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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Architectural Institute of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Dec 2006
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jun 2006
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A Study on the Establishment & Functional Characteristics of Health Facilities for the Aged in Japan
Kim, Tae-Il ;
Architectural research, volume 8, issue 1, 2006, Pages 1~7
Various housing measures are needed for the rapidly aging society of Korea. In particular, the welfare policy for the elderly has changed towards the community care. Taking this fact into consideration, it is necessary to have the establishment of a system that offers the elderly appropriate welfare services at their appropriate residence (ageing in place) for the effectiveness of the community care. In this aspect, there are a number of implications to Korea to study merits and demerits of the Health Facilities for the Aged (HFA) in Japan. The society of Japan has been rapidly aging since 1970, and Korea is to face the same situation. As for the data of this study, a total of 2,393 facilities (as of November 1999) mentioned in the annual report of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare were classified based on types of their establishment: (1) free-standing structures (603 facilities); (2) annexes to hospitals (981 facilities); (3) annexes to welfare facilities (511 facilities); and (4) annexes to clinics (298 facilities). Next, 239 facilities were selected through taking a sample of 10 percent from each type of the HFA mentioned above. This was done through the random sampling method with the computer program of MS EXCEL. The Implications of the results of analyses are as follows. First, most of the health facilities were planned with the scale that was larger than the scale of standard special nursing homes in terms of the total floor area. Precise equations that were to obtain precise results of the scale of the HFA and the appropriate number of residents were obtained through the method of the regression analysis. Korea and Japan have similarities in terms of culture, society and family relations; however, the two countries also have differences in terms of the application of laws on the establishment of houses, hospitals, and welfare facilities. As for planning the scale of the HFA, the realities of Korea should be considered. Second, as for the functional aspect of the HFA with a condition of returning home, the place before and after the HFA showed the pattern of 'from a residential place to a residential place' and 'from a hospital to a hospital.' This reveals a close correlation with the types of the HFAs and operational ways of the facilities. Its cause is considered to be the aspect of the operation and management of the HFA rather than the aspect of its function of providing services in association with medical and health facilities. Therefore, when intermediate welfare facilities are considered in Korea, it is strongly advised to consider the problem of annexes to other facilities and efficiency of sharing of the facilities in terms of its operation and management
Analysis of Preferable Caf？ Interior Design Using Human Sensibility Ergonomics
Seo, Hyeong-Su ;
Architectural research, volume 8, issue 1, 2006, Pages 9~16
Maximizing profit is the most significant object of commercial places. Especially for some places where its atmosphere is main concern of customers like cafs, interior design is crucial. Thus it needs to evaluate human emotion and preference. Human Sensibility Ergonomics which is recently signified in various fields is an attempt to quantitatively analyze factors of human sensibility and apply it to design operation. This study attempted to infuse human sensibility ergonomics into caf interior design and analyzed preferable caf interior design factors. Because most cafs have their own target customers, so we assumed four different target customer groups divided by their age and gender groups in each age group. As a result, the difference of each group could be examined. Middle-aged group and males have main interest in the intensity of luminance, i.e. the brightness, whereas youths and females attach importance to both quality of light and color. In addition, there is a tendency for middle-aged group and males to see caf as a public place while young people and females recognize caf as a place for entertainment. Taking the result of this study into consideration can lead to successful caf interior design for specific target customers.
The Prevalence of Brownfields Redevelopment
Lee, Je-Seon ; Kim, Hong-Seok ; Mun, Seon-Uk ;
Architectural research, volume 8, issue 1, 2006, Pages 17~23
Brownfield redevelopment is relatively a new area of interest for federal and local government in the U.S. In the past years, there are continuing interests by urban planners, policy makers and scholars in the effects of neighborhood amenities on brownfield. This paper intends to introduce brownfield redevelopment efforts and assess the approaches to implement such efforts by reviewing current federal legislation in the U.S. for brownfield, especially in the case of the Seattle Region. This paper provides an understanding of the brownfield phenomenon, statutory dilemmas, barriers and strategies of brownfield redevelopment. This paper also addresses the need of more policy adoption and implementation for successful brownfield redevelopment.
Symbiotic Framework for Campus Core and Modern Expansion
Han, Gwang-Ya ; Kim, Hong-Il ; Lee, Hui-Won ; Kim, Hwan ;
Architectural research, volume 8, issue 1, 2006, Pages 25~36
Campus core is an essential element in a universitys physical environment for symbolic importance of high educational philosophy as well as hierarchical significance of campus structure. Yet, as modern expansion develops into and out of campus core, a challenging design and planning problem for a growing university is how to integrate a new development into the existing core structure and how to expand the fast-growing development beyond the core while maintaining a symbiotic harmony between the campus core and the modern expansion.Such challenge addresses four design frameworks for symbiotic development of the campus core and the modern expansion: (1) building grouping with territorial proximity; (2) building design rules for form and texture; (3) open space network with pedestrian walkway; (4) use-programming for on-campus student community.This study aims to explore these issues with in-depth case study of the Princeton University campus in Princeton, New Jersey in the United States. The study concludes that the Princeton campus is a result from successful synthesis of all the complex design elements, especially in relationship between the old and the new; and adds further that the development of a modern university campus requires a comprehensive plan that takes into account the older buildings when conceiving the new in symbiotic relationship along with open space network as well as functional program distribution.
Evaluation of a Fungal Spore Transportation in a Building under Uncertainty
Mun, Hyeon-Jun ;
Architectural research, volume 8, issue 1, 2006, Pages 37~45
A fungal spore transportation model that accounts for the concentration of airborne indoor spores and the amount of spores deposited on interior surfaces has been developed by extending the current aerosol model. This model is intended to be used for a building with a mechanical ventilation system, and considers HVAC filter efficiency and ventilation rate. The model also includes a surface-cleaning efficiency and frequency that removes a portion of spores deposited on surfaces. The developed model predicts indoor fungal spore concentration and provides an indoor/outdoor ratio that may increase or decrease mold growth risks in real, in-use building cases.To get a more useful outcome from the model simulation, an uncertainty analysis has been conducted in a real building case. By including uncertainties associated with the parameters in the spore transportation model, the simulation results provide probable ranges of indoor concentration and indoor/outdoor ratio. This paper describes the uncertainty quantification of each parameter that is specific to fungal spores, and uncertainty propagation using an appropriate statistical technique. The outcome of the uncertainty analysis showed an agreement with the results from the field measurement with air sampling in a real building.
Post-buckling Behavior of Tapered Columns under a Combined Load using Differential Transformation
Yu, Yeong-Chan ;
Architectural research, volume 8, issue 1, 2006, Pages 47~56
In this research, the analysis of post-buckling behavior of tapered columns has been performed under a combined load of uniformly distributed axial load along the length and concentric axial load at free end by solving the nonlinear differential equation with the differential transformation technique. The buckling load at various slopes at free end of column is calculated and the results of the analysis using the differential transformation technique is verified with those of previous studies. It is also shown through the results that the buckling load of sinusoidal tapered columns is largest, the linear is second largest, and the parabolic is small in the all ranges of slopes at free end and the deflection of parabolic tapered columns in thecoordinates is largest, the sinusoidal is second largest, and the linear is smallest in the range of slope 0 to 140 degrees at free end. However, when the range of the slope is 160 to 176 degrees at the free end, the deflection of sinusoidal tapered columns in thecoordinates is largest, the linear is second largest, and the parabolic is smallest. In addition, for the linear tapered column, the buckling load increases along with the flexural stiffness ratio. Also, for the parabolic and the sinusoidal tapered column, the buckling loads increase and decrease as the flexural ratios increase in the range of flexural stiffness ratio to . Through this research, it is verified that the differential transformation technique can be applied to solve the nonlinear differential equation problems, such as analysis of post-buckling behavior of tapered columns. It is also expected that the differential transformation technique apply to various more complicated problems in future.
Essence Applicability Matrices for the Reduction of Project Cycle Time
Hong, Tae-Hun ; Son, Jae-Ho ;
Architectural research, volume 8, issue 1, 2006, Pages 57~68
Global competition and reduced project life cycle ultimately puts greater performance requirements on the capital project delivery systems used to maintain competitiveness. Despite continuing improvements in delivery cycle time, business owners of facilities continue to demand greater improvements in project delivery cycle time. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the various techniques and methods leading to reduction in project cycle time and also identify the applicability of identified techniques and methods. This paper introduces reduction techniques identified through literature review (i.e, Schedule Reduction Techniques (SRTs), Management Techniques (MTs), and Construction Institute Industry (CII) Best Practices (BPs). In order to collect applicability of these techniques under different project phases (Pre-project planning (PPP), Design (D), Material Management (MM), Construction (C), and Start-up (SU)), the Essence Applicability Matrices (EAM) is used.
A Delphi Study on the Price Escalation Clause in a Construction Contract
Choe, Min-Su ; Kim, Mu-Han ;
Architectural research, volume 8, issue 1, 2006, Pages 69~76
The purpose of this study is to suggest policies to improve the price escalation system in a construction contract through a Policy Delphi technique. The Delphi, including two times questionnaires and a group discussion, was conducted by joining 14 experts. Also, the escalation provisions of various countries were examined. Results of the Delphi showed that the minimum fluctuation rate for price escalation was desirable at a level of 3%. To compute the fluctuation rate, calculating the price fluctuation of overall articles was more desirable than using price indices. A bidding date was more reasonable as the initial date of change in price. Losses caused by price change should be shared between contractor and owner; therefore a deduction rate should be introduced in price escalation. Meanwhile, overhead and profit should be adjusted in proportion to the fluctuation rate; but advance payment or the delayed construction amount should be deducted from the adjusted amount.
The Application of CBR for Improving Forecasting Performance of Periodic Expenditures
Lee, Jun-Seong ;
Architectural research, volume 8, issue 1, 2006, Pages 77~84
In spite of enormous increase in data generation, its practical usage in the construction sector has not been prevalent enough compared to those of other industries. The author would explore the obstacles against efficient data application in the arena of expenditure forecasting, and suggest a forecasting method by applying Case-based Reasoning (CBR). The newly suggested method in the research, enables project managers to forecast monthly expenditures with less time and effort by retrieving and referring only projects of a similar nature, while filtering out irrelevant cases included in database. Among 99 projects collected, the cost data from 88 projects were processed to establish a new forecasting model. The remaining 10 projects were utilized for the validation of the model. From the comprehensive study, the choice of the numbers of referring projects was investigated in detail. It is concluded that selecting similar projects at 12~19 % out of the whole database will produce a more precise forecasting. The new forecasting model, which suggests the predicted values based on previous projects, is more than just a forecasting methodology; it provides a bridge that enables current data collection techniques to be used within the context of the accumulated information. This will eventually help all the participants in the construction industry to build up the knowledge derived from invaluable experience.
The Ecological Paradigm in Architecture
Jo, Han ;
Architectural research, volume 8, issue 1, 2006, Pages 85~92
The goal of this research is to find a theoretical base of the ecological paradigm, and explore the architectural ramification of the paradigm. To understand the paradigm in a historical and philosophical context, the paradigm is comparatively analyzed with the contrasting, Descartes-Newtonian paradigm to reveal the influence of each respective paradigm in various fields of science, such as logic, physics, bio-medical sciences, psychology, social sciences, and architecture. The affect in architectural ream is studied to find out the patterns of how the two contrasting paradigms have been materialized since the era of modern architecture and later. At the end, this paper proposes the possible architectural application methods of ecological design process.