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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 35, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 35, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 35, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 35, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 35, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 35, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
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Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) Using Nonlinear Regression Models for Heat Exchanger Faults in Heat Pump System
Kim, Hak-Soo ; Kim, Min-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1111~1117
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1111
This paper proposed a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) algorithm using nonlinear regression models, focusing especially on heat exchanger faults. This research concerned four working modes: those with no fault, evaporator fault, condenser fault, and evaporator and condenser faults. This research used no fault mode data to create an FDD algorithm. Using the no fault mode data, correlation functions for predicting the degree of superheat or subcool of heat exchangers (an evaporator and a condenser) were derived. Each correlation function has five inputs and one output. Based on these correlation functions, it is possible to predict the degree of superheat or subcool of each heat exchanger under various working conditions. The FDD algorithm was developed by comparing the predicted value and the simulation value. The FDD algorithm works well in all four working modes.
Numerical Study on the Performance of a Microchannel Heat Exchanger with a Novel Channel Array
Jeon, Seung-Won ; Lee, Kyu-Jung ; Moon, Dong-Ju ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1119~1126
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1119
In conventional microchannel heat exchangers, only one kind of fluid (hot or cold) flows in each plate. The channels contain different kinds of fluid depending on the vertical position, but they have the same kind of fluid at all horizontal positions. Therefore, there is a slower heat transfer rate in the horizontal direction than in the vertical direction. We propose a microchannel heat exchanger in which hot and cold fluid flows alternately in each plate to improve the thermal performance. This novel channel array requires a special design for the inlet and outlet. The proposed channel array has a faster heat transfer rate than a conventional channel array. The thermal performance of the novel channel array increases with increasing Reynolds number and Prandtl number, but it decreases as the ratio of solid to fluid thermal conductivity increases.
Pumpless Cell Culture Chip with a Constant Perfusion Rate Maintained by Balanced Droplet Dispensing
Kim, Tae-Yoon ; Cho, Young-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1127~1131
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1127
We report on a pumpless cell culture chip in which a constant medium perfusion rate is maintained by balanced droplet dispensing. Previous chips had a decreasing perfusion rate due to the decreasing hydraulic-head difference
between the inlet and drain. However, the present chip maintains a constant medium perfusion rate due to the constant
between the inlet and drain maintained by balanced droplet dispensing. The perfusion rate Q was measured to be 0.1-
/min with a maximum deviation and error of 9.96% and 6.92%, respectively. In the perfusion culture (Q = 0.1-
/min), the maximum growth-rate of H358 cells was measured to be
per day, which is 1.9 times higher than that of a static culture. The perfusion culture also resulted in higher cell viability than a static culture. The present chip offers a favorable environment with a high growth-rate and viability and thus has potential for use in the integrated cell culture system.
Fabrication of a Micro-thermoelectric Probe
Chang, Won-Seok ; Choi, Tae-Youl ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1133~1137
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1133
A novel technique for the fabrication of a glass micropipette-based thermal sensor was developed utilizing inexpensive thermocouple materials. Thermal fluctuation with a resolution of
K was measured using the fabricated thermal probe. The sensors comprise unleaded low-melting point solder alloy (Sn) as a core metal inside a borosilicate glass pipette coated with a thin film of Ni, creating a thermocouple junction at the tip. The sensor was calibrated using a thermally insulated calibration chamber, the temperature of which can be controlled with a precision of
K and the thermoelectric power (Seebeck coefficient) of the sensor was recorded from 8.46 to
/K. The sensor we have produced is both cost-effective and reliable for thermal conductivity measurements of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and biological temperature sensing at the micron level.
Stress Distribution in Microvascular Anastomotic Coupler (AnaFix
) Micropins with Respect to the Fillet Radius
Jee, Dae-Won ; Kim, Cheol-Woong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1139~1145
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1139
An automated anastomotic ring-pin system consisting of both the anastomotic ring-pin system and the coupler device has eliminated the drawbacks of the suture method. High density polyethylene (HDPE), a material with outstanding biocompatibility and injection molding capability, was used in the ring. SUS316 stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4Nb, Ti-6Al-4V, and unalloyed titanium were used in FEM simulations of the micropin. The authors categorized the microvascular anastomotic ring micropins into short neck (SN) and long neck (LN) groups in order to evaluate the effect of the micropin's fillet radius and neck length on the von Mises stress. The micropins were further divided into those with and without fillet. On the basis of the fillet radius rate (FRR), which represents the rate of change in the von Mises stress with respect to the availability and shape of the fillet, and the neck length rate (NLR), which represents the rate of change in the von Mises stress with respect to changes in the length of the neck within the fillet shape, it can be concluded that the SN-3 neck design is the most stable.
Developing an Instrument Ensuring Reliable Contact Conditions for Contact-Type Area-varying Capacitive Displacement Sensors
Kim, Sung-Joo ; Lee, Won-Goo ; Moon, Won-Kyu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1147~1156
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1147
A contact-type area-varying capacitive displacement sensor, or CLECDiS, can measure displacements over millimeter ranges with nanometer resolution. However, a small changes in the contact condition due to the surface profile or friction, which are inherent characteristics of contact-type sensors, lead to significant distortion of the output signal. Therefore, ensuring reliable contact conditions during CLECDiS measurements is the most important area to be improved in their actual use. Herein, in order to design an instrument for ensuring reliable contact conditions, the contact condition is analyzed by characterizing the signal distortion, observing the pressure distribution between the contacting surfaces, and measuring the motional errors of the sensor using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The manufactured instrument enables a CLECDiS to be used in an ultraprecise positioning system with improved reliability.
Test Analysis of a Parking Brake for the Track Drive Unit of an Excavator
Lee, Yong-Bum ; Kim, Kwang-Min ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1157~1162
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1157
The parking brake is an essential unit embedded in the track-driving motor of an excavator. The parking brake plays an important role in keeping the excavator in place not only when it is parked, but also during the digging operation. In fact, the load placed on the parking brake during the digging operation is significantly higher than the parking load, because the impact and rating loads caused by the bucket digging force cycle frequently and have very high load ranges. Therefore, the load conditions during the digging operation should be taken into account in the parking brake certification test. In this study, a series of experiments was carried out in which various operating pressures were applied to the parking brake, where repeated loads were reciprocally placed on the brake by locking the multifriction disc and releasing the hydraulic cylinder. The characteristics of the parking brake were investigated by comparing the obtained experimental results and the theoretical design specifications.
Basic Experimental Study on the Application of Biofuel to a Diesel Engine
Yeom, Jeong-Kuk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1163~1168
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1163
Compared with the spark-ignition gasoline engine, the compression-ignition diesel engine has reduced fuel consumption due to its higher thermal efficiency. In addition, this reduction in the fuel consumption also leads to a reduction in
emission. Diesel engines do not require spark-ignition systems, which makes them less technically complex. Thus, diesel engines are very suitable target engines for using biofuels with high cetane numbers. In this study, the spray characteristics of biofuels such as vegetable jatropha oil and soybean oil were analyzed and compared with those of diesel oil. The injection pressures and blend ratios of jatropha oil and diesel oil (BD3, BD5, and BD20) were used as the main parameters. The injection pressures were set to 500, 1000, 1500, and 1600 bar. The injection duration was set to
. Consequently, it was found that there is no significant difference in the characteristics of the spray behavior (spray angle) in response to changes in the blend ratio of the biodiesel or changes in the injection pressure. However, at higher injection pressures, the spray angle decreased slightly.
Comparison of Numerical Results for Laminar Wavy Liquid Film Flows down a Vertical Plate for Various Time-Differencing Schemes for the Volume Fraction Equation
Park, Il-Seouk ; Kim, Young-Jo ; Min, June-Kee ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1169~1176
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1169
Liquid film flows are classified into waveless laminar, wavy laminar, and turbulent flows depending on the Reynolds number or the flow stability. Since the wavy motions of the film flows are so intricate and nonlinear, studies on them have largely been experimental. Most numerical approaches have been limited to the waveless flow regime. The various free surface-tracking schemes adopted for this problem were used to more accurately estimate the average film thickness, rather than to capture the unsteady wavy motion. In this study, the wavy motions in laminar wavy liquid film flows with Reynolds numbers of 200-1000 were simulated with various numerical schemes based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method for interface tracking. The results from each numerical scheme were compared with the experimental results in terms of the average film thickness, the wave velocity, and the wave amplitude.
Experimental Study on the Dissociation Characteristics of Methane Hydrate Pellet by Hot Water Injection
Lee, Seung-Han ; Yoon, Yong-Seok ; Seong, Kwan-Jae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1177~1184
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1177
Gas-to-Solid (GTS) technology is composed of three stages: hydrate production, transportation, and regasification. For efficient operation of regasification plants, it is crucial to predict the temperature and flow rate of hot water necessary to dissociate the hydrate pellets. Dissociated gas escaping from the pellet surface, when in contact with hot water, will alter the flow field and consequently alter the heat transfer rate. Methane hydrate pellet dissociation characteristics in low- to moderatetemperature water were investigated by taking images of the changes in the hydrate pellets' shapes in a pressurized reactor and measuring the total time required for complete melting of the pellets. The effects of water temperature, hydrate conversion rate, and flow speed on the dissociation completion time were also investigated. Bubbling gas released from the pellet surface induced a secondary flow that enhanced the heat transfer rate and thus decreased the dissociation time. It was also found that a considerable flow rate was needed to significantly decrease the dissociation time.
Effect of Lower Limb Ischemia on Linear Motion Perception
Yi, Yong-Woo ; Park, Su-Kyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1185~1190
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1185
The lower limb somatosensory deficit observed among peripheral neuropathy patients is partially related to the decline in their balance ability. In general, balance ability has been examined by measuring the postural response (i.e., action). However, body motion is induced by integrated multisensory cues (i.e., motion perception). In this study, we hypothesized that the reduced lower limb somatosensation might also lower motion perception. We induced lower limb sensory deficits through ischemia and then measured the cutaneous sensory sensitivity and directional motion perception. The sensory deficit was successfully induced, and it also lowered the motion perception. However, the center of pressure (COP) variation did not significantly change under the sensory deficit. This result implies that measuring motion perception could enable the detection of precursors of sensory deficits.
Blood Flow and Pressure Evaluation for a Pulsatile Conduit-Shaped Ventricular Assist Device with Structural Characteristic of Conduit Shape
Kang, Seong-Min ; Choi, Seong-Wook ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1191~1198
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1191
The use of a ventricular assist device (VAD) can raise the one-year survival rate without cardiac transplantation from 25% to 52%. However, malfunction of the VAD system causes 6% of VAD patients' deaths, which could possibly be avoided through the development of new VADs in which VAD malfunctions do not affect the patient's heart movement or hemodynamic state. A conventional VAD has an impeller or vane for propelling blood that can allow blood to regurgitate when the propelling force is weaker than the aortic pressure. In this paper, we developed a new pulsatile conduit-shaped VAD that has two valves. This device removes the possibility of blood regurgitation and has a small stationary area even when the pumping force is extremely weak. We estimated the characteristics of the device by measuring the outflow and the pressure of the pump in in-vitro and in-vivo experiments.
Continuum Mechanics-Based Environment Modeling for Telemanipulation of Soft Tissues in a Telepalpation System
Kim, Jung-Sik ; Kim, Jung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1199~1204
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1199
The capability to bilaterally telemanipulate soft-tissues for medical applications could increase the quality of telemanipulation systems. Since most soft-tissue manipulation tasks include constrained motion interacting with an unknown and dynamic bioenvironment through contact, bilateral telemanipulation raises problems due to stability and transparency issues. It is well understood that knowledge of environments plays an important role in pursuing transparent telemanipulation and achieving telepresence, and in particular, online estimation of environmental parameters with an explicit environment model can improve these systems' performance. In this study, a continuum mechanics-based environment model with an online environmental property estimation algorithm and an adaptive telemanipulation control scheme is proposed. The proposed method can improve the telemanipulation performance in terms of stability and transparency and can offer valuable information (e.g., elastic modulus of soft tissues) pertaining to diagnostic examinations.
Development of a Pacemaker with a Ventricular Assist Device for End-Stage Heart Failure Patients
Kim, Yoo-Seok ; Park, Sung-Min ; Choi, Seong-Wook ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1205~1211
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1205
In this paper, we developed a pacemaker that can increase the efficacy of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and increase the survival rate for patients suffering end-stage heart failure. Because LVAD patients can experience arrhythmia, the pacemaker incorporated into the LVAD has the important role of sustaining sufficient blood circulation during arrhythmia. The electrode of the pacemaker is located at the apex of the left ventricle, where the VAD's inlet cannula is connected. This is efficient placement, in that the electrode can transmit electrical stimulation directly to the Purkinje fibers of the myocardium. The pacemaker can change the stimulation rate from 0 bpm to 191.4 bpm when a button is pressed on the external control module, and the pacemaker normally stimulates the heart at 60 bpm with 0.25 J of energy. We performed animal experiments to evaluate the performance and reliability of the combination of the LVAD and pacemaker. At pacemaker stimulation rates of 86.4 bpm, 100.2 bpm, 126.6 bpm, we recorded the ECGs, aortic pressures, and flow rates to analyze the heart loads.
Analysis of an External Stimulator's Impact on the Heart
Kim, Mun-Soo ; Choe, Seung-Wook ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1213~1217
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1213
Electric stimulators are used for various treatments, such as for pain relief and to improve rehabilitation in and out of the hospital. However, if the stimulation pulse affects the patient's heart, it can cause critical cardiac disorders such as arrhythmia or ventricular fibrillation. As a result, it must be ensured that the transmission length of the stimulation pulse does not exceed the proper range in the design of an electric stimulator. Furthermore, every anticipated risk factor must be monitored in in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. A new stimulator was designed to supply continuous 0.001 J stimulation pulses at a rate of 60 pulses per second. To evaluate the safety of the new electric stimulator and to measure its energy transfer and pulse transmission length, we built a conduction model that was filled with saline and measured the electric field at various positions in response to real stimulations. In an animal experiment with two pigs, heart disorders were induced by applying electric stimulation to tissues near the heart. These heart disorders were different from the result obtained with 9 V DC stimulation.
A Study on Effect of Residual Stress on Stress Distribution of Arterial Walls Under High Blood Pressure
Choi, Jae-Woo ; Choi, Deok-Kee ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1219~1227
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1219
Due to recent changes in living conditions, people who suffer from vascular disease have been increasing. As a result, several kinds of procedures to treat diseases of the blood vessels are being carried out and the epidemiological analysis and interpretation is needed. In this paper, the mechanical behavior of blood vessels based on hyperelastic model were evaluated. The stress distributions in the arterial walls subjected to both normal blood pressure and high blood pressure are studied along with different opening angles representing as the effect of the residual stress. As a result, when applied to residual stress effects in blood vessels to act maximum stress compared to as the absence of residual stress effect about 50% stresses can be reduced. When high blood pressure was the normal blood pressure acting on the blood vessel wall that twice stress can be confirmed.
Physical and Chemical Effects of Extracellular Matrix on the Growth of Cardiomyocytes (HL-1)
Hong, Yoon-Mi ; Choi, Seong-Kyun ; Kim, Sun-Min ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1229~1235
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1229
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key factor affecting cell growth and adhesion to the culture surface, and it is also important for maintaining the innate characteristics of cells. Here, we describe the effects of the ECM on cardiomyocyte (HL-1 cell line) growth, viability, phenotype, and contractile ability. Five different ECM materials were investigated to analyze their effects on the cell growth. The physical morphology of the ECM-coated surfaces was scanned with an atomic force microscope (AFM), and the attachment, growth, proliferation, viability, and phenotype of the cells were analyzed using fluorescence immunostaining and an inverted phase contrast microscope.
Fabrication of Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds Using Projection-based Microstereolithography and Their Effects on Osteogenesis
Seol, Young-Joon ; Park, Ju-Young ; Cho, Dong-Woo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1237~1242
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1237
Calcium phosphates are very interesting materials for use as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. These materials include hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), which are inorganic components of human bone tissue and are both biocompatible and osteoconductive. Although these materials have excellent properties for use as bone scaffolds, many researchers have used these materials as additives to synthetic polymer scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration, because they are difficult to manufacture three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. In this study, we fabricated 3D calcium phosphate scaffolds with the desired inner and outer architectures using solid freeform fabrication technology. To fabricate the scaffold, the sintering behavior was evaluated for various sintering temperatures and slurry concentrations. After the fabrication of the calcium phosphate scaffolds, in-vitro cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation tests were carried out.
Effect of a Elderly Walker on Joint Kinematics and Muscle Activities of Lower Extremities Using a Human Model
Shin, Jun-Ho ; Kim, Yoon-Hyuk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B, volume 35, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1243~1248
DOI : 10.3795/KSME-B.2011.35.11.1243
The purposes of this study were to develop a dynamic model of a human and to investigate the effect of a walker on an elderly subject's motions, such as sit-to-stand (STS) motion and normal gait, by using this model. A human model consisting of 15 segments and 14 joints was developed, embedded in
, and connected through a Simulink
interface with collected motion data. The model was validated by comparisons between joint kinematic results from inverse dynamics (Matlab
-based in-house program) and from
simulation during walking. The results indicate that the elderly walker induced a longer movement time in walking, such that the speed of joint flexion/extension was slower than that during a normal gait. The results showed that the muscle activities of parts of the ankle and hamstring were altered by use of the elderly walker. The technique used in this study could be very helpful in applications to biomechanical fields.