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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 12 - Dec 2002
Volume 26, Issue 11 - Nov 2002
Volume 26, Issue 10 - Oct 2002
Volume 26, Issue 9 - Sep 2002
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2002
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2002
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2002
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2002
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2002
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2002
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2002
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
Selecting the target year
Waterhammer in the Transmission Pipeline with an Air Chamber
Kim, Gyeong-Yeop ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 177~183
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.177
The field tests on the waterhammer were carried out in the pump pipeline system with an air chamber. The effects of the input variables and the design parameters for the air chamber were investigated by both the numerical calculations and the experiments. Because the waterhammer problems as a result of the pump power failure were the most important, these situations were carefully studied. Among the input variables used in the waterhammer analysis, the polytropic exponent, the discharge coefficient and the wavespeed had influence on the simulated results in that order, and were calibrated in comparison with the experimental results. As the initial air volume in a vessel increased, the period of waterhammer increased and the pressure variation decreased, resulting from the reduction of the rate of pressure change in the air chamber. Using smaller orifice in the bypass pipe, the pressure rise was suppressed in some degree and the pressure surge was dissipated more rapidly as time passed. The simulations were in fairly good agreement with the measured values until 1∼2 periods of waterhammer. Not only the maximum and minimum pressures in the pipe1ine but also those occurring times were reasonably predicted. The computer program developed in this study will be useful in designing the optimum parameters of an air chamber for the real pump pipeline system.
Performance Analysis of Screw Air Compressor
Park, Dong-Gyu ; Lee, Gwan-Su ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 184~193
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.184
This study aims at the optimal design of the screw rotor and its performance analysis. The optimal design of the screw rotor's shape has been performed theoretically. Also, the performance analysis technique of an oil-injected screw air compressor is developed. The effect of internal leakage, heat exchange between air and oil, and flow resistance at suction and discharge ports are included in the performance analysis. Some numerical examples of the volumetric efficiency and adiabatic efficiency for sample rotors are demonstrated for various lobe combination, rotor wrap angles and L/D ratios.
Viscous Effect by Random Walk Method in VIC Method
No, Gi-Deok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 194~200
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.194
A method for simulating flow of extremely low Reynolds number in a vortex-in-cell (VIC) was studied. The viscous diffusion was represented by the random walk method. The validity of this method was proven by applying it to the flows passing over a fence placed vertically at an extremely low Reynolds number. The effects of parameters of the VIC method on the random walk method, such as the number of point vortices, the mesh density and the time increment, were investigated by numerical analysis using a one-dimensional diffusion equation. Changes in the relative error of vorticity depending on those parameters were clarified.
Experimental Study on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Counter-Rotating Axial Flow Fan
Choe, Jin-Yong ; Jo, Lee-Sang ; Jo, Jin-Su ; Won, Yu-Pil ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 201~210
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.201
Experiments were done for performance and flow characteristics of a counter-rotating axial flow fan. Performance curves of a counter-rotating axial flow fan were obtained and compared by varying the blade pitch angles. The fan characteristic curves were obtained following the Korean Standard Testing Methods for Turbo Fans and Blowers (KS B 6311). The fan flow characteristics were measured using a five-hole probe and a slanted hot-wire. The velocity profiles between the hub and tip of the fans were measured and analyzed at the peak efficiency point. The peak efficiency of the counter-rotating axial flow fan was improved about 15% respectively, compared with the single rotating axial fan. The single rotating axial flow fan showed relatively law efficiency due to the swirl velocities behind rotor exit which produced pressure losses. The counter-rotating axial flow fan showed that the swirl velocity generated by the front rotor was eliminated by the rear rotor and the associated dynamic pressure is recovered in the from of the static pressure rise.
Transient Heat Transfer Analysis on the Evaporator of a Micro-Cooler prior to Roiling
Park, Byeong-Gyu ; Kim, Geun-O ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 211~218
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.211
It has been investigated for the temperature profile in a planar evaporator of micro-cooler subject to a uniform heat flux prior to tole initiation of boiling. The results of the analysis allow for the determination of applied power levels fur which nucleation is likely to occur only within the vapor grooves of the evaporator while maintaining subcooling in the liquid core, thereby increasing the likelihood of a successful startup. Also, limits are fecund for which additional increases in the applied heat flux do not increase the temperature difference between the vapor grooves and the wick-liquid core interface. This analysis is appropriate for the microscale evaporators of micro-cooler during a fully-flooded startup as well as starter pump designs and micro-CPLs(capillary pumped loops). The results are useful in the initial basic design of microscale heat transfer devices.
Experimental Study on the Effects of Upstream Periodic Wakes on Aerofoil-Boundary Layer and Loss
Im, In-Won ; Jo, Gang-Rae ; Ju, Won-Gu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 219~226
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.219
This paper is concerned with the effects of periodically approaching upstream wakes on cascade-flow and loss. The reduced frequency of the periodic wakes was varied in the narrow range from 0.5 to 0.7 Corresponding to a wake-passing through the cascade, two velocity deficits appeared near the boundary layer contour in the downstream from about 60% chord-length. The first velocity deficit was caused by a periodic wake and the second one appeared after some delayed time. The second velocity deficit was interpreted as the results of reattachment of flow-separation. The higher reduced frequency decreased the duration time of separation appearance and the lesser losses of blade were resulted.
Numerical Simulation far the Non-Spherical Aggregation of Charged Particles
Park, Hyeong-Ho ; Kim, Sang-Su ; Jang, Hyeok-Sang ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 227~237
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.227
A numerical technique for simulating the aggregation of charged particles was presented with a Brownian dynamic simulation in the free molecular regime. The Langevin equation was used for tracking each particle making up an aggregate. A periodic boundary condition was used for calculation of the aggregation process in each cell with 500 primary particles of 16 nm in diameter. We considered the thermal force and the electrostatic force for the calculation of the particle motion. The electrostatic force on a particle in the simulation cell was considered as a sum of electrostatic forces from other particles in the original cell and its replicate cells. We assumed that the electric charges accumulated on an aggregate were located on its center of mass, and aggregates were only charged with pre-charged primary particles. The morphological shape of aggregates was described in terms of the fractal dimension. In the simulation, the fractal dimension for the uncharged aggregate was D
f/ = 1.761. The fractal dimension changed slightly for the various amounts of bipolar charge. However, in case of unipolar charge, the fractal dimension decreased from 1.641 to 1.537 with the increase of the average number of charges on the particles from 0.2 to 0.3 in initial states. In the bipolar charge state, the average sizes of aggregates were larger than that of the uncharged state in the early and middle stages of aggregation process, but were almost the same as the case of the uncharged state in the final stage. On the other hand, in the unipolar charge state, the average size of aggregates and the dispersion of particle volume decreased with the increasing of the charge quantities.
Investigation on the In-Cylinder Flow of 5-Valve Gasoline Engine by Using Two Color PIV Method
Lee, Gi-Hyeong ; U, Yeong-Wan ; Park, Sang-Chan ; Lee, Chang-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 238~244
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.238
A 5-valve(intake 3-valve) engine has been developed to increase engine performance. These engines have a high power caused by the decrease of inertia mass of an intake valve and the increase of intake effective area. In this study, in-cylinder flow patterns were visualized with laser sheet method and velocity profiles at near intake valves were inspected by using a two-color PIV. In addition, steady flow tests were performed to quantify tumble ratio of flow-fields generated by a tumble control valve(TCV). Experimental results of steady flow test show that the cure of tumble ratio in intake 3-valve engine farmed as a S shape with valve lift changes. This tendency is different from the one in intake 2-valve engine. Using laser sheet method and two color PIV method, we can find that the intake flow through upper valve increases and the velocity gradient also slightly increases as valve lift increases. From this study, the in-cylinder flow characteristics around intake valves were made clearly.
Analysis on Particle Deposition on a Heated Rotating Disk
Yu, Gyeong-Hun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 245~252
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.245
Numerical analysis was conducted to characterize particle deposition on a horizontal rotating disk with thermophorectic effect under laminar flow field. The particle transport mechanisms considered were convection, Brownian diffusion, gravitational settling and thermophoresis. The averaged particle deposition velocities and their radial distributions for the upper surface of the disk were calculated from the particle concentration equation in a Eulerian frame of reference for rotating speeds of 0∼1000rpm and temperature differences of 0∼5K. It was observed from the numerical results that the rotation effect of disk increased the averaged deposition velocities, and enhanced the uniformity of local deposition velocities on the upper surface compared with those of the disk at rest. It was also shown that the heating of the disk with ΔT=5K decreased deposition velocity over a fairly broad range of particle sizes. Finally, an approximate deposition velocity model for the rotating disk was suggested. The comparison of the present numerical results with the results of the approximate model and the available experimental results showed relatively good agreement between them.
The Effect of Environmental Parameters on Frost Formation on a Horizontal Cylinder
Lee, Yun-Bin ; Ryu, In-Sang ; No, Seung-Tak ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 253~260
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.253
It is known that frost formation on surfaces of the heat exchanger seriously affects the performance of the refrigeration system. Accordingly, defrosting should follow, and effective defrosting is possible only when both analytic tools and comprehensive experimental data on frost formation are assailable. An experimental investigation was undertaken to characterize the effect of environmental parameters on frost formation on a horizontal cylinder in cross uniform flow. Several experiments were carried out with various environmental parameters such as inlet air temperature, inlet air humidity, air velocity and cooling surface temperature. Frost thickness, mass, surface temperature and cylinder inner and outer temperature were measured at front and rear positions of the cylinder. Thickness, mass, density, and effective thermal conductivity of the frost layer were obtained from measured data and effects of environmental parameters on the frost formation were analyzed. Data from experiments were correlated using dimensionless variables.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a Square Cylinder Confined in a Channel
Kim, Do-Hyeong ; Yang, Gyeong-Su ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 261~268
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.261
Turbulent flow past a square cylinder confined in a channel is numerically investigated by Large Eddy Simulation(LES). The main objectives of this study are to verify the experimental results of Nakagawa et al.[Exp. in Fluids, Vol. 27, 3, pp. 284∼294, 1999] by LES and to obtain related flow information in detail. The LES results obtained are in excellent agreement with the experiment both qualitatively and quantitatively. The passive paticles numerically released into the flow field clearly show the barman vortex street. However, the vortices shed from the cylinder are significantly affected by the presence of the plates. Futhermore, periodic and alternating vortex-rollups are observed in the vicinity of the plates. The rolled-up vortex is convected downstream together with the corresponding Karman vortex forming a counter-rotating vortex pair. It is also revealed that the cylinder greatly enhances mixing process of the flow.
An Experimental Study on Evaperation Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Plated cleat Exchangers with Different Chevron Angles
Kim, Yun-Ho ; Lee, Gyu-Jeong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 269~277
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.269
Experiments on the evaporation heat transfer and pressure drop in the brazed type plate heat exchangers were performed using refrigerants R410A and R22. To investigate the geometric effect, plate heat exchangers with the same pitch and height but different 45
chevron angles are used. Tests were conducted fur the ranges of the mass flux of refrigerant from 13 kg/m
s to 34 kg/m
s, the evaporation temperatures of 15
, vapor quality from 0.15 to 0.95 and the heat flux from 2.5 kW/m
to 8.5 kW/m
. The evaporation heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were measured. Most of flow patterns are in the chum flow regime and become close to the annular flow for increasing the mass flux and the vapor quality. The heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing the evaporation temperature at a given mass flux in all plate heat exchangers. Also, the pressure drop increases with increasing the mass flux and the quality and decreasing the evaporation temperature and the chevron angle.
Numerical Analysis for the Pressure and Flow Fields past a Two-Staged Conical Orifice
Kim, Yeon-Su ; Kim, Yu-Gon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 278~287
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.278
The objective of the paper was to calculate the pressure drop and to investigate the recirculation region of the conical orifices used in Kwang-yang Iron & Steel Company. The flow field with water used as a working fluid was the turbulent flow for Reynolds number of 2
. The effective parameters fur the pressure drop and the recirculation region were the conical orifice\`s inclined angle (
) against the wall, the interval(S) between orifices, the relative angle of rotation(
) of the orifices, the shape of the orifice's hole(circle, rectangle, triangle) having the same area, the number(N) of the orifice's holes having the same mass flow rate, and the thickness(t) of the orifices. It was fecund that the shape of the orifice's hole, the number of the orifice's holes and the thickness of the orifice affected the total pressure drop a lot and that the conical orifice's inclined angle against the wall, the relative angle of rotation of the orifices, the number of the orifice's holes and the thickness of the orifices affected the center location of the recirculation region. The PISO algorithm with FLUENT code was employed to analyze the flow field.
Vacuum Freeze Drying of Skim Milk Solution in a Cylindrical Container: Comparison of Experimental and Numerical Results
Song, Chi-Seong ; Nam, Jin-Hyeon ; Kim, Chan-Jung ; No, Seung-Tak ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 288~301
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.288
A vacuum freeze drying experiment of skim milk solution in a cylindrical container is conducted to investigate the multi-dimensional drying characteristics of the process during the primary drying stage. Temperature histories at several positions are measured under the same process condition that is carefully controlled. Then the measured temperature histories at different positions are combined to produce instantaneous temperature distribution fields inside the cylindrical container. Along with the temperature measurement, the mass reduction history of the skim milk solution is also measured. From the measured temperature distribution curved configurations of sublimation interfaces and 2-dimensional heat transfer is inferred. The freeze drying under the present experimental setup is simulated with a calculation program that is based on a finite volume method with a moving grid system. Good agreements between the numerical and experimental results are observed. The present experimental results and the numerical approaches can be useful information in developing the analysis tools for practical vacuum freeze drying processes.
Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity Using Deformation Angle Based on the Photothermal Displacement Method
Jeon, Pil-Su ; Lee, Gwang-Jae ; Yu, Jae-Seok ; Park, Yeong-Mu ; Lee, Jong-Hwa ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 302~309
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.302
A new method of measuring the thermal diffusivity of solid material at room temperature using photothermal displacement is proposed. The influence of the parameters, such as radius and modulation frequency of the pump beam and the sample thickness, was studied. In previous works, thermal diffusivity was determined by the deformation angle and phase angle as the relative position between the heating and probe beams. In this study, however, we proposed the new analysis method based on the real part of deformation angle as the relative position between two beams. From the zero-crossing position of real part of deformation angle with respect to the pump beam, the thermal diffusivity of the materials can be obtained. The experimental values for different samples obtained by applying the new method are in good agreement with the literature values.
Experimental Study for Natural Convection Flow in an Inclined Partitioned Square Enclosure
Kim, Gwang-Hui ; Kim, Yu-Gon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 310~317
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.310
In the present study, an experimental study of natural convection in a partitioned 2D square enclosure has been carried out. The square enclosure consist of two adiabatic vertical walls and the upper cold and the lower hot walls. A partition is positioned perpendicularly at the center of the left vortical insulated wall. The PIV measurements were performed with the variations of Rayleigh number, partition length and inclination of the enclosure. The working fluid is water with Prandtl number of 6.996 at 20
. The captured images were analyzed by using a cross-correlation (two-frame/single-exposure) PIV method.
The Study on Pressure Oscillation and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Oscillating Capillary Tube Heat Pipe Using Mixed Working Fluid
Jeong, Hyeon-Seok ; Kim, Jeong-Hun ; Kim, Ju-Won ; Kim, Jong-Su ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 318~327
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.318
In this paper, heat transfer and pressure oscillation characteristics on oscillating capillary tube heat pipe(OCHP) according to input heat flux, mixture ratio of working fluid and inclination angle were investigated and were compared single working fluid(R-142b) with binary mixture working fluid(R-142b-Ethano1). OCHP was made to serpentine structure of loop type with 10 turns by drilling the channels of length 220mm, width 1.5mm, and depth 1.5mm on the surface of brass plate. In this study, R-l42b and R-l42b-Ethanol were used as working fluids, the charging ratio of working fluids was 40(vol.%), the input heat flux to evaporating section was changed from 0.3W/㎠ to 1.8W/㎠, and mixture ratio of working fluid was R(100%), R(95%)-E(5%), R(90%)-E(10%), and R(85%)-E(15%). From the experimental results, it was found that the effective thermal conductivity of single working fluid was better than that of binary mixture working fluid. But, in case of binary mixture working fluid, critical heat flux was higher than that of single working fluid. And, the higher the mixture ratios of working fluid, the lower heat transfer performance. In case of pressure oscillation, as the inclination angle was lower, pressure wave was more irregular. These phenomena were more serious when the working fluid was binary mixture. Besides, when mixture ratio was higher, saturated pressure was increased, more irregular wave was observed and the mean amplitude was increased. For the same input heat flux, inclination angle and charging ratio, when pressure oscillation has sinusoidal wave, mean amplitude was small, and saturated pressure was low value, the heat transfer was excellent.
Characteristics of Flame Stabilization of the LFG Mixing Gas
Lee, Chang-Eon ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Kim, Seon-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 328~335
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.328
In this study, experiments were performed to investigate the characteristics of flame stabilization of the LFG mixing gas. LFG has merely half heating value compared with liquified natural gas but can be greatly utilized as a commercial fuel. In order to use LFG in practical combustors, Webbe Index and heating value of LFG mixing gas were adjusted by mixing LPG with LFG. The comparisons were conducted between CH
and LFG mixing gas for searching the region of flame stabilization based upon the flame blowout at maximum fuel stream velocity. As a result, the flame stability of LFG mixing gas was not improved with that of CH
in non-swirl and weak swirl diffusion flame. However, LFG mixing gas had wide flame stabilization region rather than CH
with increasing ambient flow rate in strong swirl. It was also found that flame stability was affected by included quantity of inert gas such as CO
in the weak swirl but by heating value of fuel in strong swirl.
The Effect of Swirl Intensity on Flow and Combustion Characteristics of Flat Flame Burner
Jeong, Yong-Gi ; Kim, Gyeong-Cheon ; Jeon, Chung-Hwan ; Jang, Yeong-Jun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 336~344
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.336
In this study, the flow and combustion characteristics of flat flame burner with twirler were investigated. There are several factors that define the characteristics of burner. Among them, the experiments was focused on swirl effect by four types of twirler in terms of flow structure, distribution of temperature and emission characteristics. In PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) experiment, the less of swirl number, axial flow is dominant at the center. As swirl number increases, the flow develops along the burner tile and backward flow becomes stronger at center. From the combustion characteristics, as long as combustion load increases, blow-off limit was improved. But at the higher swirl number, the limit is decreased. At swirl number 0, the temperature is shown typical distribution of long flame burner. but swirl number increases, the temperature distribution is uniform in front of round tile. Therefore, the temperature distribution is coincided with flow structure. As excess air ratio increases, NO concentrations are high. But high swirl number gives rise to become low NO concentrations. The flame characteristics are comprised in wrinkled laminar-flame regime according to turbulence Reynolds number(Rel) and Damkohler number(Da).
Assessment of Suboptimal Control in Turbulent Pipe Flow
Choe, Jeong-Il ; Xu, C.X. ; Seong, Hyeong-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 345~352
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.345
A suboptimal control law in turbulent pipe flow is derived and tested. Two sensing variables ∂p/∂
w/ and ∂v
w/ are applied with two actuations ø
/ and ø
γ/. To test the suboptimal control law, direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow at Re
/=150 are performed. When the control law is applied, a 13∼23% drag reduction is achieved. The most effective drag reduction is made at the pair of ∂v
w/ and ø
γ/. An impenetrable virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall suction and blowing. The virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall behavior of the controlled flow. Comparison of the present suboptimal control with that of turbulent channel flow reveals that the curvature effect is insignificant.
Influence of Unsteady Wake on a Turbulent Separation Bubble
Jeon, Se-Jong ; Seong, Hyeong-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 353~361
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.353
An experimental study was made of turbulent separated and reattaching flow over a blunt body, where unsteady wake was generated by a spoke wheel-type wake generator with cylindrical rods. The influence of unsteady wake was scrutinized by altering the rotating direction (CW and CCW) and the normalized passing frequency (0 St
H/ 0.20). The Reynolds number based on the cylindrical rod was Re
d/=375. A phase-averaging technique was employed to characterize the unsteady wake. The effect of different rotating directions was examined in detail, which gave a significant reduction of x
R/. The wall pressure fluctuations on the blunt body were analysed in terms of the spectrum and the coherence.
Development of Stereoscopic PIV Measurement Technique and Its Application to Wake behind an Axial Fan
Yun, Jeong-Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Jun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 362~373
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2002.26.2.362
A stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) measurement system based on the translation configuration was developed and applied to the flow behind a forward-swept axial-fan. Measurement of three orthogonal velocity components is essential for flow analysis of three-dimensional flows such as flow around a fan or propeller. In this study, the translation configuration was adopted to calculate the out-of-plane velocity component from 2-D PIV data obtained from two CCD cameras. The error caused by the out-of-plane motion was estimated by direct comparison of the 2-D PIV and 3-D SPIV results that measured from the particle images captured simultaneously. The comparison shows that the error ratio is relatively high in the region of higher out-of-plane motion near the axial fan blade. The turbulence intensity measured by the 2-D PIV method is bigger by about 5.8% in maximum compared with that of the 3-D SPIV method. The phase-averaged velocity field results show that the wake behind an axial fan has a periodic flow structure with respect to the blade phase and the characteristic flow structure is shifted downstream in the next phase.