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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 28, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 28, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 28, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 28, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 28, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 28, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
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Precise Position Synchronous Control of Four-Axes System Based on Acceleration Control
Jeong, Seok-Kwon ; Choi, Bong-Seok ; You, Sam-Sang ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1245~1254
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1245
In this paper, we deal with a precise position synchronous control of four-axes system which is working under various load disturbances. Each axis driving system is consisted of a speed controller and an acceleration controller as an inner loop instead of conventional current control scheme. The acceleration control plays an important roll to suppress load disturbances quickly. Also, each axis is coupled by a maximum position synchronous error comparison to minimize position synchronous errors according to integration of speed differency. As a result, the proposed system enables precise synchronous control with good robustness against load disturbances during transient as well as steady state. The stability and robustness of the proposed system are investigated through its frequency characteristic and numerical simulations. Finally, experimental results under load disturbances demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system fur four-axes position synchronous control.
A Contact Stress Analysis in a FAM Process Using Variational Approximation Procedure
Seok, Jong-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1255~1261
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1255
A variational approximation procedure is introduced to study the contact stresses between a representative asperity and a feature generally happening in superfinishing processes such as FAM. After a description of the model under consideration is presented, a system of governing equation for the model is derived fullowed by the assumptions made in order to make progress in model development. Final computation is made to evaluate contact stresses on an elastic asperity tip in small scale in size and a computer simulation is performed for detailed surface profile variations on a representative feature. Numerical results are presented along with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis.
Prediction of Moments and Muscle Forces at the Knee Joint in Deep Flexion
Cho, Bong-Jo ; Moon, Byoung-Young ; Son, Kwon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1262~1269
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1262
This study predicts muscle forces acting on the lower extremity when the knee joint is in deep flexion. The whole body was approximated as a link model, and then the moment equilibrium equations at the lower extremity joints were derived far given reaction farces against the ground. Measurement of deep flexion was carried out by placing ten markers on the body. This study calculated the moment acting at each Joint from the equations of force and moment, classified the complicated muscles around the knee joint, and then predicted the muscle forces to balance the joint moment. Two models were proposed in this study: the simpler one that consists of three groups of muscle and the more detailed one of nine groups of muscle.
Nanoscale Patterning Using Femtosecond Laser and Self-assembled Monolayers (SAMs)
Chang, Won-Seok ; Choi, Moo-Jin ; Kim, Jae-Gu ; Cho, Sung-Hak ; Whang, Kyung-Hyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1270~1275
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1270
Standard positive photoresist techniques were adapted to generate nano-scale patterns of gold substrate using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and femtosecond laser. SAMs formed by the adsorption of alkanethiols onto gold substrate are employed as very thin photoresists, Alkanethiolates formed by the adsorption of alkanethiols are oxidized on exposure to UV light in the presence of air to alkylsulfonates. Specifically, it is known that deep UV light of wavelength less than 200nm is necessary for oxidation to occur. In this study, ultrafast laser of wavelength 800nm and pulse width 200fs is applied for photolithography. Results show that ultrafast laser of visible range wavelength can replace deep UV laser source for photo patterning using thin organic films. Femtosecond laser coupled near-field scanning optical microscopy facilitates not only the patterning of surface chemical structure, but also the creation of three-dimensional nano-scale structures by combination with suitable etching methods.
The Inspection of Press Forming Product Through Application of Reverse Engineering System
Kim, Min-Joo ; Kim, Soo-Yong ; Lee, Seung-Soo ; Chan, Jeon-Eon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1276~1283
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1276
This study is an inspection of press forming product and mould using reverse engineering system. The inspection process on production field involves a lot of errors because of the hand-work so we focussed on improving the measured precision through performing the effective inspection using 3D non-contact scanner. By so doing that, we improved the precision of press forming product by analyzing the cause following the inspection result. Through the inspection, we applied it to the reverse engineering and we could improve the inspection process.
Effects of Anisotropic Fiber Packing on Stresses in Composites
Lee, Jung-Ki ; Lee, Hyeong-Min ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1284~1296
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1284
In order to investigate effects of anisotropic fiber packing on stresses in composites, a Volume Integral Equation Method is applied to calculate the elastostatic field in an unbounded isotropic elastic medium containing multiple orthotropic inclusions subject to remote loading, and a Mixed Volume and Boundary Integral Equation Method is introduced for the solution of elastostatic problems in unbounded isotropic materials containing multiple anisotropic inclusions as well as one void under uniform remote loading. A detailed analysis of stress fields at the interface between the isotropic matrix and the central orthotropic inclusion is carried out for square, hexagonal and random packing of orthotropic cylindrical inclusions, respectively. Also, an analysis of stress fields at the interface between the isotropic matrix and the central orthotropic inclusion is carried out, when it is assumed that a void is replaced with one inclusion adjacent to the central inclusion of square, hexagonal and random packing of orthotropic cylindrical inclusions, respectively, due to manufacturing and/or service induced defects. The effects of random orthotropic fiber packing on stresses at the interface between the isotropic matrix and the central orthotropic inclusion are compared with the influences of square and hexagonal orthotropic fiber packing on stresses. Through the analysis of plane elastostatic problems in unbounded isotropic matrix with multiple orthotropic inclusions and one void, it will be established that these new methods are very accurate and effective for investigating effects of general anisotropic fiber packing on stresses in composites.
Reliability Assessment of MEMS Gyroscope Sensor
Choi, Min-Seog ; Choa, Sung-Hoon ; Kim, Jong-Seok ; Jeong, Hee-Moon ; Song, In-Seob ; Cho, Yong-Chul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1297~1305
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1297
Reliability of MEMS devices is receiving more attention as they are heading towards commercial production. In particular are the reliability and long-term stability of wafer level vacuum packaged MEMS gyroscope sensors subjected to cyclic mechanical stresses at high frequencies. In this study, we carried out several reliability tests such as environmental storage, fatigue, shock, and vibration, and we investigated the failure mechanisms of the anodically bonded vacuum gyroscope sensors. It was found that successful vacuum packaging could be achieved through reducing outgassing inside the cavity by deposition of titanium as well as by pre-taking process. The current gyroscope structure is found to be safe from fatigue failure for 1000 hours of operation test. The gyroscope sensor survives the drop and vibration tests without any damage, indicating robustness of the sensor. The reliability test results presented in this study demonstrate that MEMS gyroscope sensor is very close to commercialization.
A Material Simulation of High-Strain-Rate Deformation with Dislocations and Vacancies
Choi, Deok-Kee ; Ryu, Han-Kyu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1306~1313
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1306
This paper addresses a theoretical approach to calculate the amount of the stored energy during high strain-rate deformations using atomistic level simulation. The dynamic behavior of materials at high strain-rate deformation are of great interest. At high strain-rates deformations, materials generate heat due to plastic work and the temperature rise can be significant, affecting various properties of the material. It is well known that a small percent of the energy input is stored in the material, and most of input energy is converted into heat. However, microscopic analysis has not been completed without construction of a material model, which can simulate the movement of dislocations and vacancies. A major cause of the temperature rise within materials is traditionally credited to dislocations, vacancies and other defects. In this study, an atomistic material model for FCC such as copper is used to calculate the stored energy.
Parameter Optimization of a Micro-Static Mixer Using Successive Response Surface Method
Han, Seog-Young ; Maeng, Joo-Sung ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1314~1319
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1314
In this study, parameter optimization of micro-static mixer with a cantilever beam was accomplished for maximizing the mixing efficiency by using successive response surface approximations. Variables were chosen as the length of cantilever beam and the angle between horizontal and the cantilever beam. Sequential approximate optimization method was used to deal with both highly nonlinear and non-smooth characteristics of flow field in a micro-static mixer. Shape optimization problem of a micro-static mixer can be divided into a series of simple subproblems. Approximation to solve the subproblems was performed by response surface approximation, which does not require the sensitivity analysis. To verify the reliability of approximated objective function and the accuracy of it, ANOVA analysis and variables selection method were implemented, respectively. It was verified that successive response surface approximation worked very well and the mixing efficiency was improved very much comparing with the initial shape of a micro-static mixer.
Shape Design Sensitivity Analysis of Supercavitating Flow Problem
Choi, Joo-Ho ; Kwak, Hyun-Gu ; Grandhi, R.V. ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1320~1327
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1320
An efficient boundary-based technique is developed for addressing shape design sensitivity analysis in supercavitating flow problem. An analytical sensitivity formula in the form of a boundary integral is derived based on the continuum formulation for a general functional defined in potential flow problems. The formula, which is expressed in terms of the boundary solutions and shape variation vectors, can be conveniently used for gradient computation in a variety of shape design in potential flow problems. While the sensitivity can be calculated independent of the analysis means, such as the finite element method (FEM) or the boundary element method (BEM), the FEM is used for the analysis in this study because of its popularity and easy-to-use features. The advantage of using a boundary-based method is that the shape variation vectors are needed only on the boundary, not over the whole domain. The boundary shape variation vectors are conveniently computed by using finite perturbations of the shape geometry instead of complex analytical differentiation of the geometry functions. The supercavitating flow problem is chosen to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology. Implementation issues for the sensitivity analysis and optimization procedure are also addressed in this flow problem.
Fatigue Life Evaluation Model of Welded Joints With Residual Stress
Goo, Byeong-Choon ; Yang, Sung-Yong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1328~1336
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1328
According to our fatigue tests carried out at 20 Hz, R
Shape Optimization of Cutouts in a Laminated Composite Plate Using Volume Control
Han, Seog-Young ; Ma, Young-Joon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1337~1343
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1337
Shape optimization was performed to obtain a precise shape of cutouts including the internal shape of cutouts in a laminated composite plate by three dimensional modeling using solid element. Volume control of the growth-strain method was implemented and the distributed parameter chosen as Tsai-Hill fracture index for shape optimization. It makes Tsai-Hill failure index at each element uniform in laminated composites under the predetermined volume a designer requires. Shapes optimized by Tsai-Hill failure index were compared with those of the initial shapes for the various load conditions and cutouts. The following conclusions were obtained in this study; (1) It was found that growth-strain method was applied efficiently to shape optimization of three dimensional cutouts in a laminate composite, (2) The optimal shapes of the various load conditions and cutouts were obtained, (3) The maximum Tsai-Hill failure indices of the optimal shapes were remarkably reduced comparing with those of the initial shapes.
The Haptic Display Model Development with the Karnopp Friction Model and the Proxy Concept
Kwon, Hyo-Jo ; Kim, Ki-Ho ; Oh, Chae-Youn ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1344~1351
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1344
This study develops a haptic display model which is an indispensable for the force generation in the virtual environment. In developing the haptic display model, a Proxy concept and a Karnopp friction model are utilized to generate the reaction force and the friction force. Also this study develops a 2 D.O.F. remote wiping system. This system is composed of a 2 D.O.F. master manipulator, a force sensor equipped 2 D.O.F. slave manipulator and a real time controller. With the developed remote wiping system, this study identifies the friction characteristic of the aluminum, acryl and rubber plate. The results are used as the dynamic friction coefficient of the haptic display model. This study shows the efficiency of the developed haptic display model by the comparison between the friction characteristic of the haptic display with the developed haptic display model and the friction characteristic of the real aluminum, acryl and rubber plate.
A Study on the Large Deflection of Flat Spring Subjected to Follower Load by a Rotating Pin
Chung, Il-Sup ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1352~1358
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1352
The mechanical spring is one of widely used machine elements. Among various kinds, flat-type spring loaded by a rotating pin was studied. A flat spring was simplified to a cantilever beam, and numerical analysis was attempted. Since the loading pin rotates about a separate axis from the fixed spring or vice versa, the location, direction, and magnitude of the contact force including normal contact and friction loads vary accordingly. Meanwhile, the spring is deformed substantially as the relative motion progresses. Therefore, this problem needs to be formulated taking the follower loading characteristics and geometrical non-linearity into account. Derived nonlinear differential equation was solved to yield the spring deflection, contact force and the torque to rotate the pin, and the result was compared with a finite element solution. Also, the influences of principal design parameters were studied. The proposed methodology is expected to be useful for the design of pin-loaded flat spring and the prevention of mechanical failures in the form of yielding or fatigue failure of spring or severe wear of the components.
The Prediction of the Dynamic Transmission Error for the Helical Gear System
Park, Chan-Il ; Cho, Do-Hyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1359~1367
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1359
The purpose of this study is to predict the dynamic transmission error of the helical gear system. To do so, the equations of motion in the helical gear system which consists of motor, coupling, gear, torque sensor, and brake are derived. As the input parameters, the mass moment of inertia by a 3D CAD software and the equivalent stiffness of the bearings and shaft are calculated and the coupling stiffness is measured. The static transmission error as an excitation is calculated by in-house program. Dynamic transmission error is predicted by solving the equations of motion. Mode shape, the dynamic mesh force and the bearing force are also calculated. In this analysis, the relationship between the dynamic mesh force and the bearing force and mode shape behavior in gear mesh are checked. As a result, the magnitude of mesh force is highly related with the gear mesh behavior in mode shape. The finite element analysis is conducted to find out the natural frequency of gear system. The natural frequencies by finite element analysis have a good agreement with the results by equation of motion. Finally, dynamic transmission error is measured by the specially designed experiment and the results by equation of motion are validated.
A Review of Robust Design Methodologies
Park, Gyung-Jin ; Lee, Tae-Hee ; Lee, Kwon-Hee ; Hwang, Kwang-Hyeon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1368~1383
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1368
Robust design has been developed with the expectation that an insensitive design can be realized. That is, a product designed by robust design should be insensitive to external noises or tolerances. Robust design can be classified into three methods: (1) The Taguchi method (2) robust optimization (3) robust design by the axiomatic approach. In this paper, each method is reviewed and investigated. Pros and cons fur each method are discussed and a future direction for development is proposed.
A Study on the Design Optimization of Corner Pprotection for LNG Storage Tank
Kim, Hyung-Sik ; Hong, Seong-Ho ; Seo, Heung-Seok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1384~1390
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1384
The full containment Liquefied Natural Gas(LNG) storage tank is based on a double liquid container concept : two separate containers, one within the other, are capable of containing the LNG. The outer concrete tank provides comer protection(secondary containment) to withstand and safely contain any spill from the inner tank. The comer protection is installed on inside corner surface of outer concrete tank. Because of high and complex stresses, corner protection is designed by ASME section ⅧI Div. 2, Appendix 4 on behalf of API 620 which is main design code for LNG tank. Design guidelines to determine design factors such as liner thickness and knuckle radius are not well understood because Appendix 4 is the design method not based on equation but FEM. Recently, the volume of LNG tank shows a tendency to increase. So it is necessary to set up the design guidelines to cope with change of LNG tank capacity and height/diameter ratio. In this paper, optimum design of corner protection was performed and the design guidelines were suggested by the results of FEM for LNG tanks which have different capacities and height/diameter ratio.
A Study on the Contact Fatigue Life Evaluation for Railway Wheels Considering Residual Stress Variation
Seo, Jung-Won ; Goo, Byeong-Choon ; Choi, Jae-Boong ; Kim, Young-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1391~1398
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1391
Railway wheels and axles belong to the most critical components in railway vehicles. The service conditions of railway vehicles became more severe in recent years due to the increase of speed. Therefore, a more precise evaluation of wheelset life and safety has been requested. Wheel/rail contact fatigue and thermal cracks due to braking heat are two main mechanisms of the railway wheel failure. In this paper, an evaluation procedure for the contact fatigue life of railway wheel is proposed. One of the main sources of the contact zone failure is the residual stress. The residual stress on wheel is formed during the manufacturing process which includes a heat treatment, and then is changed by contact stress developed by wheel/rail contact and thermal stress induced by braking. Also, the cyclic stress history for fatigue analysis is determined by applying finite elements analysis for the moving contact load. The objective of this paper is to estimate fatigue life by considering residual stress due to heat treatment, braking and repeated contact load, respectively.
Local Solution of a Sequential Algorithm Using Orthogonal Arrays in a Discrete Design Space
Yi, Jeong-Wook ; Park, Gyung-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1399~1407
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1399
Structural optimization has been carried out in continuous design space or in discrete design space. Generally, available designs are discrete in design practice. However, the methods for discrete variables are extremely expensive in computational cost. An iterative optimization algorithm is proposed for design in a discrete space, which is called a sequential algorithm using orthogonal arrays (SOA). We demonstrate verifying the fact that a local optimum solution can be obtained from the process with this algorithm. The local optimum solution is defined in a discrete design space. Then the search space, which is a set of candidate values of each design variables formed by the neighborhood of a current design point, is defined. It is verified that a local optimum solution can be found by sequentially moving the search space. The SOA algorithm has been applied to problems such as truss type structures. Then it is confirmed that a local solution can be obtained by using the SOA algorithm
Robust Design and Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction of Anisotropic Conductive Film Flip Chip Package
Nam, Hyun-Wook ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1408~1414
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1408
The use of flip-chip technology has many advantages over other approaches for high-density electronic packaging. ACF (anisotropic conductive film) is one of the major flip-chip technologies, which has short chip-to-chip interconnection length, high productivity, and miniaturization of package. In this study, thermal fatigue lift of ACF bonding flip-chip package has been predicted. Elastic and thermal properties of ACF were measured by using DMA and TMA. Temperature dependent nonlinear hi-thermal analysis was conducted and the result was compared with Moire interferometer experiment. Calculated displacement field was well matched with experimental result. Thermal fatigue analysis was also conducted. The maximum shear strain occurs at the outmost located bump. Shear stress-strain curve was obtained to calculate fatigue life. Fatigue model for electronic adhesives was used to predict thermal fatigue life of ACF bonding flip-chip packaging. DOE (Design of Experiment) technique was used to find important design factors. The results show that PCB CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) and elastic modulus of ACF material are important material parameters. And as important design parameters, chip width, bump pitch and bump width were chose. 2
DOE was conducted to obtain RSM equation far the choose 3 design parameter. The coefficient of determination (
) for the calculated RSM equation is 0.99934. Optimum design is conducted using the RSM equation. MMFD (Modified Method for feasible Direction) algorithm is used to optimum design. The optimum value for chip width, bump pitch and bump width were 7.87mm, 430
m, and 78
m, respectively. Approximately, 1400 cycles have been expected under optimum conditions. Reliability analysis was conducted to find out guideline for control range of design parameter. Sigma value was calculated with changing standard deviation of design variable. To acquire 6 sigma level thermal fatigue reliability, the Std. Deviation of design parameter should be controlled within 3% of average value.
Synchronous Position Control of Pneumatic Cylinder Driving Apparatus
Jang, Ji-Seong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1415~1421
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1415
In this study, a position synchronous control algorithm applied to two-axes pneumatic cylinder driving apparatus is proposed. The position synchronous control algorithm is composed of position controller and synchronous controller. The position controller is designed to minimize the effect of several nonlinear characteristics peculiar to the pneumatic cylinder driving apparatus on position control performance. The synchronous controller is designed to reduce the synchronous error. The effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm is proved by experimental results.
Improvement of Handrail Slippage Characteristics Using Multi-Body Dynamic Analysis Technique
Park, Chan-Jong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1422~1428
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1422
In this paper, computer simulation model of handrail band including pulley-driving system is developed to calculate handrail slippage. This handrail simulation model is validated with test result within operating range and used to predict its slippage behavior with respect to variation of 4 different design parameters considering the applicability into the real handrail system. Based upon this parameter study, optimal condition for handrail slippage improvement is proposed without time-consuming and costly experiments of the real handrail system. And then performance improvement of handrail slippage complied with safety code is achieved after applying the optimal condition into the real handrail band system.
Microfilter Chip Fabrication for Bead-Based Immunoassay
Lee, Seung-Woo ; Ahn, Yoo-Min ; Chai, Young-Gyu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 28, issue 9, 2004, Pages 1429~1434
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2004.28.9.1429
Immunoassay is one of the important analytical methods for clinical diagnoses and biochemical studies, but needs a long time, troublesome procedures and expensive reagents. In this study, therefore, we propose the micro filter chip with microbeads for immunoassay, which has pillar structures. The advantage of the proposed micro filter chip is to use simple fabrication process and cheap materials. The mold was made by the photolithography technique with Si wafer and negative photoresist SU-8. The replica was made of PDMS, bonded on the pyrex glass. The micro filter chip consists of inlet channel, filter chamber and outlet channel. HBV (Hepatitius B virus) monoclonal antibody (Ag1) labeled with biotin were immobilized onto streptavidin coated beads of 30∼50
m size. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled HBV monoclonal antibody (Ag8) was used to detect HBsAg (Hebatitis B virus surface Antigen), and fluorescence intensity was monitored by epi-fluorescence microscope. In this study, the immune response of less than 30 min was obtained with with the use of 100