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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 1996
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 1996
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 1996
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 1996
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 1996
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 1996
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 1996
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 1996
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 1996
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 1996
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 1996
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 1996
Selecting the target year
Prediction of Die Wear in Extrusion and Wire Drawing
Kim, Tae-Hyeong ; Kim, Byeong-Min ; Choi, Jae-Chan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3031~3037
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19126.96.36.19931
In cold forming processes, due to high working pressure action on the die surface, failure mechanics must be considered before die design. One of the main reasons of die failure in industrial application of metal forming technologies is wear. Die wear affects the tolerances of formed parts, metal flow and costs of process etc. The only way to control these failures into devlop methods which allow prediction of die wear and which are suited to be used in the design state in order to optimize the process. In this paper, the forming propcesses that involve cold forward extrusion and wire drawing were simulated by rigid plastic finite element method and its output were used for predicting die wear by Archard wear model. The simulation results were compared with the measured worn dies.
An Auto-Tunning Fuzzy Rule-Based Visual Servoing Algorithm for a Alave Arm
Kim, Ju-Gon ; Cha, Dong-Hyeok ; Kim, Seung-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3038~3047
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19188.8.131.5238
In telerobot systems, visual servoing of a task object for a slave arm with an eye-in-hand has drawn an interesting attention. As such a task ingenerally conducted in an unstructured environment, it is very difficult to define the inverse feature Jacobian matrix. To overcome this difficulty, this paper proposes an auto-tuning fuzzy rule-based visual servo algorithm. In this algorithm, a visual servo controller composed of fuzzy rules, receives feature errors as inputs and generates the change of have position as outputs. The fuzzy rules are tuned by using steepest gradient method of the cost function, which is defined as a quadratic function of feature errors. Since the fuzzy rules are tuned automatically, this method can be applied to the visual servoing of a slave arm in real time. The effctiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified through a series of simulations and experiments. The results show that through the learning procedure, the slave arm and track object in real time with reasonable accuracy.
Mutual Interference of Two Surface Cracks under Hertzian Contact Loading
Kim, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Seock-Sam ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3048~3057
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19184.108.40.20648
Analysis model containing two inclined surface cracks on semi-infinite elastic body is established and analyzed on the basis of linear fracture mechanics to examine mutual interference of two surface cracks. Muskhelishvili's complex stress functions are introduced and a set of singular integral equations is obtained for a dislocation density function. The stress intensity factors at crack tip are obtained by using the Gerasoulis'method. When two surface cracks are parallel and have the same length, the values of
) for crack 1 and crack 2 decrease by the mutual interference of two surface cracks as the distance between the two surface cracks shortens. The effect of mutual interference is remarkable in high friction coefficient. In case that two surface cracks are parallel, the values of
for crack 2 decrease as the length ratio ot crack 2 to crack 1 becomes small. As the crack inclination angle rises, the value of
and the mutual interference of
for crack 2 increase and the value of
for crack 1 becomes smaller than that for crack 2.
Analysis of Stress Singularity on Ceramics/Metal Bonded Joints
Kim, Ki-Seong ; Kim, Hui-Song ; Chung, Nam-Yong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3058~3067
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19220.127.116.1158
With increasing use of ceramics/metal bonded joints, It is required to analyze the residual stress distribution and stress singularity at an interface edge for its bonded joints. In this paper, the residual stress distribution and stress singularity index of the ceramics/metal bonded joints were analyzed by using 2-dimensional elastic boundary element method. The variations of residual stress distribution and stress singularity index are studied with changes for the combinations of ceramics/metal bodned joints.
Automatic Support Structure Generation for Stereolithographic Rapid Prototyping
Hur, Junghoon ; Lee, Kunwoo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3068~3078
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.1918.104.22.16868
stereolithography is a process used to rapidly produce polymer components directly from a computer representation of the part. There are several considerations to be made for the efficient use of the process. Especially, the necessity of support structures, which prevent the part from warping, sagging, or parachuting and toppling as the elevator moves up and down in the resin, is one concern. After solidification, the support structures must by removed in the end. Bacause this post-treatment process is often performed manually, the more the support structures, the more it increases the finishing operations. Especially for a complicated part, the removal operations may be difficult, take so much time, and even reduce the accuracy of the product. Thus it is important to efficiently generate the efficient support structure for each part geometry. This paper proposes a procedure to automatically generate the supprot structures focused on accuracy, efficiency, convenience, and generation speed.
Active Control of Isolation Table Using
Kim, Kyu-Young ; Yang, Hyun-seok ; Park, Young-Pil ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3079~3094
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.1922.214.171.12479
Recently, the high-precision vibration attenuation technology becomes the essence fo the seccessful development of high-integrated and ultra-precision industries, and is expected to continue playing a key role in the enhancement of manufacturing technology. Vibration isolation system using an air-spring is widely employed owing to its excellent isolation characteristics in a wide frequency range. It has, however, some drawbacks such as low-stiffness and low-damping features and can be easily excited by exogenous disturbances, and then vibration of table is remained for a long time. Consequently, the need for active vibration control for an air-spring vibration isolation system becomes inevitable. Furthermore, for an air-spring isolation table to be successfully employed in a variety of manufacturing sites, it should have a guaranteed robust performance not only to exogenous disturbances but also to uncertainties due to various equipments which might be put on the table. In this study, an active vibration suppression control system using H.inf. theory is designed and experiments are performed to verify its robust performance. An air-spring vibration isolation table with voice-coil-motors as its actuators is designed and built. The table is modeled as 3 degree-of-freedom system. An active control system is designed based on
control theory using frequency-shaped weighting functions. Analysis on its performance and frequency responce properties are done through numerical simulations. Robust characteristics of
control on disturbances and model uncertainties are experimentally verified through (i) the transient response to the impact excitation of the table, (ii) the steady-state response to the harmonic excitation, and (iii) the response to the mass change of the table itself. An LQG controller is also designed and its performance is compared with the
Accelerated Testing of Coated VCR Drum Under Various Environmental Conditions
Park, U-Hyeon ; Hwang, Dong-Hwan ; Kim, Dae-Eun ; Lee, Sang-Jo ; Yoo, Dae-Eun ; Kim, Geum-Mo ; Choi, Gye-Cheol ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3095~3104
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19126.96.36.19995
The tribological characteristics of TIN and DLC coated VCR drums were compared to conventional aluminum drums using a custom built accelerated testing set-up under varying temperature and humidity. It is found that the coated drums exhibit superior frictional properties at elevated temperature and high humidity compared to bare aluminum drum. Futhermore, the coated drums maintained their initial surface conditions over a wider range of temperature and humidity variation. As for the damage incurred to the tape, DLC coated drum was the most favorable of the three types of drums.
Asymmetric Creep Behavior of Ceramics
Lim, H.J. ; Jung, J.W. ; Han, D.B. ; Kim, K.T. ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3105~3112
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19188.8.131.5205
Asymmetric creep behaviors of ceramics under high temperature were investigated. Based on the Norton's power-low creep equation, multidirectional creep equations were proposed for general geometric loading conditions. The proposed equations were implemented into finite element program (ABAQUS) to simulate creep behaviors of ceramics in complicated loading conditions. The calculated results were compared with experimental data for uniaxial compression of Si-SiC C-ring and flexure of Si-SiC and
in the literature. The finite element results agreed well with experimental data when the principal stresses are smaller than the threshold stress for creep damage. A good agreement was also obtained for damage zone in Si-SiC bending creep specimen compared with experimental data.
A Novel Micro-Machining Technique Using Mechanical and Chemical Methods
Lee, Jae-Joon ; Kim, Dae-Eun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3113~3125
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19184.108.40.20613
The objective of this study is to develop novel method named mechanical and chemical machining technique, which is capable of producing three dimensional patterns of few micrometers in dimension on a silicon wafer without the use of a mask. The strategy is to impart mechanical energy along the path of the pattern to be fabricated on a single crystal silicon by way on introdusing frictional interaction under controlled conditions. Then, the surface is preferentially etched to reveal the areas that have been mechanically energized. Upon completion of the etching process, the three dimensional pattern is produced on the silicon surface. Experiments have been conducted to identify the optimal tool material, geometery, as well as fabrication condition. The new technique introduced in this paper is significantly simpler than the conventional method which require sophisticated equipment and much time.
Propagation Characteristics of a Surface Crack on a Semi-Infinite Body Due to Frictional Heating
Park, Jun-Ho ; Park, Eun-Ho ; Kim, Chae-Ho ; Kim, Seock-Sam ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3126~3134
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19220.127.116.1126
In this paper, to examine the propagation of inclined surface crack due to frictional heating, analytic model is considered as the semi-infinite elastic body subjected to the thermo-mechanical loading of an asperity moving with a high speed. Considering the moving of frictional heat source and convection on a semi-infinite surface having inclined crack, theoretical analysis was carried out to estimate the propagation characteristics of thermo-mechanical crack. Numerical results showed that stress intensity factor
is increasing with increasing velocity and frictional coefficient, inclined degree, decreasing crack length and the maximum value of it is positioned at the trailing edge. So it is shown that the propagation probability of surface crack is high at the trailing edge of contact area as increasing velocity and frictional coefficient, inclined degree, as decreasing crack length.
An Algorithm for S-to-M Mapping in CMAC
Gwon, Seong-Gyu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3135~3141
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.1918.104.22.16835
In order to develop an efficient algorithm for S-to-M mapping in CMCA, characteristics of CMCA mappings is studied and conceptual mapping procedure is physically described. Then, careful observations on the mapping procedure and experience reveal a simple algorithm of the S-to-M mapping. The algorithm is described and compared with other procedures for S-to-M mapping. It is found very efficient in terms of computational operations and processing time.
Cavity Design for Injection Molded Gears by the Compensation Method of Design Parameters
Lee, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Choong-Hyun ; Kwon, Oh-Kwan ; Huh, Yong-Jeong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3142~3151
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.1922.214.171.12442
As plastics shrink when changing from a molten to a solid state, mold cavities must by made larger than the product specification, In making molded gears, the teeth in the cavity must be carefully compensated for shrinkage so that the teeth of gears will have the correct profile. Two compensation methods are widely used in the cavity design. One is the compensation of a module and the other is the modification of a pressure angle and profile shifting coefficient. These methods, however, do not provide a gear cavity with all disign parameters for gears and several parameters are determined by experience. In this paper, the new design technique, namely the compensation method of design parameters, was proposed , which is based on the three kinds of shrinkage rates obtained from the measuring data of the prototype of molded gears. Using the shrinkage rates in the tip circle, tooth heigth and tooth thickness, we calculate the whole design parameters of a gear cavity. Thus, the gear cavity is considered as a complete gear with the compensated module, pressure angle, profile shifting coefficient, clearance coefficient and back lash amount so that the formula of gears can be applied to the cavity design effectively. Experimental results show that more precision molded gears can be made by using the proposed design method.
A Study on the Thermal Stress Analysis of Axi-Symmetric Hollow Cylinder
Lee, Sang-Jin ; Cho, Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3152~3159
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19126.96.36.19952
Previous works about the cylindrical shape elastic body which is under longitudinal temperature distribution mostly show the results of free expansion, therefore exact thermo-elastic analysis is needed. The object of this work is to analyze the thermo-elastic problem of the hollow cylinder when the cylinder is under longitudinal temperature distribution. In this paper, the analytical solution is found by using Galerkin vector, and it is compared by the results of FEM. For displacements of cylinder, analytical values are almost same as the results of FEM, but free expansion is not fit for analytical solution and the results of FEM. stresses from analytical solution and the results of FEM show good agreement also. but the results are different near the end boundary, since St. Venant principle is applied.
Development of a Motion Control Algorithm for the Automatic Operation System of Overhead Cranes
Lee, Jong-Kyu ; Park, Young-Jo ; Lee, Sang-Ryong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3160~3172
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19188.8.131.5260
A search algorithm for the collision free, time optimal transport path of overhead cranes has been proposed in this paper. The map for the working environment of overhead cranes was constructed in the form of three dimensional grid. The obstacle occupied region and unoccupied region of the map has been represented using the octree model. The best-first search method with a suitable estimation function was applied to select the knot points on the collision free transport path to the octree model. The optimization technique, minimizing the travel time required for transporting objects to the goal while subjected to the dynamic constraints of the crane system, was developed to find the smooth time optimal path in the form of cubic spline functions which interpolate the selected knot points. Several simulation results showed that the selected estimation function worked effectively insearching the knot points on the collision free transport path and that the resulting transport path was time optimal path while satisfying the dynamic constraints of the crane system.
Multi-Modal Vibration Control of Laminated Composite Plates Using Piezoceramic Sensors/Actuators
Kim, Mun-Hyeon ; Gang, Yeong-Gyu ; Park, Hyeon-Cheol ; Hwang, Un-Bong ; Han, Gyeong-Seop ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3173~3185
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19184.108.40.20673
Multi-model vibration control of laminated composites plates for various fiver orientations has been carried out by making use of piezolectric materials(PZT) as sensors and actuators. Cantilever plate is used as a specimen to test multi-modal vibration supression under random exitation. Impulse technique is applied to determine the natural frequency, the damping ratio(.zeta.) and the modal damping(2.zeta..omega.) of the first bending and the trosion modes. Two independent controllers are implemented to control the two modes simultaneously and established digitally on the basis of the direct negative velocity feedback control with collocated sensor/actuator. Experimental results for various fiber orientations and feedback gains are compared with finite element analysis considering stiffnesses and dampings of piezoeletiric sensors, actuators and bonding layer.
Position and Vibration Control of a Flexible Manipulator Using
Park, No-Cheol ; Yang, Hyun-Seok ; Park, Young-Pil ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3186~3198
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19220.127.116.1186
When a robot is to have contact with its enviornment, such as a medi-care robot, it would be advantageous for the robot to have a high compliance. For this reason, a robot having not only a flexible link but also an actuator with compliance, is desirable. This paper is concerned with the position and vibration control of 1 degree of freedom flexible robot using a pneumatic artificial muscle actuator. The dynamics of the manipulator assumed to be and Euler-Bernoulli beam are derived on the basis of the linear mathematical modle. Although this pneumatic artifical muscle actuator has many merits for the compliance robot, it is difficult to make an effective control scheme of this system because of ths nonlinearity and uncertainty on the dynamics of the actuator. By designing a controller using .mu.-synthesis, robust performance against measurement noise, various modeling uncertainties on the dynamics of the servo valve, actuator and mainpulator, is achieved. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is illustrated through simulations and experiments.
Buckling and Postbuckling Behavior of Stiffened Laminated Composite Panels
Lee, In-Cheol ; Gyeong, U-Min ; Gong, Cheol-Won ; Hong, Chang-Seon ; Kim, Cheon-Gon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3199~3210
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.1918.104.22.16899
The buckling and postbuckling behaviors were sutdied analytically and experimentally for stiffened laminated composite panels under compression loading. The panels with I-, blade, -and hat-shapeed stiffeners were investigated. In the analysis, the stiffened panels were anlyzed using the nonlinear finite element method combined with an improved arc-length method. The progressive failure analysis was done by adopting the maximum stress criterion and complete unloading failure model. The effects of the fiber angles were investigated on the buckling and postbuckling behaviors. In the experiment, the web and the lower cap of each stiffener were formed by the continuous lay-up of the skin for cocuring the stiffened panels. Therefore, the separation between stiffener and skin was not found in the junction part even after postbuckling ultimate load and the stiffened panels had excellent postbuckling load carrying capacity. A shadow moire thchnique was used to monitor the out-of-plane deformations of the panels. The piezoelectric films were attached to the panels to get the failure characteristics of the panel. The analytical results on the buckling load, postbuckling ultimate load, and failure pattern showed good agreement with the experimental results.
A Study on the Characteristics of Elastic Wave Propagation in Plates Using Double Pulsed Laser Holographic Interferometry
Lee, Ki-Baik ; Na, Jong-Moon ; Kim, Jeong-Hun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3211~3223
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.1922.214.171.12411
In this paper, the propagation of elastic wave generated by loading impact to plates made of isotropic of anisotropic material was studied. And the influence of boundary conditions (free or clamped edge) upon the reflection of elastic wave was anlyzed. Also, double exposure holographic interferometer using ruby pulse laser was formed in order to investigate transient waves. Before the elasitc wave was reflected from the edges, the elastic wave of isotropic plate such as aluminum plate showed circular interferometric fringe pattern, whereas that of anisotropic plate such as epoxy composite laminates showed elliptical one. And the transverse displacement curves obtained from experiment and theory for both plates agreed well. Also, the waves reflected from the boundary edges showed much differences according to the boundary condition of edges.
Measurement of Stress Intensity Factor of Orthotropic Material Using SPATE
Hwang, Jae-Seok ; Suh, Jae-Guk ; Lee, Hyo-Jae ; Nam, Jeong-Hwan ; Rpwlands, R.E. ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3224~3233
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19126.96.36.19924
SPATE(Stress Pattern Analysis by Thermal Emission) can be effectively used to analyze the stress distribution of the orthotropic structure under the repeated load by non-contact. In this research, the measuring conception and method of stress intensity factor of orthotropic material using SPATE are suggested. The relationships between the maximum values of SPATE signal and
) are theoretically established in the vicinity of crack tip of the orthotropic material. It is certified through SPATE experiment that their linear quality is very excellent.
A Study on High Temperature Fracture Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Zirconia/ NiCrAlY Coating System
Kim, Yeon-Jik ; Im, Jae-Gyu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3234~3242
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19188.8.131.5234
This paper describes experimental results of modified small punch( MSP) test conducted to evaluate the fracure characteristics and mechanical properties of plasma sparayed zirconia (
stabilized with 8wt. %
: YSZ) NiCrAlY composite. The mixing ratios of YSZ/NiCrAlY were 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 100/0 v.%. Test temperatures ranged from 293K to 1473K. This study is directed at development of thermal barrrier coating(TBC) system with superior heat resistance and mechanical properties. The microstructure and fracture process of the composite were examined by SEM and AE method. The mechanical properties of 100% YSZ were nearly independent of the temperatures tested in this study. In contrast, the NiCrAlY-containing composites showed a significant decrease of the mechanical properties above 1273K, showing a ductile- brittle transition behavior up to the temperature. Furthermore, it can seen that 25% YSZ/75% NiCrAlY composite gave the highest fracure strength and fracture energy among the mixing ratio tested over the temperature range.
Study on the Behavior of a Center Crack under Thermal Impact by the Dislocation Theory
Cho, Chong-Du ; Ahn, Soo-Ick ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 20, issue 10, 1996, Pages 3408~3414
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-A.19184.108.40.20608
This paper investigated plane strain stress intensity factors caused by thermal impact on a center-crack strip. The crack was aligned perpendicularly to the strip boundary. The problem was analysed by determining the dislocation density function in the singular integral equations formulated by the dislocation theory. Under the abrupt temperature change along the edge, the center crack behaved as a mode I crack due to the symmetric geometry. The value of maximum stress intensity factor monotonically increased until the ratio of dimensionless crack length approached to about 0.3, followed by gradual decrease. As a result, a critical corresponding crack length was determined.