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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 12 - Dec 2002
Volume 26, Issue 11 - Nov 2002
Volume 26, Issue 10 - Oct 2002
Volume 26, Issue 9 - Sep 2002
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2002
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2002
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2002
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2002
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2002
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2002
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2002
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
Selecting the target year
Estimation of C*-Integral for Defective Components with General Creep-Deformation Behaviors
Kim, Yeong-Jin ; Kim, Jin-Su ; Kim, Yun-Jae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 795~802
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.795
For assessing significance of a defect in a component operating at high (creeping) temperatures, accurate estimation of fracture mechanics parameter,
-integral, is essential. Although the J estimation equation in the GE/EPRl handbook can be used to estimate the
-integral when the creep -deformation behavior can be characterized by the power law creep, such power law creep behavior is a very poor approximation for typical creep behaviors of most materials. Accordingly there can be a significant error in the
-integral. To overcome problems associated with GE/EPRl approach, the reference stress approach has been proposed, but the results can be sometimes unduly conservative. In this paper, a new method to estimate the
-integral for deflective components is proposed. This method improves the accuracy of the reference stress approach significantly. The proposed calculations are then validated against elastic -creep finite element (FE) analyses for four different cracked geometries following various creep -deformation constitutive laws. Comparison of the FE
-integral values with those calculated from the proposed method shows good agreements.greements.
STL Generation in Reverse Engineering by Delaunay Triangulation
Lee, Seok-Hui ; Kim, Ho-Chan ; Heo, Seong-Min ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 803~812
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.803
Reverse engineering has been widely used for the shape reconstruction of an object without CAD data and the measurement of clay or wood models for the development of new products. To generate a surface from measured points by a laser scanner, typical steps include the scanning of a clay or wood model and the generation of manufacturing data like STL file. A laser scanner has a great potential to get geometrical data of a model for its fast measuring speed and higher precision. The data from a laser scanner are composed of many line stripes of points. A new approach to remove point data with Delaunay triangulation is introduced to deal with problems during reverse engineering process. The selection of group of triangles to be triangulated based on the angle between triangles is used for robust and reliable implementation of Delaunay triangulation as preliminary steps. Developed software enables the user to specify the criteria for the selection of group of triangles either by the angle between triangles or the percentage of triangles reduced. The time and error for handling point data during modelling process can be reduced and thus RP models with accuracy will be helpful to automated process.
Optimal Manufacturing Conditions of Glass Fiber Reinforced PET Matrix Composites by Rapid Press Consolidation Technique
Lee, Dong-Ju ; Sin, Ik-Jae ; Kim, Hong-Geon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 813~821
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.813
Glass fiber reinforced PET matrix composite was manufactured by rapid press consolidation technique as functions of temperature, pressure and time in pre-heating, consolidation and solidification stages. The optimal manufacturing conditions for this composite were discussed based on the void content, tensile, interlaminar shear and impact properties. In addition, the levels of crystallinity with various manufacturing conditions were measured using differential scanning calorimetry to investigate the mechanical properties of this composite material as a function of crystallinity. Among many processing parameters, the mold temperature and the cooling rate after forming were found to be the most critical factors in determining the level of crystallinity and mechanical properties. The level of crystallinity affects the tensile properties to some degree. However, impact properties are affected much more. It also affects the degree of ductility, which determines the impact energy of this material.
Shift Pattern Fuzzy Control of Automatic Transmission for Ride Quality Improvement
Jo, Byeong-Gwan ; Kim, Sin-Taek ; Jo, Hyeon-Chan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 822~827
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.822
In general, jerk phenomenon appeared because of gear changing, when a vehicle starts off or climbs an incline. Therefore, it makes ride quality worse. In this paper, an optimal pattern of automatic transmission was designed using fuzzy logic in order to improve ride quality. After del eloping fuzzy rule for shift pattern control of automatic transmission, dynamic characteristics (i.e. acceleration, velocity, distance and so on) were simulated using dynamic model of a car. To do this he powertrain model of a vehicle with automatic transmission including torque converter, gear box, and final gear drive - from engine to tire - is developed.
A Study on the Fatigue Test in A5052 Alloy Sheet Under Mixed Mode Loading
Gu, Jae-Min ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 828~834
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.828
In this paper, for the mixed mode fatigue problem, the method of determining testing load was proposed. It is based on the plastic zone size and the limited maximum stress intensity factor by ASTM STANDARD E 647-00. The application method of maximum tangential stress criterion and the stress intensity factor for the finite width specimen was proposed. In the result of applying the method to mixed mode fat gut test for A5052 H34, it obtained the satisfactory experimental results on the stable crack growth.
A Study on Impact Damage Behavior of CF/Epoxy Composite Laminates
Im, Gwang-Hui ; Sim, Jae-Gi ; Yang, In-Yeong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 835~842
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.835
In this paper, static and fatigue bending strengths and failure mechanisms of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) laminates having impact damages have been evaluated. Composite laminates used for this experiment are CF/EPOXY orthotropy laminated plates, which have two-interfaces
. A steel ball launched by the air gun collides against CFRP laminates to generate impact damages. The damage growth during bending fatigue test is observed by the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) and also, the fracture surfaces were observed by using the SEM (scanning electron microscope). In the case of impacted-side compression, fracture is propagated from the transverse crack generated near impact point. On the other hand, fracture is developed toward the impact point from the edge of interface-B delamination in the case of impacted-side tension. Eventually, failure mechanisms have been confirmed based on the observed delamination areas and fracture surfaces.
Variable Time Step Simulation and Analysis of Hydraulic Control Systems using Transmission Line Modeling
Hwang, Un-Gyu ; Jo, Seung-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 843~850
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.843
This paper presents a simulation method using the transmission line modeling to reduce simulation runtime of hydraulic control systems. This method is based on separating the system components each other using the transmission line elements prior to simulation, which leads to divide the simulated system into several subsystems suitable for an even more efficient integration. It can also handle nonlinearities and discontinuities without flag signal when restarting integration. By applying variable integration timestep to parallel hydraulic circuits via parallel processing, it is shown that simulation run-time can be reduced significantly compared with that of Runge Kutta method.
Design Evaluation of WEDM Based on Deformation Analyses and Axiomatic Design
Lee, Hyeong-Il ; U, Sang-U ; Kim, Ju-Won ; Kim, Chung-Yeon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 851~863
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.851
Recent industrial requirements for highly precise shape processing have brought the electric discharge machining (EDM) in great need. High precision in EDM is primarily achieved by high performance controllers. However there exists inherent precision loss due to structural micro-deformation. On this background, we study structural deformation characteristics of wire cut EDM via finite element (FE) analysis and axiomatic design. Two different wire cut EDMs are selected as analysis models. 3D CAD package I-Deas is first used to construct FE models of wire cut EDMs, and then ABAQUS FE code is used for following structural analysis. Pertinency of FE mesh refinement is discussed in terms of η -factor. It is shown that performance accuracy of EDM depends strongly on the structural characteristics. Some design enhancements are suggested in an axiomatic design point of view. Finally we provide weight and temperature induced displacement discrepancies between wire end points as position functions of each subframe.
Development of Leak Detection System of Heat Exchanger using Acoustic Emission Technique
Lee, Min-Rae ; Lee, Jun-Hyeon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 864~871
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.864
Acoustic emission(AE) technique has been applied to not only mechanical property testing but also on-line monitoring of the entire structure or a limit zone only. Although several AE devices have already been developed for on-line monitoring, the price of these systems is very high and it is difficult for the field to apply yet. In this study, we developed a specially designed PC-based leak detection system using A/D board. In this paper, AE technique has been applied to detect leak for heat exchanger by analyzing the characteristics of signal obtained from leak. It was confirmed that the characteristics of the signal generated by the turbulence of gas in the heat exchanger is narrow band signal having between 130-250kHz. Generally, the amplitude of leak signal is increased as the leak size increasing, but showed no significant change at frequency characteristic. Leak source location can be found by determining for the paint of highest signal amplitude by comparing with several fixed sensors. In this paper, AE results are compared with the PC-based leak detection system using A/D board.
Updating of a Finite Element Model with a Damping Effect Using Frequency Response Functions
Lee, Geon-Myeong ; Lee, Hyeong-Seok ; Lee, Han-Hui ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 872~880
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.872
The finite element analysis is frequently used to predict dynamic responses of complex structures. Since the predicted responses often differ from experimentally measured ones, updating of the finite element models is performed to make the finite element results agree with the measured ones. Among several model updating methods, one is to use FRF(frequency response function) data without a modal analysis. This paper investigates characteristics of the model updating method in order to improve the method. The investigation is focused on how to obtain FRFs for unmeasured rotational displacements and how to consider damping. For the investigation simulated data and experimental data for a cantilever beam are used.
Determination of New Parameter for Materials Degradation Using Continuous Indentation Testing Technique
Jang, Jae-Il ; Choe, Yeol ; Son, Dong-Il ; Lee, Yun-Hui ; Gwon, Dong-Il ; Kim, Jeong-Tae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 881~889
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.881
Newly developed continuous indentation technique has made nondestructive assessment of tensile properties possible. The present study was undertaken to determine new parameters for indicating time-dependent material degradation of petro-chemical plant. Continuous indentation tests were performed for Cr-Ni steel and Cr-Mo steel which are widely used as facilities of petro-chemical plant. From the results, it was found that yield strength and tensile strength cannot be used as general degradation parameters because the changes in the strengths with aging time didn`t show any tendency. On the other hand, work hardening exponent and yield ratio showed consistent tendency with increasing aging time. Therefore, nam attention of this work was paid on them as new degradation parameters, and the in-field applicability of the parameters was evaluated and discussed.
Analysis of the Residual Stress due to Cold Expansion and Stress Intensity Factor in CT Specimen Using Finite Element Method
Jang, Jae-Sun ; Yang, Won-Ho ; Kim, Cheol ; Go, Myeong-Hun ; Jo, Myeong-Rae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 890~895
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.890
Cold expansion method is retarded of crack initiation due to the compressive residual stress developed on the hole surface. Previous research has just been study about residual stress distribution in the hole surrounding. But, The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the residual stress effect in hole surrounding as crack growth from another hole. In this paper, it is shown that residual stress is redistributed due to the application of cold expansion process for CT specimen using finite element method. It is further shown that tensile stress increases in proportion to cold expansion ratio in the vicinity of crack. It is thought that stress intensity factor increases with cold expansion ratio.
Evaluation on the Characteristics of Stress Corrosion Cracking for the Weldment of HT-60 Steel under Applied Potentials
Na, Ui-Gyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 896~903
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.896
The susceptibility of SCC for the weldment and PWHT specimens of HT-60 steel was evaluated using a slow strain rate method under applied potential by means of the potentiostat in synthetic seawater. In case of the parent, anodic polarization voltage was inappropriate in elongating the time to failure(TTF). -0.8V corresponding to cathodic protection range is most effective in improving the SCC resistance against corrosive environment. In case of the weldment, the values of reduction of area(ROA) and TTF at -0.68V corresponding to cathodic polarization value were 45.2% and 715,809sec which were the largest and longest life among other applied potentials. Those were vise versa at -1.1V. In case of the PWHT specimens, TTF and ROA at -0.68V was longest and largest like the weldment. Besides, PWHT is effective in prolonging the time to failure of the welded off-shore structure due to softening of effect. Regardless of the weldment and PWHT specimen, as corrosion rate gets higher, TTF becomes shorter and deformation behaviour for the weldment and PWHT specimen at -1.1V was shown to be irregular. Finally, it was found that specimens showed brittle fracture at -1.1V, but more ductile fracture accompanying the micro-cracks at applied potential of -0.68V.
Numerical Computation of Dynamic Stress Intensity Factors Based on the Equations of Motion in Convolution Integral
Sim, U-Jin ; Lee, Seong-Hui ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 904~913
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.904
In this paper, the dynamic stress intensity factors of fracture mechanics are numerically computed in time domain using the FEM. For which the finite element formulations are derived applying the Galerkin method to the equations of motion in convolution integral as has been presented in the previous paper. To assure the strain fields of r
2/ singularity near the crack tip, the triangular quarter-point singular elements are imbedded in the finite element mesh discretized by the isoparametric quadratic quadrilateral elements. Two-dimensional problems of the elastodynamic fracture mechanics under the impact load are solved and compared with the existing numerical and analytical solutions, being shown that numerical results of good accuracy are obtained by the presented method.
Robust Design of the Vibratory Gyroscope with Unbalanced Inner Torsion Gimbal Using Axiomatic Design
Park, Gyeong-Jin ; Hwang, Gwang-Hyeon ; Lee, Gwon-Hui ; Lee, Byeong-Ryeol ; Jo, Yong-Cheol ; Lee, Seok-Han ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 914~923
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.914
Recently, there has been considerable interest in micro gyroscopes made of silicon chips. It can be applied to many micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS): devices for stabilization, general rate control, directional pointing, autopilot systems, and missile control. This paper shows how the mechanical design of the gyroscope can be done using axiomatic design, followed by the application of the Taguchi robust design method to determine the dimensions of the parts so as to accommodate the dimensional variations introduced during manufacturing. Functional requirements are defined twofold. One is that the natural frequencies should have fixed values, and the other is that the system should be robust to large tolerances. According to the Independence Axiom, design parameters are classified into a few groups. Then, the detailed design process is performed fellowing the sequence indicated by the design matrix. The dimensions of the structure are determined to have constant values fur the difference of frequencies without consideration of the tolerances. It is noted that the Taguchi concept is utilized as a unit process of the entire axiomatic approach.
Parameter Study of Impact Characteristics for a Vacuum Interrupter Considering Dynamic Material Properties
Heo, Hun ; Im, Ji-Ho ; Song, Jeong-Han ; Park, U-Jin ; O, Il-Seong ; An, Gil-Yeong ; Choe, Jong-Ung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 924~931
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.924
Vacuum interrupters in order to be used in various switch-gear components such as circuit breakers, distribution switches, contactors, etc. spread the arc uniformly over the surface of the contacts. The electrodes of vacuum interrupters are made of sinter-forged Cu-Cr materials for good electrical and mechanical characteristics. Since the closing velocity is 1-2m/s and impact deformation of the electrode depends on the strain rate at that velocity, the dynamic behavior of the sinter-forged Cu-Cr is a key to investigate the impact characteristics of the electrodes. The dynamic response of the material at the high strain rate is obtained from the split Hopkinson pressure bar test using disc-type specimens. Experimental results from both quasi-static and dynamic compressive tests are Interpolated to construct the Johnson-Cook model as the constitutive relation that should be applied to simulation of the dynamic behavior of the electrodes. The impact characteristics of a vacuum interrupter are investigated with computer simulations by changing the value of five parameters such as the initial velocity of a movable electrode, the added mass of a movable electrode, the wipe spring constant, initial offset of a wipe spring and the virtual fixed spring constant.
Evaluation of Residual Strength in Damaged Brittle Materials
Sin, Hyeong-Seop ; O, Sang-Yeop ; Seo, Chang-Min ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 932~938
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.932
In structural applications, brittle materials such as soda-lime glasses and ceramics are usually subjected to multiaxial stress state. Brittle materials with cracks or damage by foreign object impacts are apt to fracture abruptly from cracks, because of their properities of very high strength and low fracture toughness. But in most cases, the residual strength of structural members with damage has been tested under uniaxial stress condition such as the 4-point bend test. Depending upon the crack pattern developed, the strength under multiaxial stress state might be different from the one under uniaxial. A comparative study was carried out to investigate the influence of stress state on the residual strength evaluation. In comparable tests, the residual strength under biaxial stress state by the ball-on-ring test was greater than that under the uniaxial one by the 4-point bend test, when a small size indendation crack was introduced. In the case that crack having an angle of 90deg. to the applied stress direction, the ratio of biaxial to uniaxial flexure strength was about 1.12. The residual strength was different from crack angles to loading direction when it was evaluated by the 4-point bend test. The ratio of residual strength of 45deg. crack to 90deg. one was about 1.20. In the case of specimen cracked by a spherical impact, it was shown that an overall decrease in flexure strength with increasing impact velocity, and the critical impact velocity for formation of a radial and/or cone crack was about 30m/s. In those cases that relatively large cracks were developed as compared with the case of indented cracks, the ratio of residual strength under biaxial stress state to one uniaxial became small.
Multiscale Wavelet-Galerkin Method in General Two-Dimensional Problems
Kim, Yun-Yeong ; Jang, Gang-Won ; Kim, Jae-Eun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 939~951
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.939
We propose a new multiscale Galerkin method based on interpolation wavelets for two-dimensional Poisson`s and plane elasticity problems. The major contributions of the present work are: 1) full multiresolution numerical analysis is carried out, 2) general boundaries are handled by a fictitious domain method without using a penalty term or the Lagrange multiplier, 3) no special integration rule is necessary unlike in the (bi-)orthogonal wavelet-based methods, and 4) an efficient adaptive scheme is easy to incorporate. Several benchmark-type problems are considered to show the effectiveness and the potentials of the present approach. is 1-2m/s and impact deformation of the electrode depends on the strain rate at that velocity, the dynamic behavior of the sinter-forged Cu-Cr is a key to investigate the impact characteristics of the electrodes. The dynamic response of the material at the high strain rate is obtained from the split Hopkinson pressure bar test using disc-type specimens. Experimental results from both quasi-static and dynamic compressive tests are Interpolated to construct the Johnson-Cook model as the constitutive relation that should be applied to simulation of the dynamic behavior of the electrodes. The impact characteristics of a vacuum interrupter are investigated with computer simulations by changing the value of five parameters such as the initial velocity of a movable electrode, the added mass of a movable electrode, the wipe spring constant, initial offset of a wipe spring and the virtual fixed spring constant.
Vibration Analysis of a Flexible Spinning Disk Considering the effect of Misalignment
Jeong, Jin-Tae ; Heo, Jin-Uk ; Choe, Gi-Yeong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 952~959
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.952
The natural frequencies of a flexible spinning disk misaligned with the axis of rotation are studied in an analytic manner. The effects of misalignment on the natural frequency need to be investigated, because the misalignment between the axis of symmetry and the axis of relation cannot be avoided in the removable disks such as CD-R, CD-RW or DVD disks. Assuming that the in -plane displacements are in steady state and the out-of-plane displacement is in dynamic state, the equations of motion are derived for the misaligned spinning disk. After the exact solutions are obtained fur the steady -state in-plane displacements, they are plugged into the equation for the dynamic-state out-of-plane motion. The resultant equation is a linear equation for the out -of-plane displacement, which is discretized by the Galerkin method. Based on the discretized dquations, the effects of the misalignment are analyzed on the vibration characteristics of the spinning disk, i.e., the natural frequencies and the critical speed.
Stacking Sequence Effects on Indentation Damage Behaviors of Fiber Metal Laminate
Han, Gyeong-Seop ; Nam, Hyeon-Uk ; Jeong, Seong-Uk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 960~968
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.960
In this research, the effects of fiber stacking sequence on damage behaviors of FML(Fiber Metal Laminates) subject to indentation loading. SOP (Singly Oriented Ply) FML and angle ply FML were fabricated to study fiber orientation effects and angle ply effects. FML were fabricated by using 1050 aluminum laminate and carbon/epoxy prepreg. To increase adhesive bonding strength, Al laminate was etched using FPL methods. The static indentation test were conducted by using UTM under the 2side clamped conditions. During the tests, load and displacement curve and crack initiation and propagation behaviors were investigated. As fiber orientation angle increases, the crack initiation load of SOP FML increases because the stiffness induced by fiber orientation is increased. The penetration load of SOP FML is influenced by the deformation tendency and boundary conditions. However, the macro-crack of angle ply FML was initiated by fiber breakage of lower ply because angle plies in Angle ply FML prevents the crack growth and consolidation. The Angle ply FML has a critical cross-angle which prevent crack growth and consolidation. Damage behavior of Angle ply FML is changed around the critical cross-angle.
Real-Time Analysis of Occupant Motion for Vehicle Simulator
O, Gwang-Seok ; Son, Gwon ; Choe, Gyeong-Hyeon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 969~975
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.969
Visual effects are important cues for providing occupants with virtual reality in a vehicle simulator which imitates real driving. The viewpoint of an occupant is sensitively dependent upon the occupant`s posture, therefore, the total human body motion must be considered in a graphic simulator. A real-time simulation is required for the dynamic analysis of complex human body motion. This study attempts to apply a neural network to the motion analysis in various driving situations. A full car of medium-sized vehicles was selected and modeled, and then analyzed using ADAMS in such driving conditions as bump-pass and lane-change for acquiring the accelerations of chassis of the vehicle model. A hybrid III 50%ile adult male dummy model was selected and modeled in an ellipsoid model. Multibody system analysis software, MADYMO, was used in the motion analysis of an occupant model in the seated position under the acceleration field of the vehicle model. Acceleration data of the head were collected as inputs to the viewpoint movement. Based on these data, a back-propagation neural network was composed to perform the real-time analysis of occupant motions under specified driving conditions and validated output of the composed neural network with MADYMO result in arbitrary driving scenario.
The Study on the CMP of Transparent Conductive ITO Thin Films for the Organic Electro-Luminescence Display
Jo, Seong-Hwan ; Kim, Hyeong-Jae ; Kim, Gyeong-Jun ; Jeong, Hae-Do ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 26, issue 5, 2002, Pages 976~985
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2002.26.5.976
The purpose of this paper is that the roughness(Rrms