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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 27, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 27, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 27, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 27, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 27, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 27, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
New Design Approach for the Uniform Temperature of Precision Hot Plates
Park, Yong-Qwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1525~1533
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1525
In the precision hot plate for wafer processing, uniform temperature of the upper plate is one of key factors affecting the quality of wafers. The state-of-the-art precision hot plates require temperature Variations less than
during heating to 15
, Which is difficult to be obtained only by the improvement of manufacturing techniques alone. In this study, computer aided heat transfer analysis was carried out to obtain the temperature distribution of the currently used reference hot plate for 200mm wafer. The analysis on the reference model assuming constant heat generation rate and uniform heating area showed total variation of 0.926
. One of the new design approaches based on the change of heating location together with different heat generation rate resulted in total variation of 0.297
which is a 68% improvement compared to that of the reference model.
Development of Integrated fringe Analysis System: For Severe Noise-ridden Interferometric Image Analysis
Kang, Min-Gu ; Joo, Won-Jong ; Cha, Dong-Jin ; Kang, Bo-Sun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1534~1541
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1534
A new window-based, user-friendly fringe analysis system is developed, especially for analyzing noisy interferograms. The system integrates three major techniques, that is fringe tracking, Phase shifting, and Fourier transform, into a single shell by employing a unified procedure. Since the system is made in a modular fashion and all processing modules can be shared for any technique, a user can select necessary modules and easily edit the applying order of them based on the user`s analysis strategy, which should be changed depending on the noise level of the image. The system provides a high-level GUI and a variety of image handling tools and therefore users can easily access the system and produce the optimal results without giving up in the middle of a process even for severely noise-contaminated interferometric images.
Collection Efficiency of Nano Particles by Electrostatic Precipitator using Dielectric Barrier Discharge
Kang, Suk-Hoon ; Ji, Jun-Ho ; Byeon, Jeong-Hoon ; Hwang, Jung-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1542~1547
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1542
Although dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air has been applied to a wider range of aftertreatment processes for HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants), due to its high electron density and energy, its potential use as precharging dust particles is not well known. In this work, we measured size distributions of bimodal aerosol particles and estimated collection efficiency of the particles by an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) using DBD as particle charger. To examine the particle collection with DBD charger, nano size particles of NaCl(20∼100nm) and DOS (50∼500nm) were generated by a tube furnace and an atomizer, respectively. For experimental conditions of 60㎐, 11㎸ and 60 lpm, the particle collection efficiency for the hybrid system was over 85%, based on the number of particles captured.
Determination of Air Fuel Ratio according to Fuel Composition (I) -Eltinge Chart as a Reference Exhaust Composition-
Ohm, In-Yong ; Park, Chan-Jun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1548~1562
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1548
This paper is the first of several companion papers which compare the methods of Air-fuel ratio determination. There are many methods which calculate Air-Fuel ratio from exhaust emission. Most of them are based on the simple chemical equations, which use balance of atom, and the error of the calculation is negligible as far as the instrumentation accuracy is guaranteed. They assume homogeneous mixture and complete combustion to the extent of oxygen availability. Because of these simple assumptions, they cannot offer the information about the fuel distribution state and the malfunction of instrument. For these limitations, Eltinge offered new one based on stricter mathematical model. This result coincides with the others very well and gives more information about the mixture state and instrumentation. Consequently this might be a general solution for Air-fuel ratio determination and exhaust composition. The objects of the calculation, however, were not commercial fuels except gasoline and the compensation method of unburned hydrocarbon was not appropriate to recent analyzer. Moreover he did not consider the fuel which contains oxygen, such as methanol, ethanol and blend of gasoline-alcohol. In this paper, Eltinge chart is expanded to the arbitrary fuel composition as the reference exhaust compositions for the purpose of further discussions about Air-fuel ratio determination methods and the charts fur gasoline, diesel, methanol, M85, liquefied petroleum gas(LPG), natural gas(NG), propane, butane are illustrated.
Determination of Air Fuel Ratio According to Fuel Composition (II) -Compensation of Unburned Gas Concentration in Eltinge Chart-
Ohm, In-Yong ; Park, Chan-Jun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1563~1571
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1563
This paper is the second part of several companion papers which compare the method of Air-fuel ratio(AFR) determination. In the previous paper, Eltinge chart was applied to the arbitrary fuel composition and the charts for gasoline, diesel, methanol, M85, liquefied petroleum gas(LPG), natural gas(NG), propane and butane were illustrated. In Eltinge chart, however, unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) is not used for determination of AFR. For improving accuracy, Eltinge suggested UHC compensation after the AFR reading in the chart. This compensation reduced the difference between real and reading value. In the compensation, however, the correction of oxygen and carbon dioxide is uncertain and there might be a mistake in conversion of UHC reading value. Therefore, the error is overestimated comparing with Spindt one which is most widely used. In addition, there is no comparison of the value with other useful methods. In this paper, the compensation of unburned HC was performed in Eltinge chart and the compensated value was compared with Spindts formula over wide range of AFR. The objects of investigating fuel are gasoline, methanol, NG and LPG. The result shows that Eltinge and Spindt method is flawlessly compatible and the difference between the two methods is under 0.3% in a λrange from 0.9 to 1.7. The method fur debugging instrumentation error is also presented.
A Study on the Analysis of Temperature Field of Bubbly Flow Using Thermo-sensitive Liquid Crystals
Bae, Dae-Seok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1572~1578
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1572
Particle Image Thermometry(PIT) with liquid crystal tracers is used for visualizing and analysis of the bubbly flow in a vertical temperature gradient. Quantitative data of the temperature were obtained by applying the color-image processing to a visualized image, and neural-network was applied to the color-to-temperature calibration. This paper describes the method, and presents the transient mixing temperature patterns of the bubbly flow.
Study of Hydrogen Combustion with n Gun-type Burner
Lee, Young-Lim ; Lee, Kum-Bae ; Sim, Kyu-Sung ; Jun, Yong-Du ; Ryu, Jae-Eun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1579~1586
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1579
A gun-type burne. fur a LPG(Liquified Petroleum Gas) boiler was utilized for hydrogen combustion. The study was performed to obtain fundamental data prior to the design of a very low NO
x/, hydrogen-fueled burner. First, numerical simulations were performed to predict mixing characteristics between air and fuel flows, and temperature distributions, etc. Experimental study was then performed to find out flame lengths, temperature distributions, and NO
x/ concentrations. The results showed that a gun-type burner for a LPG boiler can be successfully used for hydrogen combustion without any major retrofitting. The hydrogen flame was very stable and 75 ppm of NO
x/ in average was observed for the conditions considered in this study. Hydrogen combustion could be therefore a solution to avoid the problem of green-house gas(CO
) if hydrogen becomes cost-effective.
A Study on Flame Monitoring System Development for Combustion Management of Boilers
Baek, Woon-Bo ; Shin, Jin-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1587~1594
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1587
Increased energy costs have placed demands for improved combustion efficiency, high equipment availability, low maintenance and safe operation. Furthermore low NO
modification, installed due to strict environmental legislation, requires very careful combustion management. The flame monitoring system has been developed specially to satisfy these requirements. We aimed at gaining the relationship between the burner flame image and emissions such as NO
and unburned carbon in furnace by utilizing the image processing method. For the first step of development, its possibility test was undertaken with bench furnace. The test proceeded to the second step with pilot furnace and the system was observed to be effective for evaluating the combustion conditions. By using this technology, it is possible to perform continuous monitoring of the combustion conditions and instant detection of individual changes for each burner to prevent future loss of ignition. This may contribute to the saving of burner adjusting times for the changes of loads and fuels and to the reduction of the slagging as well.
A Numerical Study of Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Fuel Droplet
Lee, Bong-Su ; Lee, Kyung-Jae ; Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Koo, Ja-Ye ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1595~1603
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1595
Droplet combustion at high ambient pressures is studied numerically by formulating one dimensional combustion model in the mixture of n-heptane fuel and air. The ambient pressure is supercritical conditions. The modified Soave-Redlich-Kwong state equation is used in the evaluation of thermophysical properties to account for the real gas effect on fluid p-v-T properties in high pressure conditions. Non-ideal thermodynamic and transport property at near critical and supercritical conditions are also considered. Several parametric studies are performed by changing ambient pressure and initial droplet diameter. Droplet lifetime decreased with increasing pressure. Surface temperature increased with increasing pressure. Ignition time increased with increasing initial droplet diameter. Temporal or spatial distribution of mass fraction, mass diffusivity, Lewis number, thermal conductivity, and specific heat were presented.
Analysis of Gas-Solid Flow for the Optimum Design of Coal Splitter
Yok, Sim-Kyun ; Ryu, Jae-Wook ; Ik-Hyeong ; Lee, Sang-Ryong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1604~1611
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1604
The experimental investigation of a coal splitter used in the 500㎿(e) boilers of fossil power plant is carried out to validate the design criteria. To predict air flow and the amount of particles at the exit, velocity and the weight of particles are measured on test planes using the coal splitter model with two-dimensional phase doppler particle analyzer and the glass fiber filter. It is found that the position of guide plate influences significantly both flow rates of gas and particle at the exit. Gas flow rate was a linear function of the guide plate, whereas particle flow rate was a exponential function of it.
In Vivo Visualization of Flow in Xylem Vessels of a Bamboo Leaf Using Synchrotron X-ray Micro Imaging Technique
Kim, Yang-Min ; Lee, Sang-Joon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1612~1617
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1612
Synchrotron X-ray micro imaging technique was employed to non-invasively monitor the water flow inside xylem vessels in a bamboo leaf. The phase contrast X-ray images clearly visualized plant anatomy and the rise of a water front inside the vessels. Consecutive X-ray images taken for 60 seconds revealed water rise kinetics against gravity in the xylem of a cut dry leaf taken from a bamboo tree. For the first time, traces of water rise, variation of contact angle between water and xylem wall as well as the internal structure of xylem were obtained. In xylem vessels, a repeating flow pattern has a typical flow velocity of 30.7
/s and faster flow is established intermittently. It is concluded that the transmission type of X-ray micro imaging can be used as a powerful tool to investigate the ascent of sap in the xylem vessels at a resolution higher than that of MRI.
Detailed Measurement of Flow and Heat Transfer Downstream of Rectanglar Vortex Generators Using a Transient Liquid Crystal Technique
Hong, Cheol-Hyun ; Yang, Jang-Sik ; Lee, Ki-Baik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1618~1629
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1618
The effects of the interaction between flow field and heat transfer caused by the longitudinal vortices are experimentally investigated using a five hole probe and a transient liquid crystal technique. The test facility consists of a wind tunnel with vortex generators protruding from a bottom surface and a mesh heater. In order to control the strength of the longitudinal vortices, the angle of attack of vortex generators used in the present experiment is 20
, and the spacing between the vortex generators is 25mm. The height and cord length of the vortex generator is 20mm and 50mm, respectively. Three-component mean velocity measurements are made using a f-hole probe system, and the surface temperature distribution is measured by the hue capturing method using a transient liquid crystal technique. The transient liquid crystal technique in measuring heat transfer has become one of the most effective ways in determining the full surface distributions of heat transfer coefficients. The key point of this technique is to convert the inlet flow temperature into an exponential temperature profile using the mesh heater set up in the wind tunnel. The conclusions obtained in the present experiment are as follows: The two maximum heat transfer values exist over the whole domain, and as the longitudinal vortices move to the farther downstream region, these peak values show the decreasing trends. These trends are also observed in the experimental results of other researchers to have used the uniform heat flux method.
A Study on the Effects of EGR on Engine Performance and Emissions of a HCCI(Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) Engine
Han, Sung-Bin ; Chang, Yong-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1630~1636
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1630
Automobile companies and research institutions in leading automobile-manufacturing nations have recently been very active with research regarding the HCCI engine for use in future vehicles. Because HCCI engines take advantage of high compression ratio and heat release rate, they exhibit high efficiency found in compression ignition engines. HCCI engines also utilize a lean air/fuel ratio resulting in low emissions of NO
and PM (particulate matter). The objective of this research is to determine the effects of EGR rate on the combustion processes of HCCI. for this purpose, a 4-cylinder, compression ignition engine was converted into a HCCI engine, and a heating device was installed to raise the temperature of the intake air and also to make it more consistent. In addition, a pressure sensor was inserted into each of the cylinders to investigate the differences in characteristics among the cylinders. The experimental study of the effects of EGR rate on various gas emissions, engine performance, etc. should prove to be a valuable source of information for the development of the HCCI engine.e.
Development and Application of a Miniature Stereo-PIV System
Kim, K.C. ; Chetelat, Olivier ; Kim, S.H. ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1637~1644
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1637
Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is a measurement technique to acquire three dimensional velocity field by two cameras. With a laser sheet illumination, the third velocity component can be deduced from out-of
plane velocity components using a stereoscopic matching method. Most industrial fluid flows are three dimensional turbulent flows, so it is necessary to use the stereoscopic PIV measurement method. However the existing stereoscopic PIV system seems hard to use since it is very expensive and complex. In this study we have developed a Miniature Stereo-PIV(MSPIV) system based on the concept of the Miniature PIV system which we have already developed. In this paper, we address the design and some primitive experimental results of the Miniature Stereo-PIV system. The Miniature Stereo-PIV system features relatively modest performances, but is considerably smaller, cheaper and easy to handle. The proposed Miniature Stereo-PIV system uses two one-chip-only CMOS cameras with digital output. Only two other chips are needed, one for a buffer memory and one for an interfacing logic that controls the system. Images are transferred to a personal computer (PC) via its standard parallel port. No extra hardware is required (in particular, no frame grabber board is needed).
Change of Vortex Dynamics in the Cylinder Wake by the Lock-on to Oscillatory Incident Flow
Kim, Won-Tae ; Sung, Jae-Yong ; Yoo, Jung-Yul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 27, issue 11, 2003, Pages 1645~1654
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2003.27.11.1645
When vortex shedding is locked-on to a single frequency oscillatory flow, the variations of vortex dynamics are investigated using a time-resolved PIV system. Wake regions of recirculation and vortex formation, dynamic behavior of the shed vortices and the Reynolds stress fields are measured in the wake-transition regime at the Reynolds number 360. In the lock-on state, reduction of the wake region occurs and flow energy distributed downstream moves upstream being concentrated near the cylinder base. To observe the dynamic behavior of the shed vortices, the trajectory of the vortex center extended to the inside of the wake bubble is considered, which describes well the formation and evolution processes. The Reynolds stresses and their contributions to overall force balance on the wake bubble manifest the increase of the drag force by the lock-on.