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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Architectural Institute of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Dec 2005
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Jun 2005
Selecting the target year
An Investigation about Housing Attitudes of Korean Residents in American Apartment Houses
Yim, Mi-Sook ;
Architectural research, volume 7, issue 2, 2005, Pages 1~11
When people encounter a new cultural housing setting, their housing attitudes are more changeable and complicated than when they enter a new housing environment in the same culture. The purpose of this study was to identify cultural impacts on housing attitudes, and to find the new design concepts based on the Koreans living experience in American apartments. Data were collected by the questionnaires of 125 Koreans who live in apartment houses in Pittsburgh. According to Korean common housing attitudes and transition by the time variable, the period of residence in the US, this research found that Korean residents’ housing attitudes consist of unchanged cultural factors that have been the basic design concepts of Korean style apartments, changeable mixed factors that can be used to diversify Korean apartments, and changed desired factors that will be applied to new design concepts. Also, this research showed different housing attitudes by marital status and rent. This information may be helpful to Korean housing experts who have tried to improve apartments, and it is possible that American professionals can provide more suitable housing to fit minorities’ unique living patterns in America.
A Study on Architectural Design Factors for Tall Office Buildings with Regional Climates based on Sustainability
Cho, Jong-Soo ;
Architectural research, volume 7, issue 2, 2005, Pages 13~21
Throughout history, buildings have been interrelated with certain indigenous characteristics such as regional climate, culture and religions. In particular, the control of regional climate has been primarily a concern for compatibility with nature. In our modern age, technologies to control climate have been successfully developed in architecture but the consumption of large quantities of natural resources can also produce environmental problems. This study is based on the proposition that this negative trend can be minimized with architectural design that is motivated to coexist with a regional climate. This study develops these design strategies for tall office buildings by analyzing various combinations of building design configurations based on regional climates. The objective is to determine the optimum architecture of tall office buildings during the initial design process that will reduce energy consumption for regional climatic conditions. The eQUEST energy simulating program based on DOE-2.2 was used for this comparative analysis study of the energy use in tall office buildings based on architectural design variables and different regional climates. The results are statistically analyzed and presented in functional architectural design decision-making tables and charts. As a result of the comparison of architectural design consideration for tall office buildings in relation to regional climates, buildings physically need less energy consumption when the architecture is concerned with the regional climate and it produces a more reasonable design methodology. In reality, imbalanced planning which is architectural design’s lack of regional characteristics requires additional natural resources to maintain desired comfortable indoor conditions. Therefore, the application of integrated architectural design with regional nature should be the first architectural design stage and this research produces the rational. This architectural design language approach must be a starting point to sustaining long-term planning.
Distributed Design System as a New Paradigm Towards Future Collaborative Architectural Design Process
Han, Seung-Hoon ;
Architectural research, volume 7, issue 2, 2005, Pages 23~33
The use of computers in architectural professions has grown with the power of easy data management, increased sophistication of standalone applications, inexpensive hardware, improved speed of processing, use of standard library and tools for communication and collaboration. Recently, there has been a growing interest in distributed CAAD (Computer-Aided Architectural Design) integration due to the needs of direct collaboration among project participants in different locations, and Internet is becoming the optimal tool for collaboration among participants in architectural design and construction projects. The aim of this research is to provide a new paradigm for a CAAD system by combining research on integrated CAAD applications with recent collaboration technologies. To accomplish this research objective, interactive three-dimensional (3D) design tools and applications running on the Web have been developed for an Internet-based distributed CAAD application system, specifically designed to meet the requirements of the architectural design process. To this end, two different scopes of implementation are evaluated: first, global architecture and the functionality of a distributed CAAD system; and, second, the association of an architectural application to the system.
A Conceptual Framework for Comprehending the Spatial and Communication Layers in R & D Laboratories
Yoo, Uoo-Sang ;
Architectural research, volume 7, issue 2, 2005, Pages 35~45
This study discusses ‘mechanisms’ in a research facility, specifically focusing on the question of how we can understand what happens in the physical environment and the communication between researchers. This study attempts to address this question by examining two physical settings, before and after the move of one research-educational facility, the Institute of Paper Science and Technology. The objective of the study is to suggest conceptual models to comprehend the relationships between spatial layouts and communication. The study examines the underlying mechanism of how the levels of communication meet the layers of spatial structure. The paper has four parts. First, the preceding studies will be reviewed evoking some issues of communication and physical setting in research facilities. Second a conceptual typology in office plan will be developed providing a theoretical framework to review the spatial organization of the subject research facility, the Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST). Third, the spatial organization of the former building (before the move) and the present building (after the move) of IPST will be analyzed. Finally, conceptual models of the mechanism between the communication and the spatial organization will be drawn up.
Optimum Control of a Photoelectric Dimming System in a Small Office with a Double Skin Envelope
Kim, Soo-Young ; Yum, Sung-Kon ;
Architectural research, volume 7, issue 2, 2005, Pages 47~54
A photoelectric dimming control system for a small private office space with a double skin envelope system was analyzed for the purpose of examining optimum control performances under a variety of daylight conditions. Computer simulations were performed for the three different photosensor types positioned at the center of ceiling in the space. They were applied in both a south and north-facing room. Daylight conditions were a fixed horizontal venetian blind on an external envelope and a retractable shading device on an internal envelope under a clear, intermediate and overcast sky at different times of a day and year. Partially-shielded photosensors provided good control performances providing the required electric light output under clear and intermediate sky conditions. Unshielded photosensors failed to provide necessary illuminance levels producing less electric output and fully-shielded photosensors generally provided excessive light output. Reasonable electric lighting energy savings were achieved except under overcast sky conditions where the control system did not contribute to energy savings due to the less daylight through envelopes. The retractable shading device covering 50% of the internal envelope reduced energy savings up to 19.62%, but the workplane illuminance levels were maintained within recommended ranges. The coefficients of determination between workplane illuminance and photosensor illuminance due to daylight ranged from 0.74 to 0.98. Partially-shielded conditions provided best correlations and the north-facing room yielded stronger correlation than the south-facing room.
On Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams with Rectangular Web Openings
Eun, Hee-Chang ; Yang, Keun-Hyeok ; Lee, Young-Ho ; Chung, Heon-Soo ;
Architectural research, volume 7, issue 2, 2005, Pages 55~60
Based on an experimental study, this study provides an equation to describe the shear strength of high-strength concrete deep beams with rectangular openings and without web reinforcements. Twenty-four concrete deep beams were tested with the variables of concrete strength, size of web opening, and shear span-to-depth ratio. The proposed equation is expressed as the sum of the shear strength provided by longitudinal bars and concrete. It is illustrated that the proposed equation predicts the load-carrying capacity of the deep beams more properly than the experimental equations proposed by other researchers.
Design of Reinforced Concrete Members for Serviceability Based on Utility Theory
Lee, Young-Hak ; Kim, Sang-Bum ;
Architectural research, volume 7, issue 2, 2005, Pages 61~68
A methodology for design of reinforced concrete members for serviceability in general and deflection control in particular is presented based on application of utility theory. The approach is based on minimizing total cost including both initial construction and cost of failure considering variability in structural behavior and various forms of serviceability loss function. The method is demonstrated for the case of a simply supported slab for example.
State-of-practice and State-of-Art for the Project Cycle Time Reduction
Hong, Tae-Hoon ;
Architectural research, volume 7, issue 2, 2005, Pages 69~79
There are no formal decision tools or guidelines to assist owners and contractors in choosing delivery systems and project strategies that would allow for a radical reduction in project cycle time – from the preplanning phase through project start up. Therefore, it is important to identify the state-of-practice and the state-of-art on methods of achieving radical reduction defined as a reduction of 25% or more in overall project cycle time. A comprehensive literature review, three questionnaire surveys, and the seven case studies were conducted and the data obtained from them were analyzed to establish the state-of-practice and state-of-art for project cycle time reduction techniques.
Maintenance, Repair and Rehabilitation (MR&R) Practice for Concrete Bridge Decks
Hong, Tae-Hoon ;
Architectural research, volume 7, issue 2, 2005, Pages 81~89
Over the years, existing bridges have had various degrees of maintenance to extend the service life. As the existing bridges continue to deteriorate, however, each Department of Transportation (DOT) of the United States of America faces increasing demands on the limited funds available for bridge maintenance. Therefore, it is very important for State Department of Transportations to establish Maintenance, Repair, and Rehabilitation (MR&R) strategies for bridge structures such that funds get allocated for appropriate maintenance over the service life. This paper identifies the state-of-art and the state-of-practice of MR&R actions and the use of MR&R strategies in concrete bridge decks. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted to identify the type and timing for MR&R actions as well as existing MR&R strategies taken in concrete bridge deck by each DOT. This paper also presents the results of the survey.
An Analysis on the Labor and Capital Productivity of the Construction Industry
Choi, Min-Soo ; Kim, Moo-Han ;
Architectural research, volume 7, issue 2, 2005, Pages 91~96
The purpose of this study is to clarify the reality of labor and capital productivity in the construction industry through an industry-level approach and to analyze the relationship between labor and capital productivity using a Cobb-Douglas production function. According to the research results, the construction industry has shown a very high capital productivity, while labor productivity has kept up a low level during the 1980s and 1990s. The reason was because of the lack of skillful construction workers and the decrease of capital. Meanwhile, the construction productivity has greatly increased since 2000 when there was no change in wages. This was because of a large inflow of low-wage foreign workers while the amount of value added has dramatically increased due to the liberalized sale price of apartment buildings. According to the analysis by the Cobb-Douglas production function, the elasticity coefficient of V/L to K/L in the construction industry had decreased from 1.1663 in the
period(1971-1988) to 0.4465 in the
period(1989-1997), and to 0.1664 in the
period(1998-2003). Such a result means that the allocation of labor has gradually increased while the allocation of capital has decreased. Moreover there was a big increase in allocation of labor after 1998 due to the excessive deterioration of capital. In conclusion, in order to raise the construction productivity and to avoid labor-intensive production methods, investment for capital should be more increased. In particular, new machinery and equipment that can actually substitute human labor in construction sites should be more developed and applied to construction sites.