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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 12 - Dec 2009
Volume 33, Issue 11 - Nov 2009
Volume 33, Issue 10 - Oct 2009
Volume 33, Issue 9 - Sep 2009
Volume 33, Issue 8 - Aug 2009
Volume 33, Issue 7 - Jul 2009
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Jun 2009
Volume 33, Issue 5 - May 2009
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Apr 2009
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Mar 2009
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Feb 2009
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
Selecting the target year
A Survey of Haptic Control Technology
Ryu, Je-Ha ; Kim, Jae-Ha ; Seo, Chang-Hoon ; Lim, Yo-An ; Kim, Jong-Phil ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 283~295
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.283
Haptics technology allows one to interact with virtual environments, augmented environments, and real environments providing tactual sensory information. Science and technology of haptics can in general be classified into three groups: machine haptics, computer haptics, and human haptics. This paper surveys the state-of-the-art of haptic control technology for virtual environments and teleoperation (real environments) and then proposes possible future research directions in the following areas: haptic stability control, bilateral teleoperation control, and stability enhancement control.
A Study on the Fatigue Life of Autofrettaged Compound Cylinder
Lee, Eun-Yup ; Lee, Young-Shin ; Yang, Qui-Ming ; Kim, Jae-Hoon ; Cha, Ki-Up ; Hong, Suk-Kyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 296~309
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.296
Thick-walled cylinder with high pressure have had wide application in the armament industry. In the thick-walled cylinder, fatigue crack is generated at inner radius and developed toward the outer radius. To prevent generation of fatigue crack, the autofrettage process had been used. The compressive residual stress induced by the autofrettage process extends loading pressure and fatigue life of the thick-walled cylinder. In this study, the residual stress of single and compound cylinder by the autofrettage process was evaluated. The analytical compressive residual stress of single cylinder was good agreement with experimental result at inner radius. The analysis on the residual stress of compound cylinder was conducted. The compressive residual stress at inner radius was increased with the overstrain level. And fatigue life of the compound cylinder with initial crack was evaluated. The considered initial crack shape was straight and semi-elliptical. The fatigue life was extended with the overstrain level. The fatigue life of the compound cylinder with semi-elliptical crack was longer than straight crack. The suitable way to extend fatigue life of the compound cylinder was proposed.
Area-Averaged Solution of Peening Residual Stress Using a 3D Multi-impact Symmetry-cell FE Model with Plastic Shots
Kim, Tae-Hyung ; Lee, Hyung-Yil ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 310~320
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.310
In this paper, we estimate area-averaged solution of peening residual stress using a 3-D multi-impact symmetry-cell FE model. The symmetry-cell model includes factors reflecting peening phenomena and plastic shot. Area-averaged solution is much closer to XRD experimental solution than 4-node-averaged solution in plastic shot FE model. We then obtain FE Almen saturation curve corresponding to experimental Almen curve based on area-averaged solution. Using the curve, we obtain FE area-averaged solution in major peening materials, and compare the FE solution with experimental solution. In peening materials, surface, maximum compressive residual stress and deformation depth reach experimental solutions. Thus, FE Almen curve is useful for estimation of residual stress solution and could improve the efficiency of peening process. Consequently, it is confirmed that concept of area-averaged solution is the realistic analytical method for evaluation of peening residual stress.
Determination of Shock Absorption Performance and Shear Modulus of Rubbers by Drop Impact Test
Kang, Dong-Hwan ; Seo, Mu-Yeol ; Gimm, Hak-In ; Kim, Tae-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 321~328
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.321
Shock absorption performances of various rubbers were investigated by using drop impact test. Several types of rubber such as NR, NBR, EPDM, SR and PUR with three respective levels of shore hardness were used for the test. As in the cases, the absorbed impact energies in rubbers were measured under seven different loads against impact energy between 5-80J. The impact absorption efficiencies of the rubbers then were evaluated by means of both single impact energy condition and summation of all impact energy applied condition. As shown in the results, PUR and EPDM have better shock absorption performances than other rubbers. Further analysis was extended to determine a shear modulus of SR through the finite element implementation with Blatz-Ko model. As can be seen, relatively higher level of absorption energy results in a decreasing shear modulus.
Fretting Wear Characteristics of Inconel 690 Tubes in Room Temperature
Chung, Il-Sup ; Lee, Myung-Ho ; Chai, Young-Suck ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 329~336
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.329
A fretting wear test rig for cross contacting tube specimens, which employs a piezoelectric actuator, has been developed. Along with the simple loading scheme using dead weights, the rig is very simple to be used also. The accuracy was found acceptable. Inconel 690 tubes were tested in room temperature and ambient condition. Normal load and sliding amplitude range up to 35N and
, respectively. The sizes of wear scar and the wear volumes were measured, and wear coefficients have been calculated based on those. A study on the fretting wear mechanism of the tubes has been attempted via microscopic observation. Rugged wear surfaces are induced by the separation and adhesion of particles and formation and subsequent fracture of surface layers. Lapped specimens were also tested and abrasive wear seems to be playing a dominant role.
Design Validation and Improvement of District Heating Pipe Using FE Simulation
Kim, Joo-Yong ; Kim, Ho-Bum ; Ko, Hyun-Il ; An, Yong-Mo ; Cho, Chong-Du ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 337~345
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.337
This paper investigates the reliability of district heating pipes at thermo-elastic fatigue loading. District heating pipes, subjected to
due to water distributing service through inside the pipes, should endure long term cyclic thermal-mechanical loadings. The heating pipes are the co-centric tubes of steel pipe, poly urethane(PUR) insulator, and high density poly ethylene(HDPE) case. On installation, foam pad is externally wrapped for accommodating stress reduction near the bend sections of pipes. However, there have been frequent reports on the failures of bend sections in the middle of long term service. This study scrutinizes the observed failures near the bend sections through applying the finite element methods. Specially in this study, heating pipes are studied on the influence of foam padding on failures and proposed new designs for reinforced bend without foam pad.
Weibull Statistical Analysis of Micro-Vickers Hardness using Monte-Carlo Simulation
Kim, Seon-Jin ; Kong, Yu-Sik ; Lee, Sang-Yeal ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 346~352
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.346
In the present study, the Weibull statistical analysis using the Monte-Carlo simulation has been performed to investigate the micro-Vickers hardness measurement reliability considering the variability. Experimental indentation test were performed with a micro-Vickers hardness tester for as-received and quenching and tempering specimens in SCM440 steels. The distribution of micro-Vickers hardness is found to be 2-parameter Weibull distribution function. The mean values and coefficients of variation (COV) for both data set are compared with results based on Weibull statistical analysis. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulation was performed in order to evaluate the effect of sample size on the micro-Vickers hardness measurement reliability. For the parent distribution with shape parameter 30.0 and scale parameter 200.0 (COV=0.040), the number of sample data required to obtain the true Weibull parameters was founded by 20. For the parent distribution with shape parameter 10.0 and scale parameter 200.0 (COV=0.1240), the number of sample data required to obtain the true Weibull parameters was founded by 30.
Finite Element Simulation of Behavior of WBK Cored Sandwich Panels Subjected to Bending Loads
Choi, Ji-Eun ; Kang, Ki-Ju ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 353~359
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.353
Wire-woven Bulk Kagome (WBK) is a new truss type cellular metal fabricated by systematic assembling of helical wires in six directions. In this work, the experiments of mechanical behaviors of WBK cored sandwich panels subjected to bending load were performed and the results were compared with those by the corresponding analytic solutions. And also, finite element simulations were performed to validate the optimal design according to the analytic solutions. It is found the sandwich panel with WBK core performed excellently in terms of energy absorption and deformation stability after the peak point as well as the load capacity.
Evaluation of Failure Strength of Woven CFRP Composite Plate Subject to Axial Load by Tan-Cheng Failure Criterion
Kim, Sang-Young ; Park, Hong-Sun ; Kang, Min-Sung ; Lee, Woo-Hyung ; Choi, Jung-Hun ; Koo, Jae-Mean ; Seok, Chang-Sung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 360~365
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.360
In the manufacture of CFRP(Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite) composite structures, various independent components join by bolts and pins. Holes for bolts and pins have an effect on the failure strength of such structures, because those act as notches in structures. The failure characteristic of such structures are different from those of plain plate subject to remote load. In this paper, tensile properties of woven CFRP composite plates with laminates of
were obtained according to ASTM D 3039. By using obtained tensile failure strength and Tan-Cheng failure criterion, tensile failure strength of CFRP laminate with arbitrary fiber angle were evaluated. Also, the degradation of tensile properties by center hole(
) with a remote load was evaluated and the failure strengths were applied to Tan's failure criterion, similarly.
Suggestion and Evaluation of a Multi-Regression Linear Model for Creep Life Prediction of Alloy 617
Yin, Song-Nan ; Kim, Woo-Gon ; Jung, Ik-Hee ; Kim, Yong-Wan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 366~372
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.366
Creep life prediction has been commonly used by a time-temperature parameter (TTP) which is correlated to an applied stress and temperature, such as Larson-Miller (LM), Orr-Sherby-Dorn (OSD), Manson-Haferd (MH) and Manson-Succop (MS) parameters. A stress-temperature linear model (STLM) based on Arrhenius, Dorn and Monkman-Grant equations was newly proposed through a mathematical procedure. For this model, the logarithm time to rupture was linearly dependent on both an applied stress and temperature. The model parameters were properly determined by using a technique of maximum likelihood estimation of a statistical method, and this model was applied to the creep data of Alloy 617. From the results, it is found that the STLM results showed better agreement than the Eno’s model and the LM parameter ones. Especially, the STLM revealed a good estimation in predicting the long-term creep life of Alloy 617.
Material Characterization of Lock Plate Using Guided Wave
Lee, Jae-Sun ; Cho, Youn-Ho ; Jeong, Kyoung-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 373~379
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.373
Presented in this paper is a new experimental technique to measure material properties of lock plate of gas turbine plants by using ultrasonic guided wave. In comparison with the mechanical destructive testings, material characterization of the Inconel x-750 was nondestructively carried out in a more efficient manner to discriminate the change in elastic moduli and the poisson's ratio attributed to the variation of heat treatment condition. The proposed technique shows a satisfactory feasibility via the comparative experiments with the imported lock plate specimens. It is also expected that the guided wave technique can cover a longer and wider range as a new cost-&-time-saving inspection tool due to the interaction with a greater part of specimen, compared to a conventional local point-by-point scheme.
The Effect of Finite Element Models in Thermal Analysis of Electronic Packages
Choi, Nam-Jin ; Joo, Jin-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 380~387
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.380
The reliability concerns of solder interconnections in flip chip PBGA packages are produced mainly by the mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) between the module and PCB. Finite element analysis has been employed extensively to simulate thermal loading for solder joint reliability and deformation of packages in electronic packages. The objective of this paper is to study the thermo-mechanical behavior of FC-PBGA package assemblies subjected to temperature change, with an emphasis on the effect of the finite element model, material models and temperature conditions. Numerical results are compared with the experimental results by using
interferometry. Result shows that the bending displacements of the chip calculated by the finite element analysis with viscoplastic material model is in good agreement with those by
S-N Curve Deduction of a KTX High-Speed Train Structure for an Accelerated Life Testing
Jung, Dal-Woo ; Choi, Nak-Sam ; Park, Su-Han ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 388~395
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.388
An accelerated fatigue test is essentially required to maintain the reliability of the actual structures of KTX under operation conditions. However, actual fatigue life cannot be obtained because the conventional fatigue tests are not adequate to the real load conditions. Moreover foreign component makers have not provided data of the loading stresses (S) versus cycles at the failure (N). In this study, we suggested a deduction method of the S-N curve for establishing an accelerating test under various load levels. Load history was acquired from the field tests. A Rainflow method was used on the cycle counting of the field load data. After that, an S-N curve was obtained through the iteration process under the condition that the damage index satisfies to 1 in the Miner's rule. The deduced S-N curve was applied to the performance evaluation of Korean-made sealed knuckles compared with imports.
Weight Reduction Design for a JIB of Deck Crane for Shipment
Han, Dong-Seop ; Lee, Moon-Jae ; Han, Geun-Jo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 396~400
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.396
The demand of JIB crane to handle a container or a bulk in a vessel is increasingly because of the growth of the scale of trade through the sea. This deck crane such as JIB crane is required the weight reduction design because it is installed in the deck of a vessel due to the environment regulation. In this study first we carry out the structural analysis of JIB with respect to the luffing angle of it to calculate the maximum equivalent stress of JIB, and next the optimum design for the weight reduction design of JIB. The thickness in a cross section of JIB is adopted as the design variable, the weight of JIB as the objective function, and the von mises stress as the constraint condition for the optimum design of JIB using the ANSYS 10.0.
3-D Characteristics of the Residual Stress in the Plate Butt Weld Between SA508 and F316L SS
Lee, Kyoung-Soo ; Kim, Tae-Ryong ; Park, Jai-Hak ; Kim, Man-Won ; Cho, Seon-Yeong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 401~408
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.401
This study is performed to check the three dimensional characteristics of residual stress in the dissimilar metal weld. Although two dimensional analysis has been widely used for the assessment of weld residual stress, it has limitations to understand the stress distribution of the third direction. 3-D analysis was done to understand residual stress distribution of the welded plate. A simple butt-welded plate was considered to show the stress variation on all direction. A mock-up plate weldment was fabricated with SA-508 and F316L, which are widely used in nuclear power plants. The analysis results were validated with the measured values in the mock-up.
Analysis of Cleavage Fracture Toughness of PCVN Specimens Based on a Scaling Model
Park, Sang-Yun ; Lee, Ho-Jin ; Lee, Bong-Sang ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 409~416
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.409
Standard procedures for a fracture toughness testing require very severe restrictions for the specimen geometry to eliminate a size effect on the measured properties. Therefore, the used standard fracture toughness data results in the integrity assessment being irrationally conservative. However, a realistic fracture in general structures, such as in nuclear power plants, may develop under the low constraint condition of a large scale yielding with a shallow surface crack. In this paper, cleavage fracture toughness tests have been made on side-grooved PCVN (precracked charpy V-notch) type specimens (10 by 10 by 55 mm) with various crack depths. The constraint effects on the crack depth ratios were evaluated quantitatively by the developed scaling method using the 3-D finite element method. After the fracture toughness correction from scaling model, the statistical size effects were also corrected according to the standard ASTM E 1921 procedure. The results were evaluated through a comparison with the
of the standard CT specimen. The corrected
for all of the PCVN specimens showed a good agreement to within
regardless of the crack depth, while the averaged PCVN
higher than the real CT test results.
Fabrication and Mixing Characteristics of a Micro-Mixer with a Quasi-Active Rotor
Kim, Young-Dae ; Lee, Jong-Kwang ; Kwon, Se-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 417~424
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.417
A micro-mixer with a quasi-active rotor was fabricated, and mixing characteristics were evaluated. The proposed micro-mixer combines an active type micro-mixer with a passive type micro-mixer. The micro-rotor, which is a moving part of an active type micro-mixer, is added in a micro-chamber of a passive type vortex micro-mixer. The rotor rotated by inflows tangent to a chamber, causing strong perturbations. The micro-mixers were fabricated using photosensitive glass. Mixing efficiency of the micro-mixers was measured using an image analysis method. Mixing efficiency and characteristics of the micro-rotor mixer were compared with the vortex micro-mixer without a rotor. Mixing efficiency was reduced as Reynolds number increased at a low Reynolds number due to decrease of residence time. Mixing efficiency at higher Reynolds number, on the other hand, was improved even though residence time decreased since the contact surface between fluids increased by twisted flow. The perturbation induced by rotating rotor at greater than Re 200 improved the efficiency of the rotor mixer.
A Study on the Application of Anti-Corrosion Techniques on the Surface of Oxygen Free Copper
Joo, Hyung-Goun ; Lee, Dae-Young ; Zhang, Da Quan ; Lee, Kang-Yong ; Al-Hanash, Essam Khamis Ibrahim ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 425~429
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.425
The protection for copper tarnish was developed by surface treatment method and volatile corrosion inhibiting (VCI) technology. The performance of surface treatment and VCI material is also examined in simulated test environment. Benzotriazole (BTAH) solution that contained molybdate showed best performance than others. Usage of VCI materials with surface treatment was more effective. The protection film foamed on the surface of copper was investigated by auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Molybdate does not participate in the formation of the protective film but promotes the passivation effect. This facilitates the stabilization of the cuprous oxide film, and strengthens the adsorption of BTAH.
The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Reconstruction by the Transtibial Tunnel Method using Cadaveric Achilles Tendon Grafts - Evaluation of the Initial Lengthening and the Slippage Ratio due to the Interference Screw Fixation and Double Cross-Pin Fixation -
Kim, Cheol-Woong ; Bae, Ji-Hoon ; Oh, Dong-Joon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 430~439
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.430
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) plays an important role in knee extension. Rotational instability due to injured PCL can be restored by various PCL reconstruction methods. In this study, the initial lengthening affected by fixation device and location was demonstrated, and furthermore, the slippage and the relationship between lengthening ratio and slippage ratio in the calcaneus and soft tissue fixation methods was newly suggested. Eight specimens of proximal tibia and Achilles tendon grafts were harvested from four cadavers and divided into four groups in regard to the four different types of transtibial fixation techniques. The cyclic load ranged from 50 N to 250 N applied to each graft fixed to proximal tibia in 55 degrees. The initial lengthening ratio to the total elongation has been approximately constant regardless of the fixation methods. The soft tissue fixation method with an interference screw showed about 56.4% slippage ratio to the total elongation and the same method with a double cross-pin presented about 45.4% slippage ratio. The soft tissue fixation method with an interference screw demonstrated approximately 2 mm less total elongation and about 13% more slippage than lengthening because of poor fixation compared to the same method with a double cross-pin.
Extrusion of Spur Gear Using High-Energy Ball Milled Al-78Zn Powder
Kim, Jin-Woo ; Lee, Sang-Jin ; Lee, Jung-Min ; Kim, Byung-Min ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 440~446
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-A.2009.33.4.440
This paper was designed to fabricate the miniature spur gear with pitch circle of 2.25mm using extrusion process of a mechanically alloyed Al-78wt%Zn powder. The mechanical alloying of the powder particles were performed for ball milled times of 4h, 8h, 16 and 32h by the planetary ball milling. The mechanical properties of these alloyed powders, which were compacted and sintered-cylindrical preforms, were estimated using compression test. The results showed that the alloyed powder with average particle size of
milled for 32h has the highest compressive(fractured) strength(288MPa). Extrusions of the miniature spur gear using the alloyed powder were carried out at different extrusion temperatures. Extrusion temperature of
provided the spur gear with the highest relative density and Vickers hardness and without any surface defects.