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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 27, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 27, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 27, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 27, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 27, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 27, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Nonlinear Robust Control of Passenger Car Torque Converter Bypass Clutch
Han, Jin-Oh ; Kang, Soo-Joon ; Lee, Kyo-Il ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1251~1258
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1251
This paper presents a nonlinear robust approach to the slip control problem for a torque converter bypass clutch in a passenger car. The proposed nonlinear robust controller builds upon only the measurements avail-able from inexpensive sensors that are already installed in passenger cars for control. The issue of torque estimation problems for the implementation of the proposed controller is addressed. The stability of the internal dynamics is investigated, upon which a nonlinear robust controller is designed using input-output feedback linearization and Lyapunov redesign technique. The performance of the designed controller is validated by simulation studies.
Tuning of a Laterally Driven Microresonator using Electrostatic Comb Step Array
Lee, Ki-Bang ; Seo, Young-Ho ; Cho, Young-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1259~1265
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1259
We present a new post-fabrication frequency tuning method for laterally driven electrostatic microresonators using a DC-biased electrostatic comb array of linearly varied finger-length. The electrostatic tuning force and the equivalent stiffness, adjusted by the DC-biased tuning-comb array, have been formulated as functions of geometry and DC tuning voltage. A set of frequency-turnable microresonators has been designed and fabricated by 4-mask surface-micromachining process. The resonant frequency of the microfabricated microresonator has been measured for a varying tuning voltage at the reduced pressure of 1 torr. The maximum 3.3% reduction of the resonant frequency is achieved at the tuning voltage increase of 20V.
A Magnetic Microsensor based on the Hall Effect in an AC Microplasma
Seo, Young-Ho ; Han, Ki-Ho ; Cho, Young-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1266~1272
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1266
This paper presents a new class of magnetic microsensors based on the Hall effect in AC microplasma. In the theoretical study, we develop a simple model of the plasma Hall sensor and express the plasma Hall voltage as a function of magnetic field, plasma discharge field, pressure, and electrode geometry. On this basis, we have designed and fabricated magnetic microsensors using AC neon plasma. In the experiment, we have measured the Hall voltage output of the plasma microsensors for varying five different conditions, including the frequency and the magnitude of magnetic field, the frequency and the magnitude of plasma discharge voltage, and the neon pressure. The fabricated magnetic microsensors show a magnetic field sensitivity of 8.87
0.18㎷/G with 4.48% nonlinearity.
Development of Dynamic Photoelastic Experimental Hybrid Method for Propagating Cracks in Orthotropic Material
Shin, Dong-Chul ; Hawong, Jai-Sug ; Sung, Jong-Hyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1273~1280
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1273
In this paper, transparent dynamic photoelastic experimental hybrid method for propagating cracks in orthotropic material was developed. Using transparent dynamic photoelastic experimental hybrid method, we can obtain stress intensity factor and separate the stress components from only isochromatic fringe patterns without using isoclinics. When crack is propagated with constant velocity, the contours of stress components in the vicinity of crack tip in orthotropic material are similar to those of isotropic material or orthotropic material with stationary crack under the static load. Dynamic stress intensity factors are decreased as crack growths. It was certified that the dynamic photoelastic experimental hybrid method was very useful for the analysis of the dynamic fracture mechanics.
Improvement of Convergence Rate by Line Search Algorithm in Nonlinear Finite Element Method
Koo, Sang-Wan ; Kim, Nak-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1281~1286
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1281
A line search algorithm to increase a convergence in Newton's method is developed and applied to nonlinear finite element analysis. The algorithm is based on the slack line search theory which is an efficient algorithm to determine initial acceleration coefficient, variable backtracking algorithm proposed by some researchers, and convergence criterion based on residual norm. Also, it is capable of avoiding exceptional diverging conditions. Developed program is tested in metal forming simulation such as forging and ring rolling. Numerical result shows the validity of the algorithm for a highly nonlinear system .
A Study on the Wear Estimation of End Mill Using Sound Frequency Analysis
Lee, Chang-Hee ; Cho, Taik-Dong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1287~1294
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1287
The wear process of end mill is so complicated process that a more reliable technique is required for the monitoring and controlling the tool life and its performance. This research presents a new tool wear monitoring method based on the sound signal generated on the machining. The experiment carried out continuous-side-milling for 4 cases using the high-speed-steel end mill under wet condition. The sound pressure was measured at 0.5m from the cutting zone by a dynamic microphone, and was analyzed at frequency domain. As the cutter impacts the workpiece surface, a situation of farced vibration arises in which the dominant forcing frequency is equal to the tooth passing frequency of the cutter. The tooth passing frequency appears as a harmonics form, and end mill flank wear is related with the first harmonic. It is possible to detect end . mill flank wear. This paper proposed the new method of the end mill wear detection.
Evaluation of Failure Behavior of a Pipe Containing Circumferential Notch-Type Wall Thinning
Kim, Jin-Weon ; Park, Chi-Yong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1295~1302
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1295
In order to evaluate a failure behavior of pipe with notch-type wall thinning, the present study performed full-scale pipe tests using the 102mm, Schedule 80 pipe specimen simulated notch- and circular-type thinning defects. The pipe tests were conducted under the conditions of both monotonic and cyclic bending moment at a constant internal pressure of 10 MPa. From the results. of experiment the failure mode, load carrying capacity, deformation ability, and fatigue life of a notch-type wall thinned pipe were investigated, and they were compared with those of a circular-type wall thinned pipe. The failure mode of notched pipe was similar to that of circular-type thinned pipe under the monotonic bending load. Under the cyclic bending load, however, the mode was clearly distinguished with variation in the shape of wall thinning. The load carrying capacity of a pipe containing notch-type wall thinning was about the same or slightly lower than that of a pipe containing circular-type wall thinning when the thinning area was subjected to tensile stress, whereas it was higher than that of a pipe containing circular-type thinning defect when the thinning area was subjected to compressive stress. On the other hand, the deformation ability and fatigue life of a notch-type wall thinned pipe was lower than those of a circular-type wall thinned pipe.
A Linearization Method for Constrained Mechanical System
Bae, Dae-Sung ; Yang, Seong-Ho ; Seo, Jun-Seok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1303~1308
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1303
This research proposes an implementation method of linearized equations of motion for multibody systems with closed loops. The null space of the constraint Jacobian is first pre-multiplied to the equations of motion to eliminate the Lagrange multiplier and the equations of motion are reduced down to a minimum set of ordinary differential equations. The resulting differential equations are functions of ail relative coordinates, velocities, and accelerations. Since the coordinates, velocities, and accelerations are tightly coupled by the position, velocity, and acceleration level constraints, direct substitution of the relationships among these variables yields very complicated equations to be implemented. As a consequence, the reduced equations of motion are perturbed with respect to the variations of all coordinates, velocities, and accelerations, which are coupled by the constraints. The position, velocity and acceleration level constraints are also perturbed to obtain the relationships between the variations of all relative coordinates, velocities, and accelerations and variations of the independent ones. The perturbed constraint equations are then simultaneously solved for variations of all coordinates, velocities, and accelerations only in terms of the variations of the independent coordinates, velocities, and accelerations. Finally, the relationships between the variations of all coordinates, velocities, accelerations and these of the independent ones are substituted into the variational equations of motion to obtain the linearized equations of motion only in terms of the independent coordinate, velocity, and acceleration variations.
A New Dicing Method for Semiconductor Wafer
Cha, Young-Youp ; Choi, Bum-Sick ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1309~1316
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1309
The general dicing process cuts a semiconductor wafer to lengthwise and crosswise direction by using a rotating circular diamond blade. But products with inferior quality are produced under the influence of several parameters in dicing process such as blade, wafer, cutting water and cutting conditions. Moreover we can not apply this dicing method to GaN wafer, because the GaN wafer is harder than the other wafer such as SiO2, GaAs, GaAsP, and AlGaAs. In order to overcome this problem, development of a new dicing process and determination of dicing parameters are necessary. This paper describes a new wafer dicing method using fixed diamond scriber and precision servo mechanism and determination of several parameters - scribing depth, scribing force, scriber inclined angle, scribing speed, and factor for scriber replacement - for a new dicing machine using scriber.
Natural Frequencies and Modes of Rotary Specimen Rack(RSR) in a Still Fluid
Kim, Sung-Kyun ; Lee, Dong-Kyu ; Lee, Kune-Woo ; Park, Jin-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1317~1323
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1317
In this paper, In-air and in-water vibration characteristics of Rotary Specimen Rack(RSR) are estimated through 3D finite element analysis by using ANSYS software. Added mass is calculated by using Blevins' equation. To confirm the accuracy of the results presented in this study, obtained results are compared to those of using a theoretical equation. It is confirmed that in-water natural frequencies of the RSR are lower than in-air ones due to tile added mass effect of the fluid. Also, good agreement is founded between natural frequency ratios obtained by a theoretical equation and those of using ANSYS.
Study on Shape Design of Cylindrical Cam with A Translating Roller Follower
Yoon, Ho-Eop ; Shin, Joong-Ho ; Gu, Byong-Kook ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1324~1330
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1324
A cylindrical cam with a translating roller follower provides to change the rotational motion of the cam to the translation motion of the follower. It's a very useful mechanism in the automation. But, it's very difficult that the shape is defined accurately. This paper proposes a shape design method of the cylindrical cam with a translation roller follower using the relative velocity method
(9,11-13)/ : The relative velocity method calculates the relative velocity of the follower versus the cam at a center of roller, and then determines a contact point by using the geometric relationships and the kinematical constraints. Finally, we present examples in order to prove the accuracy of the proposed methods.
Vibration Analysis of Rotating Cantilever Plates with Arbitrary Orientation Angle
Kim, Sung-Kyun ; Yoo, Hong-Hee ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1331~1337
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1331
Linearized equations of motion for the vibration analysis of rotating cantilever plates with arbitrary orientation angle are derived in the present work. Two in-plane stretch variables are introduced to be approximated. The use of the two in-plane stretch variables enables one to derive the equations of motion which include proper motion-induced stiffness variation terms. The equations of motion are transformed into dimensionless forms in which dimensionless parameters are identified. The effects of the dimensionless parameters on the modal characteristics of rotating cantilever plates are investigated through numerical study. The natural frequency loci veering along with the associated mode shape variations, which occur while the rotating speed increases, are also presented and discussed.
Formability of Thermoplastic Laminar Composite depending on the Types of- Fabric
Shin, Ick-Jae ; Lee, Dong-Joo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1338~1346
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1338
Three-dimensional formability of the thermoplastic laminar composite was studied according to manufacturing conditions. Five different types of the plain weave fabric were used as reinforcement with PET matrix. The square blank was made by press consolidation technique and formed in the type hemisphere. B-factor defined as the ratio of width of yarn and distance between yarns was used as the factor of formability in the type of plain weave fabric. The formability of PET/Glass fabric laminar composite was estimated in terms of forming rate and B-factor with the thickness distribution, area ratio of blank, and intra-ply shear angle. The thickness distribution across hemisphere was strongly affected by the B-factor, forming rate and blank thickness. The area ratio of blank was increased with B-factor, forming rate and blank thickness. Also, it was found that the intra-ply shear angle depends on the B-factor and forming rate.
The Effects of the Stiffness Mistuning and the Excitation Force Phase Difference on the Vibration Localization of Cyclic Structures
Kang, Min-Kyoo ; Yoo, Hong-Hee ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1347~1352
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1347
In periodic cyclic structures, small property irregularity of their substructured often causes significant difference in their dynamic responses, which results in unpredicted premature failures. The small irregularity and the resulting phenomenon are called the mistuning and the vibration localization, respectively. In this paper a simple coupled multi-pendulum system is employed to investigate the effects of the stiffness mistuning and the phase difference in excitation force on the vibration localization of periodic cyclic structures.
Simultaneous Optimization of Structure and Control Systems Based on Convex Optimization - An approximate Approach -
Son, Hoe-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1353~1362
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1353
This paper considers a simultaneous optimization problem of structure and control systems. The problem is generally formulated as a non-convex optimization problem for the design parameters of mechanical structure and controller. Therefore, it is not easy to obtain the global solutions for practical problems. In this paper, we parameterize all design parameters of the mechanical structure such that the parameters work in the control system as decentralized static output feedback gains. Using this parameterization, we have formulated a simultaneous optimization problem in which the design specification is defined by the Η
/ norms of the closed loop transfer function. So as to lead to a convex problem we approximate the nonlinear terms of design parameters to the linear terms. Then, we propose a convex optimization method that is based on linear matrix inequality (LMI). Using this method, we can surely obtain suboptimal solution for the design specification. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Structural Shape Optimization under Static Loads Transformed from Dynamic Loads
Park, Ki-Jong ; Lee, Jong-Nam ; Park, Gyung-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1363~1370
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1363
In structural optimization, static loads are generally utilized although real external forces are dynamic. Dynamic loads have been considered in only small-scale problems. Recently, an algorithm for dynamic response optimization using transformation of dynamic loads into equivalent static loads has been proposed. The transformation is conducted to match the displacement fields from dynamic and static analyses. The algorithm can be applied to large-scale problems. However, the application has been limited to size optimization. The present study applies the algorithm to shape optimization. Because the number of degrees of freedom of finite element models is usually very large in shape optimization, it is difficult to conduct dynamic response optimization with the conventional methods that directly threat dynamic response in the time domain. The optimization process is carried out via interfacing an optimization system and an analysis system for structural dynamics. Various examples are solved to verify the algorithm. The results are compared to the results from static loads. It is found that the algorithm using static loads transformed from dynamic loads based on displacement is valid even for very large-scale problems such as shape optimization.
Development of Rapid Tooling Technology for Shoe Mold and Its Applications
Chung, Sung-Il ; Im, Yong-Gwan ; Jeong, Hae-Do ; Jeong, Du-Su ; Bae, Tae-Yong ; Lee, Seok-Woo ; Choi, Han-Zong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1371~1379
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1371
RP&M (Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing) is the most appropriate technology for the small-lot production system, because the production cycle is getting shorter owing to various needs of the consumer. In this paper, rapid tooling technology is applied to the casting process. The casting process has the ability to reflect complicated shapes in one process. But it has not been widely used to make a die and mold because of the poor surface quality caused by air bubbles on the surface of the casting product. In this study, the porous casting mold is fabricated from a mixture of plaster and water-soluble binder. The porous casting mold can improve the characteristics of casting products with the help of the vacuum sealed casting process. The vacuum sealed casting process is an advanced technology that removes the air bubbles between the porous casting mould and the liquid metal, thus making the surface of the casting product finer. The purpose of this paper is to develop a high quality shoe mold using porous casting mold and to apply the RP&M technology to the shoe industry.
Development of Micromolding Technology using Silicone Rubber Mold
Chung, Sung-Il ; Im, Yong-Gwan ; Kim, Ho-Youn ; Choi, Jae-Young ; Jeong, Hae-Do ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1380~1387
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1380
Microsystem technology (MST) which originated from semiconductor processes has been widely spreaded into the other industry such as sensors, micro fluidics and displays. The MST, however, has been troubled in spreading with its high cost and material limitations. So, in this paper, new process for micromolding technology using silicone rubber mold was introduced. Silicone rubber mold, which was fabricated by vacuum casting, can be transferred a master pattern to a final product with the same shape but different materials. In order to verify the possibility of application of silicone rubber mold to the MST, its transferability was evaluated, and then it applied to the fabrications of polishing pad and PDP barrier ribs.
Reliability Monitoring of Adhesive Joints by Piezoelectricity
Kwon, Jae-Wook ; Chin, Woo-Seok ; Lee, Dai-Gil ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1388~1397
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1388
Since the reliability of adhesively bonded joints for composite structures is dependent on many parameters such as the shape and dimensions of joints, type of applied load, and environment, so an accurate estimation of the fatigue life of adhesively bonded joints is seldom possible, which necessitates an in-situ reliability monitoring of the joints during the operation of structures. In this study, a self-sensor method for adhesively bonded joints was devised, in which the adhesive used works as a piezoelectric material to send changing signals depending on the integrity of the joint. From the investigation, it was found that the electric charge increased gradually as cracks initiated and propagated in the adhesive layer, and had its maximum value when the adhesively bonded joint failed. So it is feasible to monitor the integrity of the joint during its lifetime. Finally, a relationship between the piezoelectric property of the adhesive and crack propagation was obtained from the experimental results.
The Influence of Dynamic Strain Aging on Tensile and LCF Properties of Prior Cold Worked 316L Stainless Steel
Hong, Seong-Gu ; Lee, Soon-Bok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1398~1408
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1398
Tensile and LCF(low cycle fatigue) tests were carried out in air at wide temperature range 20
and strain rates of 1
-2/ to ascertain the influence of strain rate on tensile and LCF properties of prior cold worked 316L stainless steel, especially focused on the DSA(dynamic strain aging) regime. Dynamic strain aging induced the change of tensile properties such as strength and ductility in the temperature region 250
and this temperature region well coincided with the negative strain rate sensitivity regime. Cyclic stress response at all test conditions was characterized by the initial hardening during a few cycles, followed by gradual softening until final failure. Temperature and strain rate dependence on cyclic softening behavior appears to result from the change of the cyclic plastic deformation mechanism and DSA effect. The DSA regimes between tensile and LCF loading conditions in terms of the negative strain rate sensitivity were well consistent with each other. The drastic reduction in fatigue resistance at elevated temperature was observed, and it was attributed to the effects of oxidation, creep and dynamic strain aging or interactions among them. Especially, in the DSA regime, dynamic strain aging accelerated the reduction of fatigue resistance by enhancing crack initiation and propagation.
An Internet-based Dimensional Verification System for Reverse Engineering
Song, In-Ho ; Kim, Kyung-Don ; Chung, Sung-Chong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1409~1417
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1409
In the 21st century, the concept of remote design and manufacture is strongly required in manufacturing processes to reduce cost and time-to-market. The objective of this paper is the development of an internet-based dimensional verification system for reverse engineering. An inspection client can register measurement data at the developed web server. Collaborators related to the development of a new product can confirm geometrical form from measurement data, check dimensional information and mark up the important parts, as well as make a statement of their views through the Internet. The developed system is realized through the ActiveX-Server architecture. Functions of the dimensional verification module are constructed as ActiveX by using the visual C＋＋ and OpenGL. The usefulness of the developed system is confirmed through a case study.
Real-Time Tool-Path Generation for 3-Axis CNC Machining of NURBS Surfaces
Koo, Tae-Hoon ; Jee, Sung-Chul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1418~1425
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1418
In CAD systems, a surface to be machined is expressed by a series of curves, such as B-spline, Bezier and NURBS curves, which compose the surface and then in CAM systems the curves are divided into a large number of line or arc segments. These divided movement commands, however, cause many problems including their excessive size of NC data that makes almost impossible local adjustment or modification of the surface. To cope with those problems, the necessity of real-time curve or surface interpolators was embossed. This paper presents an efficient real-time tool-path generation method fur interpolation of NURBS surfaces in CNC machining. The proposed tool-path generation method is based on an improved iso-scallop strategy and can provide better precision than the existing methods. The proposed method is designed such that tool-path planning is easily managed in real-time. It proposed a new algorithm for regulation of a scallop height, which can efficiently generate tool-paths and can save machining time compared with the existing method. Through computer simulations, the performance of the proposed method is analyzed and compared with the existing method in terms of federate, total machining time and a degree of constraint on the scallop height.
Development of a Robust Design Process Using a Robustness Index
Hwang, Kwang-Hyeon ; Park, Gyung-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 27, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1426~1435
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2003.27.8.1426
Design goal is to find the one that has the highest probability of success and the smallest variation. A robustness index has been proposed to satisfy these conditions. The two-step optimization process of the target problem requires a scaling factor. The search process of a scaling factor is replaced with the making of the decoupled design between the mean and the standard deviation. The decoupled design matrix is formed from the sensitivity or the sum of squares. After establishing the design matrix, the robust design process has a new three-step one. The first is ″reduce variability,″ the second is ″make the candidate designs that satisfy constraints and move the mean on the target,″ and the final is ″select the best robust design using the proposed robustness index.″ The robust design process is verified by three examples and the results using the robustness index are compared with those of other indices.