear capacity of the rod anchor. In addition, the ring anchors had higher stiffness and in most cases the maximum capacities were developed at 2 mm or less displacement. The improved stiffness may enhance the usage of the ring anchors for seismic retrofits. The embedment depth also affects the shear capacities of the ring anchors. With an embedment depth of 125 mm, the ring anchors have shear capacities of at least 3.3 times of the shear capacity of the rod anchor. Therefore, the number of anchors can be significantly reduced.
A Comparative Study on Shear Buckling and Interactive Buckling Characteristics of Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal Corrugated Steel Plate
Shon, Su-Deok ; Yoo, Mi-Na ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Kang, Joo-Won ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 39~46
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.39
Corrugated plates are mostly processed in trapezoidal, sinusoidal and circular shapes, and when used for the web of the plate girder, the design where the web has only to cover the shear force, and therefore, ensures a higher out-of-plane stiffness. However, the geometric shape of the corrugated plate is very complex for determining the analysis parameters, and the basic data for commercialization and design are insufficient. If trapezoidal and sinusoidal corrugations are compared with each other, the sinusoidal corrugated plate has no flat plane and has different tendencies in terms of shear buckling. In particular, the shear stress and its change at the boundary of buckling vary according to the corrugation shape. In this study, the shear buckling strengths of the trapezoidal and sinusoidal corrugated plates were compared, and their characteristics and tendencies were analyzed. The results of the study are as follows. First, the interactive buckling ranges were compared, and the interactive buckling appeared between the local buckling and global buckling in the trapezoidal corrugation, whereas the interactive buckling appeared in the global buckling in the sinusoidal corrugation. Second, the buckling tendency that was corrected by the strength modifying factor were compared, and the graph was corrected in the trapezoidal corrugated plate, whereas it was not corrected and the difference even increased in the sinusoidal corrugated plate.
Damage Detection of Beam Member Based on POM Curvature Extracted from Measured FRF Data
Eun, Hee-Chang ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 47~54
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.47
This work presents an analytical method for detecting damage of flexural beam member without the baseline data at intact state. Utilizing FRF (frequency response function) data collected in the neighborhood of the resonance frequency, the POV (proper orthogonal value) and the corresponding POM (proper orthogonal mode) are extracted to use as a damage detection index. It is observed from the POM curvature curve that the damage coincides with the location to represent the abrupt change of the curve. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated in a numerical experiment. The sensitivity of the proposed method depending on the measurement data contaminated by the external noise, the resonance frequency region to collect the FRF data and the selected POV is investigated in a numerical experiment.
Wind Loading Combination considering Response Correlations between Acrosswind and Torsional Directions
Kim, Wonsul ; Kim, Yong Chul ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 55~62
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.55
The wind tunnel test was conducted to investigate characteristics of fluctuating wind forces acting on tall buildings for various side ratios (D/B=1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.0 and 3.0) and different terrain roughnesses. Further, the wind load combination was examined by the correlation of the displacement response between acrosswind and torsional directions through Spectral Modal Analysis Method and Time History Analysis Method. As a result, there was no significant effect of the changing of terrain roughnesses on fluctuating moment coefficients for acrosswind and torsional directions, but they were varied with the changing of wind directions. Acrosswind overturning moment coefficients were highly correlated with the torsional moment coefficient with the increase in wind directions. The response and correlation obtained by Time History Analysis were good agreement with those of Spectral Modal Analysis. Also, the response correlation between acrosswind and torsional directions was highly affected by natural frequency ratios. Hence, the wind load combination for acrosswind and torsional directions shall be considered that when the natural frequencies between acrosswind and torsional directions are close to each other.
Axial and Bending Performance of Glued Structural Member made of Small Rectangular Lumber
Kim, Yeong-Min ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 63~70
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.63
In this study, the structural performance of glued structural member made of small rectangular lumber was evaluated. The axial strength and elastic modulus of glued structural member were greater than those of the raw wood by 7.4% and 91.7%, respectively. It is estimated that failure modes and material imperfection caused these results. The flexural strength and flexural elastic modulus of glued structural member were about 13.5% lower than those of the raw wood after reflecting size effect. It is estimated that the lowering of these flexural performance was due to the fact that the tensile failure does not proceed smoothly and eventually occurred discontinuous failure at the interface region. The deflection ratio of both the raw wood and glued structural member at the
failure mode was about 1/110 which is about twice of the generally accepted serviceability limit of 1/240. This fact shows that both the raw wood and glued structural member satisfy the serviceability criteria sufficiently.
An Experimental Study on Ultimate Strength of Aluminum Alloy Single Shear Bolted Connections with Curling Influence
Kang, Hyun-Sik ; Kim, Tae-Soo ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 71~78
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.71
Many researchers have studied the structural performance of bolted connection with aluminum alloys and design specifications for in-plane fracture (net-section, bearing and block shear fractures) of bolted connection have been improved by their study results. However, it can be known from study results conducted by Kim et al. that curling (out-of-plane deformation) could be negative effect (strength reduction) on ultimate strength of single shear bolted connection fabricated with 3.0mm thick aluminum alloy(6061-T6) plate. Strength reduction for curled single shear specimens obtained from the comparison of test results for double shear bolted connections ranged from 4% to 30%. In this paper, additional experiments are performed in order to investigate the influence of curling on ultimate strength and curling occurrence condition for 4.0mm thick bolted connection. Main variables are end distance and edge distance. In all specimens, strength reduction by curling was observed. Strengths obtained from test results were compared with design strengths predicted by AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and AAA (American Aluminum Association) design rules. Bearing factor considering curling effect and hole deformation limit was discussed.
Simplified Model for the Stress-Strain Relationship of Confined Concrete
Kim, Won-Woo ; Mun, Ju-Hyun ; Yang, Keun-Hyeok ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 79~86
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.79
This study aims to develop a simple and rational stress-strain model of confined concrete in compression. Considering the confinement effect provided by the lateral reinforcement, the specified properties of confined concrete was formulated using regression analysis of 123 data sets as follows: modulus of elasticity, strength gain factor, strains at peak stress and 85% of the peak stress on the descending branch. Numerical and parametric analysis were carried out to derive equations for the key parameter determining the slopes of the ascending and descending branches of the stress-strain curves of confined concrete. The reliability of the developed model is examined using a normalized root mean-square error obtained from a comparison of model estimates with the experimental data. The proposed model gives superior accuracy and mathematical simplicity.
A Study on the Compressive Strength Property of Concrete with Blast Furnace Slag Using Wash Water from Recycled Aggregates
Kim, Young-Soo ; Lee, Yong-Mu ; Shin, Sang-Yeop ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 87~94
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.87
The purpose of this study is to investigate the compressive strength properties of concrete with blast furnace slag(BFS) using wash water from recycled aggregate. When BFS comes into contact with water, it dose not have an autonomously chemical reaction but BFS becomes a latent hydraulic property when BFS comes into contact with water in alkaline environment. For that reason, if water eluted from recycled coarse aggregate use mixture water, BFS is expected to reaction of latent hydraulic property in early stage. Therefore we conducted an tests of XRD, ICP-MS, compressive strength, with the concrete made from water eluted from recycled aggregate. And then we investigate the effect of the compressive strength properties of BFS using water eluted from recycled aggregate. According to the experimentation result, ICP-MS analysis shows wash water from recycled aggregate has a high alkali-ash value of pH of 12 above. And BFS concrete using wash water from recycled aggregate shows a similar strength of plain concrete due to the latent hydraulic reaction. XRD analysis shows GBFS concrete using wash water from recycled aggregate has significantly decreased presence of calcium hydroxide.
Properties Evaluation of Blast Furnace Slag-based Inorganic Binder using Red Mud and Alkali Activators
Lee, Sang-Soo ; Kim, Yun-Mi ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Park, Sun-Gyu ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 95~102
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.95
The Korea Cement Association reports that domestic cement consumption has 47.29 million tons in 2013. The cement industry is one of the primary producers of carbon dioxide. There has been a lot of research in order to protect the global environment and to reduce the consumption of cement. This experimental study is purposed to analyze the effect of red mud and alkali activator on engineering properties of non portland cement matrix using blast furnace slag. Various specimens were prepared with non portland cement matrix and the addition ratios of red mud and alkali activators. The physical properties of these specimens were then investigated by flow test, setting time test, compressive strength test, flexural strength test, EDS and observation of SEM. Results showed that
is the most suitable alkali activator for non portland cement matrix using red mud and blast furnace slag. It was judged that results of engineering properties on the alkali activated inorganic binder with kind of alkali activators and red mud were useful to basic data for mixtures design and evaluation properties of non portland cement matrix.
The UHF Wave Shielding Effectiveness of Mortar with Conductive Inclusions
Kim, Young-Jun ; Yi, Chongku ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 103~110
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.103
In this study, the electromagnetic shielding properties of mortar with various conductive inclusions were investigated to develop a cement composite that can be used as an effective barrier against unwanted electromagnetic waves in buildings. The mortars of moderate strength (W/C ratio of 40%) were prepared by replacing fine aggregates with metal fibers (0.3%, 0.5%) and copper slag (20%, 40%), and their electromagnetic shielding effectiveness were determined according to ASTM D 4935. The results showed that the shielding effectiveness is positively related with the increase in the wave frequency, and the volume of the conductive inclusions. In particular, it was also found that the effectiveness can be enhanced by hybridizing the two inclusion types.
Efficiency Improvement Method for the 4D Construction Simulation System through WBS based 3D Model and Activity Automated Relationship
Cho, Young-Sun ; Yun, Seok-Heon ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 111~118
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.111
4D simulation became a basic function in the construction project which adopt BIM technologies. Although, It could do very important role when project planning and execution, the projects which use this function are very few. They implements 4D simulation with a general 3D graphic software such as 3D studio max or with manual labor in most of the construction projects. 4D simulation requires relationship between 3D objects and construction activities. Manual linking operation among them is very hard to work and it cause many problems. In this paper, we suggested the WBS generator system to organize WBS for automated relationship between them and analyzed efficiency when 3D Model and activity automated relationship method is applied. Efficiency test with the suggested method when implementing 4D simulation was also implemented.
Mathematical Model for Profitability Analysis of Inhabited Condition Remodeling Project
Paik, Hwa-Sook ; Kim, Kyung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 119~126
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.119
Construction method of remodeling can be classified into two ways: remodeling of inhabited condition and vacancy remodeling. The advantage of remodeling of inhabited condition is continuous revenue income during construction period. Considering high vacancy rate of current commercial buildings, it also has benefit of low risk of losing good tenants and attracting new tenants. There are a number of ways to execute the remodeling depending on the setting of the work area and the tenants' area. Therefore, this study calculate the earnings from leasing on construction methods of remodeling. Revenue calculation scheme is divided into three sections: not implemented construction area of construction, construction completion of the construction zone, after completion of a construction zone. And This study analyze the profitability of those remodeling methods and suggest a selection method of construction.
A Study on the Calculation of Man Power Required for Noise-reduced Aluminum Form Construction using Simulation Technique
Seo, Won-Jung ; Kim, Young Suk ; Han, Seung-Woo ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 127~136
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.127
Recently, a series of noise-reduced aluminum forms are being used as a solution for minimizing the noise which occurs essentially when installing or dismantling the conventional aluminum forms in apartment housing construction. The primary objective of this study is to propose the number of man power per unit (
) required for construction of a nose-reduced aluminum(Hi-tech System) form that is the most frequently applied in the domestic construction industry using simulation technique. For this, the detailed work processes required for installing and dismantling the noise-reduced aluminum form were analyzed and the man-power per unit was finally calculated by applying the real time consumpted for completing each work process on site to the established cyclone model. Using the proposed number of man-power per unit for the noise aluminum form construction, it is anticipated that owners and contractors can more accurately estimate and predict the predetermined price and the construction expense for the noise-reduced aluminum form construction respectively.
Construction Equipment Fleet Optimization for Energy Saving in Earthmoving Operation
Yi, Chang-Yong ; Lee, Hong-Cheul ; Seo, Jong-Won ; Lee, Dong-Eun ;
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 137~144
DOI : 10.5659/JAIK_SC.2015.31.4.137
Construction equipment are main distributors for energy consumption in construction projects. If the construction sector reduces the amount of diesel fuel consumption by 10%, the energy saving attributed to entire industry sources would be approximately 5%. The equipment-intensive operation is tightly involved in energy-intensive operation. Energy considerative operation is a major issues in equipment-intensive operations (e.g., earthmoving or paving operations). Accordingly, the identification of optimal equipment fleet is important measure to achieve low-energy consumption in those operations. This paper presents a system which finds an optimal equipment fleet by computing the low-energy performance of earthmoving operations. It allows creating construction operation model and comparing numerous scenarios using alternative equipment allocation plans. It implements sensitivity analysis that facilitates to find the most low-energy consumption equipment fleet by enumerating all cases exhaustively. A case study is presented to demonstrate the system and to verify the validity of it.