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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 28, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 28, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 28, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 28, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 28, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 28, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
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Analysis of Micromechanical Behavior for Fiber-Reinforced Composites
Jeong Jae Youn ; Ha Sung Kyu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1435~1450
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1435
The investigation, which includes the material homogenization and the calculation of local stress concentration of long-fibrous composites in a microscopic level, has been performed to analyze the behavior of fiber-reinforced composites by using finite element method. In order to carry out this study, the finite element models of composites have been generated by the idealized arrays as square and hexagonal-packed type. In the FE analysis, the boundary conditions of micromechanical finite element method(MFEM) have been defined and verified by comparing with the results from multi-cells, and the effective material properties of composites composed of graphite/epoxy have been also evaluated by rules of mixture. For acquiring the relation between the global and local behaviors of composites, the magnifications of strain, stress, and interfacial stress of composites subjected to a longitudinal and transverse loading respectively have been calculated. And the magnifications have been proposed as the stress concentration in the microscopic level at composite material.
The Relationship of Bone Mineral Density to Growing Age
Hong Sung Min ; Shin Jung Sik ; Han Eun Ok ; Ahn Joong Hwan ; Han Seung Moo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1451~1457
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1451
Bone density parameters of children, unlike that of adult, might reflect growth effect along longitudinal direction as well as bone mass. The clinical test was performed for 859 male/female children with age 6-16 years. Ultrasonic imaging system was used to measure bone density, and relationship of bone density to age was evaluated. The bone quality index appeared to be highly correlated with age for male/female children. It was found that bone quality index rose rapidly in the first growth period. The bone quality index was then kept almost unchanged in the period of puberty, and slowly rose after puberty. It was also found that growth of female stopped earlier than that of male. Also, if more clinical examinations are performed by applying various sizes of region of interest, relationship between bone density and age is expected to be more reliable.
Reliability Based Design Optimization of the Softwater Pressure Tank Considering Temperature Effect
Bae Chul-Ho ; Kim Mun-Seong ; Suh Myung-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1458~1466
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1458
Deterministic optimum designs that are obtained without consideration of uncertainties could lead to unrealiable designs. Such deterministic engineering optimization tends to promote the structural system with less reliability redundancy than obtained with conventional design procedures using the factor of safety. Consequently, deterministic optimized structures will usually have higher failure probabilities than unoptimized structures. This paper proposes the reliability based design optimization technique fur apressure tank considering temperature effect. This paper presents an efficient and stable reliability based design optimization method by using the advanced first order second moment method, which evaluates a probabilistic constraint for more accuracy. In addition, the response surface method is utilized to approximate the performance functions describing the system characteristics in the reliability based design optimization procedure.
Experimental Verifications of Fatigue Crack Identification Method Using Excitation Force Level Control for a Cantilever Beam
Kim Do-Gyoon ; Lee Soon-Bok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1467~1474
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1467
In this study, a new damage identification method for beam-like structures with a fatigue crack is proposed. which does not require comparative measurement on an intact structure but require several measurements at different level of excitation forces on the cracked structure. The idea comes from the fact that dynamic behavior of a structure with a fatigue crack changes with the level of the excitation force. The 2
spatial derivatives of frequency response functions along the longitudinal direction of a beam are used as the sensitive indicator of crack existence. Then, weighting function is employed in the averaging process in frequency domain to account for the modal participation of the differences between the dynamic behavior of a beam with a fatigue crack at the low excitation and one at the high excitation. Subsequently, a damage index is defined such that the location and level of the crack may be identified. It is shown from the analysis of vibration measurements in this study that comparison of frequency response characteristics of a beam with a single fatigue crack at different level of excitation forces enables an effective detection of the crack.
Consideration on the Results of Metal Forming Simulation Based on MINI-Elements
Lee Mincheol ; Chung Sukhwan ; Kwon Youngsam ; Joun Mansoo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1475~1482
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1475
In this paper, the rigid-viscoplastic finite element solutions obtained by MINI-elements based triangular elements and tetrahedral elements are compared with those obtained from numerically well-behaved rectangular and hexahedral elements. The theoretical background of the MINI-elements is introduced in detail and the rigid-viscoplastic finite element formulation is also given. Discussion on the results of the MINI-elements is made with emphasis on the effect of a stabilizer simplifying velocity-bubble coupled terms.
Plastic Collapse Solution for API 5L X65 Natural Gas Linepipe
Kim Woo-sik ; Shim Do-jun ; Choi Jae-boong ; Baek Jong-hyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1483~1491
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1483
To assess the integrity of the pipeline is the most important problem to be solved first of all for prevention of any fracture accident of the pipeline. As a result of exerting such efforts, a number of plastic collapse assessment equations have been suggested, however, the scope of using or applying such assessment equations has not been exactly defined. In this study, the case that a surface crack existed in the circumferential direction in the external side of the natural gas pipeline and a bending load was applied to the pipeline was analytically identified as the most critical condition, and a plastic collapse assessment equation fur it was suggested. The flow stress of the API X65 linepipe was defined through the experiment conducted on SENT specimens. Also, a local assessing criterion of a 3-dimensional crack behavior considering not only the crack depth but also the crack length was suggested. Finally, a plastic collapse assessment equation for the API X65 linepipe was developed by performing the 3-dimensional finite element analysis.
Prediction of Defect Formation in Ring Rolling by the Three-Dimensional Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Method
Moon Ho Keun ; Chung Jae Hun ; Park Chang Nam ; Joun Man Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1492~1499
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1492
In this paper, defect formation in ring rolling is revealed by computer simulation of ring rolling processes. The rigid-plastic finite element method is employed for this study. An analysis model having relatively fine mesh system near the roll gap is used for reducing the computational time and a scheme of minimizing the volume change is applied. The formation of the central cavity formation defect in ring rolling of a taper roller bearing outer race and the polygonal shape defect in ring rolling of a ball bearing outer race has been simulated. It has been seen that the results are qualitatively good with actual phenomena.
Characteristics for a Mode III Crack Propagating along Interface between Isotropic and Functionally Gradient Material with Linear Property Gradation along X Direction
Lee Kwang Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1500~1508
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1500
Stress and displacement fields for a crack propagating along interface between isotropic material and functionally gradient one with linear property gradation along X direction are developed. The stress and displacement fields are obtained from the complex function of steady plane motion for isotropic and functionally gradient material (FGM). The stresses and displacement in isotropic material of bimaterial are not influenced by nonhomogeneity, however, the fields in FCM are influenced by nonhomogeneity in the terms of higher order, n
3. When the nonhomogeneous parameter in FGM is zero, or in area close to crack tip, the fields are identical to those of isotropic-isotropic bimaterial. Using these stress components, the effects of nonhomogeneity on stresses are discussed.
Optimization for the Cylindrical Structure with Multi-Holes Under Thermal Loading
Lee Young-Shin ; Choi Young-Jin ; Kang Young-Hwan ; Lee Jong-Woong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1509~1516
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1509
During fuel irradiation tests, all parts of cylindrical structure with multiple holes act as heat sources due to fussion heat and
-flux. The high temperature is especially generated in the center of pellet. Because of the high temperature, many problems occur, such as melting of pellet and declining of heat transfer between cladding and coolant. In this paper, it is attempted to minimize the temperature of pellet using optimization method. For thermal and optimization analysis of structure, the finite element method code, ANSYS 5.7 is used. Through the optimum design process, the temperature of SBT diminished 10％ and the temperature of OBT diminished 18％.
Automatic Generation of Finite Element Meshes on Midsurfaces in Shell Structures
Son Jun-Hee ; Chae Soo-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1517~1525
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1517
Shell finite elements are widely used for the analysis of thin section objects such as sheet metal parts, automobile bodies and et al. due to their computational efficiency. Since many of input data for finite element analysis are given as solid models or triangulated surface models, one should extract midsurface information from these input data initially and then construct shell meshes on the extracted midsurfaces. In this paper, a method of generating shell elements on midsurfaces directly from input models has been proposed, in which midsurface generating process can be omitted. In order to construct shell meshes, the input models should be triangulated on surfaces first, and then tetrahedral elements are generated by using an advancing front method, and finally mid shell surfaces are obtained from tetrahedral meshes. Some examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
The Damage Behavior of Glass/Epoxy and Aramid/Epoxy in Leaf Spring of Ankle Foot Orthosis (A.F.O) due to the Various Impact Velocities
Song Sam-Hong ; Oh Dong-Joon ; Jung Hoon-Hee ; Kim Cheol-Woong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1526~1533
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1526
The needs of walking assistant device such as the Ankle Foot Orthosis (A.F.O) are getting greater than before. However, most of the A.F.O are generally imported rather than domestic manufacturing. The major reason of high import reliability is the rack of impact properties of domestic commercial products. Therefore, this research is going to focus on the evaluation of impact properties of the A.F.O which has the high import reliability. Unfortunately, these kinds of researches are not performed sufficiently. This research is going to evaluate impact energy behavior in composite materials such as the glass/epoxy (S-glass, [0/90]sub 2S/) and the aramid/epoxy (Kevlar-29, woven type, 8 ply) of ankle foot orthosis. The approach methods were as follows. 1) The history of impact load and impact energy due to the various velocities. 2) Relationship between the deflection and damage shape according to the impact velocities. 3) The behavior of absorbed energy and residual strength rate due to the various impact velocities.
Manufacturing/Material Property Characterization of Polymer Nano-composites with Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes
Kim Taegoo ; Goak Jeungchoon ; Lee Naesung ; Lee Jongwhi ; Park Joohyuk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1534~1540
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1534
This study aims to obtain fundamental understandings involving the manufacturing processes of nano-composites with chemically surface-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs), and explore the role of functionalized MWCNTs in the epoxy/MWCNT composites. For this purpose, MWCNTs were purified by the thermo-chemical oxidation process, and incorporated into an epoxy matrix by in situ polymerization process, the surface of MWCNTs were functionalized with carboxyl functions which were demonstrated by an infrared spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites were measured to investigate the role of a chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes. To improve the dispersion quality of MWCNTs in the epoxy matrix, methanol and acetone were exploited as dispersion media with sonification. The epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites with 1 or 2 wt.％ addition of functionalized carbon nanotubes show an improved tensile strength and wear resistance in comparison with pure epoxy, which shows the mechanical load transfer improves through chemical bonds between epoxy and functionalized MWCNTs. The tensile strength with 7 wt.％ functionalized MWCNTs increases by 28％ and the wear resistance is dramatically improved by 100 times.
Development of a Simulation Tool of a Two-Axis Nano Stage for a New Generation Lithography System
Yoo Gunmo ; Jung Jongchul ; Chung Chung Choo ; Huh Kunsoo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1541~1548
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1541
A nano-stage simulation tool is developed for an advanced E-beam lithography system. Even if piezo-actuators are believed to be compatible fer the E-beam lithograpy system it is difficult to predict their characteristics due to their nonlinearities such as hysteresis and creep. In this paper, the nonlinear properties are modeled for a piezo-actuator by considering the voltage range and speed variations. The hysteresis is described as the first order differential equation with 24 sets of parameters and the creep is modeled as a time-dependent logarithmic function with 2 sets of a parameter. A two-axis nano stage with piezo-actuators are investigated for realizing nano scale motions. The characteristics of flexure guide mechanisms are analyzed based on the finite element method using the ANSYS software. The simulation tool for the nano stage is constructed by using the RecurDyn software. The dynamic response of the nano stage is obtained in simulations and compared with the experimental data.
Fatigue Life Estimation of Cruciform Welded Joint Considering Multiple Collinear Surface Cracks
Han Seung Ho ; Shin Byung Chun ; Kim Jae Hoon ; Han Jeong Woo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1549~1557
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1549
Fatigue life of welded joints is governed by the propagation of multiple collinear surface cracks distributed randomly along weld toe. These cracks propagate under the mechanisms of mutual interaction and coalescence of the adjacent two cracks. To estimate the fatigue life, its influences on the above two mechanisms should be taken into account, which appear through the stress intensity factors disturbed mutually. However, it is difficult to calculate the stress intensity factors of the multiple surface cracks located in vicinity of weld toe due to its geometrical complexity. They are calculated normally by using the Μk-factors, but such Mk-factors are very rare in literature. In this study, the Μ
-factors were obtained from a parametric study on crack length and depth, for which a finite element method is used. A fatigue test for a cruciform welded Joint was conducted and the fatigue life of the tested specimen was estimated using the present method with the informations obtained from the test, such as the number, size, and locations of the cracks. The estimated and measured fatigue life showed a good agreement.
A Study on the Supporting Location Optimization a Structure Under Non-Uniform Load Using Genetic Algorithm
Lee Young-Shin ; Bak Joo-Shik ; Kim Geun-Hong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1558~1565
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1558
It is important to determine supporting locations for structural stability when a structure is loaded with non-uniform load or supporting locations as well as the number of the supporting structures are restricted by the problem of space. Moreover, the supporting location optimization of complex structure in real world is frequently faced with discontinuous design space. Therefore, the traditional optimization methods based on derivative are not suitable Whereas, Genetic Algorithm (CA) based on stochastic search technique is a very robust and general method. The KSTAR in-vessel control coil installed in vacuum vessel is loaded with non- uniform electro-magnetic load and supporting locations are restricted by the problem of space. This paper shows the supporting location optimization for structural stability of the in-vessel control coil. Optimization has been performed by means of a developed program. It consists of a Finite Element Analysis interfaced with a Genetic Algorithm. In addition, this paper presents an algorithm to find an optimum solution in discontinuous space using continuous design variables.
Shape Optimization of Cavitator for a Supercavitating Projectile Underwater
Grandhli Ramana V. ; Choi JooHo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1566~1573
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1566
When a projectile travels at high speed underwater, supercavitating flow arises, in which a huge cavity is generated behind the projectile so that only the nose, i.e., the cavitator, of the projectile is wetted, while the rest of it should be surrounded by the cavity. In that case, the projectile can achieve very high speed due to the reduced drag. Furthermore if the nose of the body is shaped properly, the attendant pressure drag can be maintained at a very low value, so that the overall drag is also reduced dramatically. In this study, shape optimization technique is employed to determine the optimum cavitator shape for minimum drag, given certain operating conditions. Shape optimization technique is also used to solve the potential flow problem fur any given cavitator, which is a free boundary value problem having the cavity shape as unknown a priori. Analytical sensitivities are derived for various shape parameters in order to implement a gradient-based optimization algorithm. Simultaneous optimization technique is proposed for efficient cavitator shape optimization, in which the cavity and cavitator shape are determined in a single optimization routine.
New Continuous Variable Space Optimization Methodology for the Inverse Kinematics of Binary Manipulators Consisting of Numerous Modules
Jang Gang-Won ; Nam Sang Jun ; Kim Yoon Young ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1574~1582
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1574
Binary manipulators have recently received much attention due to hyper-redundancy, light weight, good controllability and high reliability. The precise positioning of the manipulator end-effecter requires the use of many modules, which results in a high-dimensional workspace. When the workspace dimension is large, existing inverse kinematics methods such as the Ebert-Uphoff algorithm may require impractically large memory size in determining the binary positions of all actuators. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new inverse kinematics algorithm: the inverse kinematics problem is formulated as an optimization problem using real-valued design variables, The key procedure in this approach is to transform the integer-variable optimization problem to a real-variable optimization problem and to push the real-valued design variables as closely as possible to the permissible binary values. Since the actual optimization is performed in real-valued design variables, the design sensitivity becomes readily available, and the optimization method becomes extremely efficient. Because the proposed formulation is quite general, other design considerations such as operation power minimization can be easily considered.
Numerical Computation of the Stress Itensity Factor of A Cracked Viscoelastic Body Under the Impact Load
Lee Sung-Hee ; Sim Woo-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1583~1589
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1583
In this paper, A new finite element method for the time domain analysis of the dynamic stress intensity factor of two-dimensional viscoelastic body with a stationary central crack under the transient dynamic load is presented, which is based on the intergrodifferential equations of motion in the isotropic linear viscoelasticity and the Galerkin's method. The vlscoelastic material is assumed to be elastic in dilatation and behaves like a standard linear solid in shear. As a numerical example, the Chen's problem in viscoelastodynamic version is solved for the parametric study about the effect of viscosity and relaxation time on the dynamic stress intensity factor.
Displacement-Load Method for Semi-Analytical Design Sensitivity Analysis
Yoo Jung Hun ; Kim Heung Seok ; Lee Tae Hee ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1590~1597
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1590
Three methods of design sensitivity analysis for structures such as numerical method, analytical method and semi-analytical method have been developed for the last three decades. Although analytical design sensitivity analysis can provide very exact result, it is difficult to implement into practical design problems. Therefore, numerical method such as finite difference method is widely used to simply obtain the design sensitivity in most cases. The numerical differentiation is sufficiently accurate and reliable fur most linear problems. However, it turns out that the numerical differentiation is inefficient and inaccurate in nonlinear design sensitivity analysis because its computational cost depends on the number of design variables and large numerical errors can be included. Thus the semi-analytical method is more suitable for complicated design problems. Moreover, semi-analytical method is easy to be performed in design procedure, which can be coupled with an analysis solver such as commercial finite element package. In this paper, implementation procedure fur the semi-analytical design sensitivity analysis outside of the commercial finite element package is studied and the computational technique is proposed for evaluating the partial differentiation of internal nodal force, so called pseudo-load. Numerical examples coupled with commercial finite element package are shown to verify usefulness of proposed semi-analytical sensitivity analysis procedure and computational technique for pseudo-load.
Study on PDMS/Class Microthermostat Fabrication and Evaluation for Restriction Enzyme Reaction
Jin Seok-Ho ; Cho Yong-Jin ; Ahn Yoomin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1598~1602
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1598
In this paper, we report a microthermostat using PDMS (poly-dimethylsiloxane) and glass. This PDMS/glass chip is able to maintain constant temperature that is necessary for restriction enzyme reaction. Since PDMS is the low-cost and the mass-producible material and has very good biochemical compatibility, PDMS chip has more benefit than general Si chip. Heater was made of Au wiring patterned on Pyrex glass. A reaction chamber has a capacity of about 3
. We performed a restriction enzyme reaction by using the fabricated microthermostat and conventional method. Then, with the electrophoresis, we made a comparison between the result from the micro reactor and the one from conventional method.
Applicability Evaluation of Modified Overlay Model on the Cyclic Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel at Room Temperature
Lim Jae-Yong ; Lee Soon-Bok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1603~1611
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1603
The validity of 'modified overlay model' to describe the cyclic behavior of annealed 316L stainless steel at room temperature was investigated. Material parameters(~f
b, η, E) fur the model were obtained through constant strain amplitude test. The strain amplitude dependency of elastic limit and cyclic hardening, which were the characteristics of this model, were considered. Eight subelements were used to describe the nonlinearity of the hysteresis loops. The calculated hysteresis curve in each condition (0.5％, 0.7％, 0.9％ train amplitude test) was very close to the experimental one. Two tests, incremental step test and 5-step test, ere performed to check the validity of 'modified overlay model'. The elastic limit was saturated to the one of the highest strain amplitudes of the block in the incremental step test, so it seemed to be Masing material at the stabilized block. Cyclic hardening was successfully described in the increasing sequence of the strain amplitude in 5-step test. But, the slight cyclic softening followed by higher strain amplitude would not be able to simulate by'modified overlay model'. However, the discrepancy induced was very small between the calculated hystereses and the experimental ones. In conclusion,'Modified overlay model'was proved to be appropriate in strain range of 0.35％~ 1.0％..0％.
Crack Opening Displacement Estimation for Engineering Leak-Before-Break Analyses of Pressurized Nuclear Piping
Huh Nam-Su ; Kim Yun-Jae ; Chang Yoon-Suk ; Yang Jun-Seok ; Choi Jae-Boons ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1612~1620
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.10.1612
This study presents methods to estimate elastic-plastic crack opening displacement (COD) fur circumferential through-wall cracked pipes for the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) analysis of pressurized piping. Proposed methods are based not only on the GE/EPRI approach but also on the reference stress approach. For each approach, two different estimation schemes are given, one for the case when full stress-strain data are available and the other fur the case when only yield and ultimate tensile strengths are available. For the GE/EPRI approach a robust way of determining the Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) parameters is proposed, not only fur the case when detailed information on full stress-strain data is available but also for the case when only yield and ultimate tensile strengths are available. The COD estimates according to the GE/EPRI approach, using the R-O parameters determined from the proposed R-O fitting procedures, generally compare well with the published pipe test data. For the reference stress approach, the COD estimates according to the method based on both full stress-strain data and limited tensile properties are in good agreement with pipe test data. In conclusion, experimental validation given in the present study provides sufficient confidence in the use of the proposed method to practical LBB analyses even though when information on material's tensile properties is limited.