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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 28, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 28, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 28, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 28, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 28, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 28, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
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Structural Deformation and Flow Analysis for Designing Air Plate of a Fuel Cell
Yang, Ji-Hae ; Park, Jung-Sun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 877~884
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.877
In this paper, structural analysis is performed to investigate the deformation of porous media in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Structural deformation of air plate of the fuel cell causes the change in configuration and cross sectional area of the channel. The distributions of mass flow rate and pressure are major factors to decide the performance of a PEMFC. These factors are affected by channel configuration of air plate. Two kinds of numerical air plate models are suggested for flow analyses. Deformed porous media and undeformed porous media are considered for the two models. The Numerical flow analysis results between deformed porous media and undeformed porous media have some discrepancy in pressure distribution. The pressure and velocity distribution under a working condition are numerically calculated to predict the performance of the air plates. Pressure and velocity distributions are compared for two models. It is shown that structural deformation makes difference in flow analysis results.
A Design Methodology with Orthogonal Arrays Using Experiments and Computer Simulations
Park, Gyung-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 885~895
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.885
Generally, automatic design is carried out with computer simulation and the simulation models are established by investigating the correlations between the simulation and real experiments. Therefore, the experiment results are utilized as complimentary data although they are considered to be precise. Orthogonal arrays have been adopted for discrete design. A method is proposed to directly exploit the experiment results in the design process with orthogonal arrays. Experiments are allocated to some rows of an orthogonal array and computer simulations are allocated to the others. A rule for the allocation is found to keep the orthogonality. Error analysis of the design results is performed. Mathematical examples are made to verify the validity of the proposed method. Error models are defined with the examples and the design solutions from the examples are discussed.
Structural Characteristic Analysis on the Hydrostatic Guide Way and Feeding System of a High-Precision Centerless Grinder for Machining Ferrules
Kim, Seok-Il ; Park, Chun-Hong ; Cho, Soon-Joo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 896~903
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.896
This paper proposes the structural characteristic analysis and evaluation on the hydrostatic guide way and feeding system of a high-precision centerless grinder for machining ferrules. In order to realize the required accuracy of ferrules with sub-micron order, the axial stiffness and motion accuracy of feeding system have to become higher level than those of existing centerless grinders. Under these points of view, the physical prototype of feeding system composed of steel bed, hydrostatic guide way and ballscrew feeding mechanism is designed and manufactured for trial. Experimental results show that the axial and vertical stiffnesses of the physical prototype are very low as compared with those design values. In this paper, to reveal the cause of these stiffness difference, the structural deformations on the virtual prototype of feeding system are analyzed based on the finite element method under experimental conditions. The simulated results illustrate that the deformation of front ballscrew support-bearing bracket is the main cause of reduction in the axial stiffness of feeding system, and the deflection of bed structure and the bending deformation of hydrostatic guide rails are the main causes of reduction in the vertical stiffness of feeding system.
Kinematic Manipulability Analysis of the Casing Oscillator
Nam, Yun-Joo ; Park, Myeong-Kwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 904~914
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.904
In this paper, input-output velocity and force transmission characteristics of the Casing Oscillator which is a construction machine with 4 degrees of freedom are examined. After the Jacobian matrix is decomposed into the linear part and angular part, the velocity and force transmission characteristics for the linear and angular workspace are easily analyzed and visualized even if the Casing Oscillator has the spatial dimensional workspace with 4 DOF. Regarding the manipulability measure of the Casing Oscillator, the kinematic isotropic index and the manipulability measure which represent the isotropy and volume of the manipulability ellipsoid, respectively, are combined to coincidently consider them with respect to equivalent ranges and fluctuations. A performance of the Casing Oscillator is evaluated by the newly proposed manipulability measures.
Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Properties of a Balloon-Expandable Stent
Oh, Byung-Ki ; Cho, Hae-Yong ; Kim, Yong-Yun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 915~922
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.915
A stent is small tube-like structure expanded into stenotic arteries to restore blood flow. The stent expansion behaviors define the effectiveness of the surgical operation. In this paper, finite-element method was employed to analyze expansion behaviors and fatigue life of a typical diamond-shaped balloon-expandable stent. Beyond safety considerations, this type of analysis provides mechanical properties that are often difficult to obtain by experiments. Mechanical properties of the stent expansion pressure, radial recoil, longitudinal recoil and foreshortening were simulated using commercial FEM code, ANSYS and fatigue life were estimated using NISAII ENDURE. The FEM results showed that the pressures necessary to expand the stent up to a diameter of 3mm, 4mm and 5mm were 0.75MPa, 0.82MPa and 0.97MPa. The fatigue lifes according to expansion diameter were 114
cycles and 163
cycles. As a result, a finite element model used in this study can simulate expansion behaviors of stents and should be useful to design new stents or analyze actual stents.
Yoke Topology Optimization of the Bias Magnetic System in a Magnetostrictive Sensor
Kim, Yoon-Young ; Kim, Woo-Chul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 923~929
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.923
A magnetostrictive sensor is a sensor measuring elastic waves. Because of its unique non-contact measurement feature, the sensor receives more attentions in recent years. These sensors have been mainly used to measure longitudinal and torsional waves in ferromagnetic waveguides, but there increases an interest in using the sensor for flexural wave measurement. Since the performance of the sensor is strongly influenced by the applied bias magnetic field distribution, the design of the bias magnetic system providing the desired magnetic field is critical. The motivation of this investigation is to design a bias magnetic system consisting of electromagnets and yokes and the specific objective is to formulate the design problem as a bias yoke topology optimization. For the formulation, we employ linear magnetic behavior and examine the optimized results for electromagnets located at various locations. After completing the design optimization, we fabricate the prototype of the proposed bias magnetic system, and test its performance through flexural wave measurements.
Constitutive Models for Final Stage Densification of Powder Compacts with Power-Law Creep Deformation
Yang, Hoon-Chul ; Kim, Ki-Tae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 930~939
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.930
Constitutive models for final stage densification of metal powder compacts with power-law creep deformation were investigated. The constitutive models were implemented into a finite element program (ABAQUS) by using user subroutine CREEP and, from FEM results, useful densification curves were obtained when hydrostatic and uniaxial stress were applied to the powder compacts at various pressures and temperatures. Because the densification behavior varied as the constitutive models, the equivalent stress surface on each constitutive equation was investigated to analyze the difference of densification behavior.
Three Dimensional Optimum Design of Endosseous Implant in Dentistry by Multilevel Response Surface Optimization
Han, Jung-Suk ; Kim, Jong-Soo ; Choi, Joo-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 940~947
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.940
In this paper, an optimum design problem for endosseous implant in dentistry is studied to find best implant design. An optimum design problem is formulated to reduce stresses arising at the cortical as well as cancellous bones, in which sufficient design parameters are chosen for design definition that encompasses major implants in popular use. Optimization at once (OAO) with the large number of design variables, however, causes too costly solution or even failure to converge. A concept of multilevel optimization (MLO) is employed to this end, which is to group the design variables of similar nature, solve the sub-problem of smaller size for each group in sequence, and this is iterated until convergence. Each sub-problem is solved based on the response surface method (RSM) due to its efficiency for small sized problem.
A Study on the Flat-Type Induction Heating of Steel Plate
Yun, Jin-Oh ; Yang, Young-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 948~954
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.948
Induction heating is a process that is accompanied with magnetic and thermal situation. When the high-frequency current flows in the coil, induced eddy current generates heat to conductor. To simulate an induction and induction heating process, the finite element analysis program was developed. A coupling method between the magnetic and thermal routines was developed. In the process of magnetic analysis and thermal analysis, magnetic material properties and thermal material properties depending on temperature are taken into consideration. In this paper, to predict the angular deformation, temperature difference and the shape of heat affected zone were discussed. Also appropriate coil shape and other process variables for maximum angular deformation were proposed.
Motion Control of Servo Cylinder Using Neural Network
Hwang, Un-Kyoo ; Cho, Seung-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 955~960
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.955
In this paper, a neural network controller that can be implemented in parallel with a PD controller is suggested for motion control of a hydraulic servo cylinder. By applying a self-excited oscillation method, the system design parameters of open loop transfer function of servo cylinder system are identified. Based on system design parameters, the PD gains are determined for the desired closed loop characteristics. The Neural Network is incorporated with PD control in order to compensate the inherent nonlinearities of hydraulic servo system. As an application example, a motion control using PD-NN has been performed and proved its superior performance by comparing with that of a PD control.
Web-based Design and Dimension Verification System Using STEP Files
Song, In-Ho ; Chung, Sung-Chong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 961~969
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.961
Most manufacturing companies are trying to develop a competitive product by increasing the quality, shortening time to market and reducing the cost of a product. Collaborators related to the development of a new product want to confirm geometric forms and dimensions during the design process, as well as to verify dimensional errors of a product during the fabrication process. Objective of this paper is the development of a collaborative design and dimension verification system on the Internet. STEP files obtained from the design process are used for the design and dimension verification. Functions of the design and dimension verification modules are constructed over the ActiveX control using the visual C/sup ++/ and OpenGL. By using mark up functions over the Internet, collaborators check geometries, interferences, dimensional errors, human factors and form errors, as well as share their design ideas and opinions with XML rapidly and remotely. The usefulness of the developed system is confirmed through case studies.
A Suggestion and a Contribution for the Improvement of Axiomatic Design
Choi, Duk-Hyun ; Hwang, Woon-Bong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 970~976
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.970
For a long time, design methodologies strive to systematize the design process in order to make the practice more efficient and effective. One of such methodologies is Axiomatic Design. However, this design theory still has some problems and is not completely settled. In this paper, the new issue for the non-linear design in Axiomatic Design is suggested and the representation of system architecture by flow chart is corrected. In the case that the design equation varies as a function of the variation of DP (
DP), the design should be regarded as the nonlinear design because the design equation is not a constant. When system architectures are represented by a flow chart, all systems could not be independently represented. However, by adding the notation of the end of decoupling to the notations using in flow chart, those can be independently represented.
Fatigue Life Estimation of Welding Details by Using a Notch Strain Approach
Han, Jeong-Woo ; Han, Seung-Ho ; Shin, Byung-Chun ; Kim, Jae-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 977~985
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.977
An evaluation of fatigue life of welded components is complicated due to various geometrically complex welding details and stress raisers in vicinity of weld beads, ego under cuts, overlaps and blow holes. These factors have a considerable influence on the fatigue strength of welded joints, as well as the welding residual stress which is relaxed depending on the distribution of local stress at the front of the stress raisers. To reasonably evaluate fatigue life, the effect of geometries and welding residual stress should be taken into account. The several methods based on the notch strain approach have been proposed in order to accomplish this. These methods, however, result in differences between analytical and experimental results due to discrepancies in estimated amount of relaxed welding residual stress present. In this paper, an approach that involves the use of a modified notch strain approach considering geometrical effects and a residual stress relaxation model based on experimental results was proposed. The fatigue life for five types of representative welding details, ego cruciform, cover plate, longitudinal stiffener, gusset and side attachment joint, are evaluated using this method.
A Study on the Ball-Bar Artifact for the Volumetric Error Calibration of Machine Tools
Lee, Eung-Suk ; Koo, Sang-Seo ; Park, Dal-Gun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 986~991
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.986
For volumetric error measurement and calibration for machine tools, manufacturing machine or coordinate measuring machine (CMM), are studied using a Ball-bar artifact. A design of the Ball-bar is suggested manufactured by Invar, which is a low thermal expansion material, and precision steel balls. The uncertainty for the artifact method is discussed. A method of the Ball-bar artifact for obtaining 3-D position errors in CMM is proposed. The method of error vector measurement is shown using the Ball-bar artifact. Finally, the volumetric error is calculated from the error vectors and it can be used for Pitch error compensation in conventional NC machine and 3-D position Error map for calibration of NC machine tools.
Analysis on Roll Over in the Tube Hydro-Piercing Process
Choi, Sung-Ki ; Ahn, Ick-Tae ; Moon, Young-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 992~998
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.992
During the tube hydropiercing, the region adjacent to the pierced hole will be deformed and will be drawn away from the die block as the punch advances through the wall of the tube. The deformation in the region may range from a substantially flat form to a countersunk form, so called rollover. In this study, the effects of material properties, shape of piercing punches, roundness of tube surface and internal pressure within the tube during piercing on the rollover have been investigated experimentally. The results provide the quantitative variation of rollover at given hydropiercing parameters, and a relationship between the deformed radius and the rollover caused by the deformation has been established.
Fabrication of a PDMS (Poly-Dimethylsiloxane) Stamp Using Nano-Replication Printing Process
Park, Sang-Hu ; Lim, Tae-Woo ; Yang, Dong-Yol ; Kong, Hong-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 999~1005
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.999
A new stamp fabrication technique for the soft lithography has been developed in the range of several microns by means of a nano-replication printing (nRP) process. In the nRP process, a figure or a pattern can be replicated directly from a two-tone bitmap figure with nano-scale details. A photopolymerizable resin was polymerized by the two-photon absorption which was induced by a femtosecond laser. After the polymerization of master patterns, a gold metal layer (about 30 ㎚ thickness) was deposited on the fabricated master patterns for the purpose of preventing a join between the patterns and the PDMS, then the master patterns were transferred in order to fabricate a stamp by using the PDMS (poly-dimethylsiloxane). In the transferring process, a few of gold particles, which were isolated from the master patterns, remained on the PDMS stamp. A gold selective etchant, the potassium iodine (KI) was employed to remove the needless gold particles without any damage to the PDMS stamp. Through this work, the effectiveness of the nRP process with the PDMS molding was evaluated to make the PDMS stamp with the resolution of around 200 ㎚.
Burst Pressure Evaluation for Through-Wall Cracked Tubes in the Steam Generator
Kim, Hyun-Su ; Kim, Jong-Sung ; Jin, Tae-Eun ; Kim, Hong-Deok ; Chung, Han-Sup ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1006~1013
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.1006
Operating experience of steam generators shows that the tubes are degraded by stress corrosion cracking, fretting wear and so on. These defected tubes could stay in service if it is proved that the tubes have sufficient structural margin to preclude the risk of tube bursting. This paper provides detailed plastic limit pressure solutions for through-wall cracks in the steam generator tubes. These are developed based on three dimensional(3D) finite element analyses assuming elastic-perfectly plastic material behavior. Both axial and circumferential through-wall cracks in free span and in u-bend regions are considered. The resulting limit pressure solutions are given in a polynomial form, and thus can be simply used in practical integrity assessment of the steam generator tubes.
Finite Element Based Stress Concentration Factors for Pipes with Local Wall Thinning
Son, Beom-Goo ; Kim, Yun-Jae ; Kim, Young-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1014~1020
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.1014
The present work complies the elastic stress concentration factor for a pipe with local wall thinning, based on detailed three-dimensional elastic FE analysis. To cover practically interesting cases, a wide range of pipe and defect geometries are considered, and both internal pressure and global bending are considered. Resulting values of stress concentration factors are tabulated for practical use, and the effect of relevant parameters such as pipe and defect geometries on stress concentration factors are discussed. The present results would provide valuable information to estimate fatigue damage of the pipe with local wall thinning under high cycle fatigue.
Methods to Evaluate Stress Triaxiality from the Side Necking Near the Crack Tip
Kim, Dong-Hak ; Kang, Ki-Ju ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1021~1028
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.1021
Kim et al. suggested an experimental method to determine the Q parameter in situ from the out-of-plane displacement and the in-plane strains on the surface of side necking near the crack tip. In this paper, the procedure to evaluate the stress triaxiality near a crack tip such as the Q parameter is to be polished in the details for simplicity and accuracy. That is, Q and hydrostatic stress are determined only from the out-of-plane displacement, but not using in-plane strain, which is hard to measure. And also, the plastic modulus is determined by an alternative way. Through three-dimensional finite element analyses for a standard CT specimen with 20% side-grooves, the validities of the new procedures are examined in comparison to the old ones. The effect of location where the displacements are measured to determine the stress triaxiality is explored.
Integrated Design of Feed Drive Systems Using Discrete 2-D.O.F. Controllers (I) - Modeling and Performance Analysis -
Kim, Min-Seok ; Chung, Sung-Chong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1029~1037
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.1029
High-speed/precision servomechanisms have been widely used in the manufacturing and semiconductor industries. In order to ensure the required high-speed and high-precision specifications in servomechanisms, an integrated design methodology is required, where the interactions between mechanical and electrical subsystems will have to be considered simultaneously. For the first step of the integrated design process, it is necessary to obtain not only strict mathematical models of separate subsystems but also formulation of an integrated design problem. A two-degree-of-freedom controller described in the discrete-time domain is considered as an electrical subsystem in this paper. An accurate identification process of the mechanical subsystem is conducted to verify the obtained mathematical model. Mechanical and electrical constraints render the integrated design problem accurate. Analysis of the system performance according to design and operating parameters is conducted for better understanding of the dynamic behavior and interactions of the servomechanism. Experiments are performed to verify the validity of the integrated design problem in the x-Y positioning system.
Integrated Design of Feed Drive Systems Using Discrete 2-D.O.F. Controllers (II) -Formulation and Synthesis of Integrated Design-
Kim, Min-Seok ; Chung, Sung-Chong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1038~1046
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.1038
In order to acquire high-speed and high-precision performances in servomechanisms, an integrated design method have been proposed. Based on strict mathematical modeling and analysis of system performance according to design and operating parameters, a nonlinear constrained optimization problem including the relevant subsystem parameters of the servomechanism is formulated. Optimum design results of mechanical and electrical parameters are obtained according to the design parameters specified by designers through the integrated design processes. Motors are optimally selected from the servo motor database. Both the geometric errors referring to Abbe offset and the contour errors are minimized while required constraints such as stability conditions and saturated conditions are satisfied. This design methodology both offers the improved possibility to evaluate and optimize the dynamic motion performance of the servomechanism and improves the quality of the design process to achieve the required performance for high-speed/precision servomechanisms.
The Detection of the Internal Defect in the Glass Using Auto Focusing Method
Jy, Yong-Woo ; Jhang, Kyung-Young ; Jung, Ji-Hwa ; Kim, Suk-Jun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1047~1054
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.1047
Internal defects in the glass, like-as micro-voids, micro-cracks, or inclusions, easily cause the failure when the glass is exposed to the shock or the thermal variation. In order to produce the highly reliable glass product, the precision inspection of the defect in the glass is required. For this purpose, this paper proposes a machine vision technique based on the auto-focusing method, which searches the defect and measures the location under the fact that the edge image of defect must be the most clear when the focal plane of CCD camera is coincided with the defect. As for the search index, the gradient indicator is presented. The basic principles are verified through the simulations for the computer-generated defect images, where the affects of defect shape, gray level of background, and the brightness of the defect image are also analyzed. Finally, experimental results for actual glass specimens are shown to confirm the applicability of this method to the actual field.
Automatic System Development by Using Friction Force and Stiffness with Nonlinear Characteristic
Lee, Jeong-Wook ; Cho, Yong-Hee ; Chang, Yong-Hoon ; Kim, Jung-Ha ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1055~1063
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.7.1055
In this study, we developed an automatic veneer sorting system controlled by nonlinear friction and nonlinear stiffness. With these nonlinear characteristics, it was difficult to analysis and to control the system in the fast. However it is necessary to consider nonlinear characteristics to satisfy accurate and rapid control demand in these days. We used not only nonlinear friction but also nonlinear stiffness and combined both to control the system. An experimental device was designed with 4 AC servo-motors and 2 Sensors. Through a series of experiment, we found nonlinear friction characteristics among roller versus veneer and veneer versus veneer and nonlinear stiffness characteristics with stacked veneers. Finally, we showed that the proposed control algorithm was very effective for veneer sorting system with nonlinear friction and stiffness.