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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 1997
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 1997
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 1997
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 1997
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 1997
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 1997
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 1997
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 1997
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 1997
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 1997
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 1997
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 1997
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Passive control of unsteady compression wave using vertical bleed ducts
Kim, Hui-Dong ; Setoguchi, Toshiaki ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1095~1104
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.19126.96.36.1995
When a high-speed railway train enters a tunnel, a compression wave is generated ahead of the train and propagates along the tunnel, compressing and accelerating the rest air in front of the wave. At the exit of the tunnel, an impulsive wave is emitted outward toward the surrounding, which causes a positive impulsive noise like a kind of sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft. With the advent of high-speed train, such an impulsive noise can be large enough to cause the noise problem, unless some attempts are made to alleviate its pressure levels. For the purpose of the impulsive noise reduction, the present study investigated the effect of a vertical bleed duct on the compression wave propagating into a model tunnel. Numerical results were obtained using a Piecewise Linear Method and testified by experiment of shock tube with an open end. The results showed that the vertical bleed duct reduces the maximum pressure gradient of compression wave front by about 30 percent, compared with the straight tunnel without the bleed duct. As the width of the vertical bleed duct becomes larger, reduction of the impulsive noise is expected to be greater. However the impulsive noise is independent of the height of the vertical bleed duct.
Heat Transfer from Single and Arrays of Impinging Water Jets(I)-Single Water Jet-
Eom, Gi-Chan ; Lee, Jong-Su ; Yu, Ji-O ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1105~1114
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.19188.8.131.525
The heat transfer characteristics of free surface water jet impinging normally against a flat uniform heat flux surface were investigated. This deals with the effect of three nozzle configurations (Cone type, Reverse cone type, Vertical circular type) on the local and the average heat transfer. Heat transfer measurements were made for water jet issuing from a nozzle of which exit diameter 8 mm. The experimental conditions investigated are Reynolds number range of 27000 ~ 70000(
=3 ~ 8 m/s), nozzle-to-target plate distances H/D=2 ~ 10, and radial distance from the stagnation point r/D ~ = 0 ~ 7.42. For all jet velocities of H/D=2, the local Nusselt number decreased monotonically with increasing radial distance. However, for H/D from 4 to 10, and for the jet velocity
.geq.7 m/s for Cone type nozzle and
.geq.6 m/s for the other type nozzles, the Nusselt number distributions exhibited secondary peaks at r/D=3 ~ 3.5. For Reverse cone type nozzle and Vertical circular nozzle, the maximum stagnation point heat transfer and the maximum average heat transfer occurs at H/D=8. But for the Cone type nozzle, the maximum stagnation and average heat transfer occurs at H/D=10, 4, respectively. From the optimum nozzle-to-target plate distance, the stagnation and the average heat transfer reveal the following ranking: Reverse cone type nozzle, Vertical circular type nozzle, Cone type nozzle.ozzle.
Heat Transfer from Single and Arrays of Impinging Water Jets(II)-1 Row of Impinging Water Jets-
Eom, Gi-Chan ; Lee, Jong-Su ; Geum, Seong-Min ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1115~1125
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.19184.108.40.2065
Experiments have been conducted to obtain local and average heat transfer coefficients associated with impingement of a row of circular, free surface-water jets on a constant heat flux surface. Nozzle arrays are a row of 3 jets (nozzle dia.=4.6 mm) and a row of 5 jets (nozzle dia.=3.6 mm), and the nozzle configuration is Reverse cone type revealed good performance in heat transfer. Nozzle-to-plate spacings ranging from 16 mm to 80 mm were investigated for two jet center to center spacings 25 mm and 37.5 mm in the jet velocity of 3 m/s (R
=27000) to 8 m/s (R
=70000). For a row of 3 jets and a row of 5 jets, the stagnation heat transfer of the central jet is lower than that of adjacent jets. In the wall jet region between jets, for small nozzle-to-plate spacing and large jet velocity, the local maximum in the Nusselt number was observed, however, for small jet velocity or large nozzle-to-plate spacing, the local maximum was not observed. Except for the condition of
=8 m/s and H/D=10, the average Nusselt number reveals the following ranking: a row of 5 jets, a row of 3 jets, single jet. For a row of 3 jet, the maximum average Nusselt number occurs at H/D=8 ~ 10, and for a row of 5 jets, it occurs at H/D=2 ~ 4. Compared with the single jet, enhancement of average heat transfer for a row of 3 jets is approximately 1.52 ~ 2.28 times, and 1.69 ~ 3.75 times for a row of 5 jets.ets.s.
Effects of Lewis number on hydrogen diffusion flame structure
Kim, Hu-Jung ; Kim,Yong-Mo ; An, Guk-Yeong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1126~1138
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.19220.127.116.116
An axisymmetric laminar jet diffusion flame has been numerically modelled. The present study employs the refined physical submodels to account for the detailed chemical kinetics and the variable transport properties. It is found that preferential diffusion resulting from variable transport properties significantly influences the hydrogen diffusion flame structure in terms of the spatial distribution for temperature, species concentration, thermal and mass diffusivity, Lewis number, and NO concentration. The preferential diffusion effects on the diffusion flame in the high-pressure environment are also discussed in detail.
Experimental study on compression wave propagating in a sudden reduction duct
Kim, Hui-Dong ; Matsuo, Kazuyasu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1139~1148
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.1918.104.22.1689
Compression waves propagating in a high-speed railway tunnel develops large pressure fluctuations on the train body or tunnel structures. The pressure fluctuations would cause an ear discomfort for the passengers and increase the aerodynamic resistance of trains. As a fundamental research to resolve the pressure wave phenomenon in the tunnel, experiments were carried out by using a shock tube with an open end. A blockage to model trains inside the tunnel was installed on the lower wall of shock tube, thus forming a sudden cross-sectional area reduction. The compression waves were obtained by the fast opening gate valve instead of a conventional diaphragm of shock tube and measured by the flush mounted pressure transducers with a high sensitivity. The experimental results were compared with the previous theoretical analyses. The results show that the ratio of the reflected to the incident compression wave at the sudden cross-sectional area reduction increases but the ratio of the passing to the incident compression wave decreases, as the incident compression wave becomes stronger. This experimental results are in good agreements with the previous theoretical ones. The maximum pressure gradient of the compression wave abruptly increases but the width of the wave front does not vary, as it passes over the sudden cross-sectional area reduction.
A Study of Applicability of a RNG
Yang, Hui-Cheon ; Yu, Hong-Seon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1149~1164
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.1922.214.171.1249
In this study, the applicability of the RNG k-.epsilon. model to the analysis of the complex flows is studied. The governing equations based on a non-orthogonal coordinate formulation with Cartesian velocity components are used and discretized by the finite volume method with non-staggered variable arrangements. The predicted results using the RNG k-.epsilon. model of three complex flows, i.e., the flow over a backward-facing step and a blunt flat plate, the flow around a 2D model car are compared to these from the standard k-.epsilon. model and experimental data. That of the unsteady axisymmetric turbulent flow within a cylinder of reciprocating model engine including port/valve assembly and the spray characteristics within a chamber of direct injection model engine are compared to these from the standard k-.epsilon. model and experimental data. The results of reattachment length, separated eddy size, average surface pressure distribution using the RNG k-.epsilon. model show more reasonable trends comparing with the experimental data than those using the modified k-.epsilon. model. Although the predicted rms velocity using the modified k-.epsilon. model is lower considerably than the experimental data in incylinder flow with poppet valve, predicted axial and radial velocity distributions at the valve exit and in-cylinder region show good agreements with the experimental data. The spray tip penetration predicted using the RNG k-.epsilon. model is more close to the experimental data than that using the modified k-.epsilon. model. The application of the RNG k-.epsilon. model seems to have some potential for the simulations of the unsteady turbulent flow within a port/valve-cylinder assembly and the spray characteristics over the modified k-.epsilon. model.
An analytical solution for the close-contact melting with vertical convection and solid-liquid density difference
Yu, Ho-Seon ; Hong, Hui-Gi ; Kim, Chan-Jung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1165~1173
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.19126.96.36.1995
The steady state close-contact melting phenomenon occurring between a phase change material and an isothermally heated flat plate with relative motion is investigated analytically, in which the effects of vertical convection in the liquid film and solid-liquid density difference are incorporated simultaneously. Not only the scale analysis is conducted to estimate a priori qualitative dependence of system variables on characteristic parameters, but also an analytical solution to a set of simplified model equations is obtained to specify the effects under consideration. These two results are consistent with each other, in that the vertical convection affects both the solid descending velocity and the film thickness, and that the density difference alters only the solid descending velocity. While the effect of vertical convection can be characterized conveniently by a newly introduced temperature gradient factor which asymptotically approaches the unity/zero with decreasing/increasing the Stefan number, that of density difference is represented by the liquid-to-solid density ratio. It is shown that the solid descending velocity depends linearly on the density ratio, and that the ratios of solid descending velocity, film thickness and friction coefficient to the conduction solution are proportional to 3/4, 1/4 and -1/4 powers of the temperature gradient factor, respectively. Also, established is the fact that the effect of convection can be legitimately neglected in the analysis for the range of the Stefan number less than 0.1.
A numerical analysis on the extinction of hydrogen-oxygen diffusion flames at high pressure
Son, Chae-Hun ; Kim, Jong-Su ; Jeong, Seok-Ho ; Lee, Su-Ryong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1174~1184
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.19188.8.131.524
Extinction characteristics of pure hydrogen-oxygen diffusion flames, at high pressures in the neighborhood of the critical pressure of oxygen, is numerically studied by employing counterflow diffusion flame as a model flame let in turbulent flames in rocket engines. The numerical results show that extinction strain rate increases almost linearly with pressure up to 100 atm, which can be explained by comparison of the chain-branching-reaction rate with the recombination-reaction rate. Since contributions of the chain-branching reactions, two-body reactions, are found to be much greater than those of the recombination reactions, three-body reactions, extinction is controlled by two-body reactions, thereby resulting in the linearity of extinction strain rate to pressure. Therefore, it is found that the chemical kinetic behaviors don't change up to 100 atm. Consideration of the pressure fall-off reactions shows a slight increase in extinction strain rate, but does not modify its linearity to pressure. The reduced kinetic mechanisms, which were verified at low pressures, are found to be still valid at high pressures and show good qualitative agreement in prediction of extinction strain rates. Effect of real gas is negligible on chemical kinetic behaviors of the flames.
Three-dimensional flow within a film-cooling hole normally oriented to the main flow
Lee, Sang-U ; Ju, Seong-Guk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1185~1197
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.19184.108.40.2065
Three-dimensional flow within a film-cooling hole, which is normally oriented to the main flow, has been measured by using a straight five-hole probe for the blowing ratios of 1.0 and 2.0. The length-to-diameter ratio of the injection hole is fixed to be 1.0 throughout the whole experiments. The result shows that the secondary flow within the hole is strongly affected by the main flow and flow separation at the hole inlet. The higher blowing ratio provides less influence of the main flow on the injectant flow. The three-dimensional flow at the hole exit is considerably altered due to the strong interaction between the injectant and main flow. The aerodynamic loss produced inside the injection hole is mainly attributed to the inlet flow separation.
A Study on the Flow Characteristics of an Intermittent Fuel Spray
Kim, Won-Tae ; Gang, Sin-Jae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1198~1206
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.19220.127.116.118
The flow characteristics of an intermittent fuel injection into a stationary ambient air were investigated using gasoline. The measurements were made by two-channel, air cooling type Phase Doppler Anemometer(PDA) system (DANTEC, 750 MW). And a pintle type injector of MPI (Multi-point Port Injection) system was utilized as a fuel injector. The PDA receiver optic was set up in a 60.deg. C forward scatter arrangement to obtain the optimum scattering signal of fuel droplets. The data were obtained by synchronizing PDA system with the fuel injection period, and the axial and radial velocity and turbulent components of fuel droplets were mainly measured for the analysis of temporal and spatial distribution depending upon the fuel injection pressures.
Evaporation heat transfer characteristics inside the U-bend of the smooth and the microfin tube using alternative refrigerant
Jo, Geum-Nam ; Kim, Byeong-Gi ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1207~1217
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.1918.104.22.1687
The present work experimentally investigated the effects of mass flux, heat flux, inlet quality on the heat transfer performance inside the U-bend of smooth and microfin tube using R-22 and R-407C refrigerants. The parameters were 200 and 400 kg/m
s for mass flux, 6 and 12 kw/m
for heat flux, 0.1 and 0.2 for inlet quality under the pressure of 0.65 MPa. The apparatus consisted of the test section of four straight sections and three U-bends, preheater, condenser, refrigerant pump, mass flow meter etc. The average heat transfer coefficient at the downstream straight section after U-bend was affected by U-bend due to the centrifugal force and mixing of two-phase flow in the U-bend. The average heat transfer coefficient at the U-bend was 4 ~ 33 % higher than that at the straight section. The average heat transfer coefficients were affected in the order of mass flux, heat flux and inlet quality. The average heat transfer coefficients in the microfin tube were lager by 19 ~ 49% and 33 ~ 69% than that in the smooth tube at the straight section and at the U-bend separately. The average heat transfer coefficients for R-407C were larger by 33 ~ 41% and 17 ~ 29% than that for R-22 in the smooth tube and the microfin tube separately.
Diffusion-flame instability in the premixed-flame regime
Lee, Su-Ryong ; Kim, Jong-Su ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1218~1229
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.1922.214.171.1248
The diffusional-thermal instability of diffusion flames in the premixed-flame regime is studied in a constant-density two-dimensional counterflow diffusion-flame configuration, to investigate the instability mechanism by which periodic wrinkling, travelling or pulsating of the reaction sheet can occur. Attention is focused on flames with small departures of the Lewis number from unity and with small values of the stoichiometric mixture fraction, so that the premixed-flame regime can be employed for activation-energy asymptotics. Cellular patterns will occur near quasisteady extinction when the Lewis number of the more completely consumed reactant is less than a critical value( ~ =0.7). Parametric studies for the instability onset conditions show that flames with smaller values of the Lewis number and stoichiometric mixture fraction and with larger values of the Zel'dovich number tend to be more unstable. For Lewis number greater than unity, near-extinction flame are found to exhibit either travelling instability or pulsating instability.
Finite element analysis of flow with moving free surface by volume of fluid method
Sin, Su-Ho ; Lee, U-Il ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 21, issue 9, 1997, Pages 1230~1243
DOI : 10.22634/KSME-B.19126.96.36.1990
A numerical technique for simulating incompressible viscous flow with free surface is presented. The flow field is obtained by penalty finite element formulation. In this work, a modified volume of fluid (VOF) method which is compatible with 4-node element is proposed to track the moving free surface. This scheme can be applied to irregular mesh system, and can be easily extended to three dimensional geometries. Numerical analyses were done for two benchmark examples, namely the broken dam problem and the solitary wave propagation problem. The numerical results were in close agreement with the existing data. Illustrative examples were studied to show the effectiveness of the proposed numerical scheme.