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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Home Economics Association
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 1992
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 1992
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 1992
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 1992
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A Study on the Graft Polymerization onto Cellulose Fiber using Tetravalent Cerium-
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 1~9
Graft polymerization mechanism and rate of polymerization of MMA and MMA/4-VP onto cellulose fiber using Ce(IV) salt as an initiatior were investigated. It was shown that the concentration of Ce(IV) salt affected on the graft yield, graft efficiency, total conversion and the rate of graft polymerization. The graft yield and total cenversion for MMA grafted polymer were significantly higher than those for MMA/4-VP grafted polymer with variation of CAN concentration. In this system the oxidative termination by Ce(IV) salt was considered particularly in higher concentration Ce(IV) ion. The change in the mode of termination reactions with variation of CAN concentration made possible the presence of an optimum Ce(IV) ion concentration for maximum graft yield.
A Comparative Study on the Clothing Behavior by a Type of Campus Wear -With an Emphasis for the Boy's and Girl's High School Students in Kwangju-
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 11~24
The purpose of this study is to investigate the present states and preferences for a type of campus wear, the differences between the life-style variables and clothing behavior among school uniform students and non-uniform students, to explore variabels of the purchasing tendency in clothes of boys' and girls' high school students. The questionnaires were administered to samples of four boys' and girls' high schools respectively in Kwangju. The data from 522 respondants were analyzed in using Frequency and T-test. The results were as follows: 1. Most of schools are likely to take a school uniform system in the near future but students do not have favorable attitude against the system. 2. There were partly significant differences between the clothing behavior variables (boys : psychological dependence, comfort and atmosphere of the store, girls : downtown shopping) among school uniform students and non-uniform students. 3. There were partly significant differences between life-style variables(boys : leadership and social attitude, advertisement confidence, girls : price consciousness) among school uniform students and non-uniform students. 4. About 80% of the subject group planned their clothing purchase in advance, and their parents and friends influenced on clothing buying behaviors more then other fashion information sources, however, for the boy students the atmosphere of the store is most affecting variables. The store in which the subject group purchased clothing most frequently was a specialty fashion store. In clothing selection, aesthetic factors were showen as important factor and the most affecting mass media is TV.
A Study of the Agreeability on the Use of Bedclothes
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 25~34
The main purpose of the study were to investigate the agreeability on the use of the bedclothes of Korea. For this purpose, a questionaire was sent to 600 mothers of students at middle school, high school and university in Seoul, Daejeon, Kwangju. The results were as follows; 1. The type of house greatly influences the style of sleeping and most families have a traditional Korean style sleeping environment. 2. Management of bedclothes were important on comfort sleeping of the subjects. 3. The type of sleepwear, Subjects shown a greater preference for Pajama style than One-piece style. 4. The chemi-physical aspect was shown as an important factor in the demand of selection motive of bedclothes for agreeability. 5. But Psychological aspect was shown an important factor in the demand of selection motive of sleepwear for agreeability.
Fundamental Relationship Between Extensibility of Stretch Fabric and It's Pressure
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 35~47
The objective of this research was to determine whether the pressure on the cylinder by stretch fabric could be related by the size of cylinder, the amount of extension, and the properties of the fabric. The results were as follows : 1. There were linear relationships between the pressure of the fabric exerts on the cylinder and percentage of extension of the fabric, the radius of the cylinder, the tensile stress of the fabric, and the bending and shearing properties of the fabric. 2. From the results above, 4 regression equations from which the pressure could be estimated were derived by regression analysis. The equations were as follows : 1) P=a/Rb 2) P=c＋ds 3) P=e＋fSt 4) P=g＋hB P : Pressure, R : Radius of cylinder, S : Percentage of Stretch, St : Tensile stress, B : Bending property.
A Study on the Printing Pattern Design using Computer Graphics
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 49~65
The writer did a survey of current textile patterns for the purpose of identifying a motif trend. After identifying a current motif trend the writer used an IBM PC 386 Computer and Lumena Software to design actual patterns. The results are as follows: 1. The most common currently used prints are floral patterns. 2. Knowing that floral patterns are most popular, the writer established a motif using the Rose of Sharon, the national flower of Korea. 3. Using computer graphics to move, enlarge and scale-down motif, the writer has been able to design various textile patterns. 4. Creating patterns with computer graphics was not only more efficient, but it also produced more accurate designs and a greater variety of designs. 5. Using the many computer graphic functions avaliable, a greater variety of patterns changes and compositions can be displayed than would be possible if produce by hand. 6. Computer simulations of textiles and clothing made it possible to evaluate the printed fabric or finished product. Faults in the printed fabric or clothing could be corrented before production. Through simulation then it is possible to create higher quality garments and readuce costly mistakes. Thereby greater profits will be realized from the finished garments.
A Study of the Use of the Patterns of Children's Clothes
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 67~86
The author distributed the questionaires which ask the idea of the purchase of children's clothes in order to help the emotinal development of children and to raise demostic economy. 89% of those who answered realized the necessity of home sewing. Because of the lack of sewing ability(66%), the author made comparatively easy patterns such as blouses for summer, skirts, short pants and one-piece dresses. To populrize these patterns, the aother used the measurements of body-measurement which were made by Korea Institute of Standard. The author studied the patterns and choice of patterns according to growing body. The author tested the clothes worn and visual evaluation for fitness of the patterns. The results are as follows: First; The author developed basic pattern 1 and 2 and applied to design A, B and C. Second: For every design, the author made patterns fit to the children. Third: According to age, the author curtailed or enlarged patterns. Lastly: The author tried to reduce living expenses through making children's clothes using the sewing machine and supress over-consumption and lead the people toward normal economic life.
A Study on the Effects of Protain Intakes on the Adaptation of Shift Work
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 87~98
This study was undertaken to investigate protein effects on the adaptation of shift work. Since biorhythms differ according to the time of day, an investigation of the change of metabolism during day-shift and night-shift was undertaken by dividing twenty 3-shift worker into two groups: dormitory diet group and milk & egg supplemented group. Between the two groups, estimations were made on the concentrations of serum protain, albumin, cholesterol and cortisol and the excretion of vanilymandelic acid(VMA), creatinine and nitrogen in urine. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Serum ingredients were gathered from workers at 6:00-7:00h and 14:00-15:00h on the day of their change from morning shift(6:00-14:00h) to night shift(22:00-6:00h). On examnation of the serum ingredient it was found that, in dormitory diet group only the concentrarion level of serum albumin showed a change of rhythm adapted to night work, and in the milk & egg supplemented group the concentration levels of serum protein, albumin and cholesterol all showed a change of rhythm adapted to night work. Serum cortisol of both groups showed the same rhythm as during morining shfits, which implied nonadatation to night work, but the concentration was observed to be lower. 2. Excretion of urinary VMA and nitrogen were higher during night work than during morning work: they were also higher on the 6th day than on the 1st, in comparing the two groups, excretion of VMA was higher among the dormitory diet group, whereas the opposite was ture for excretion of nitrogen among the milk & egg supplemented group. There was no sign of difference in excretion of cretinine among the two experiment groups.
The Effect of Dietary Protein and Calcium Levels on the Cadmium Detoxication on Rats
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 99~113
This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary protein and calcium levels on cadmium detoxication in rats. Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 208
19 g were blocked into 10 groups of 7 animals according to body weight. Five groups were fed 15% protein-0.6% calcium diet with 100ppm cadmium in drinking water for first 15days and the other 5groups fed same diet without cadmium in drinking water for same period and served as controls. After this 15-day intoxication period, each one of cadmium intoxication and control groups were fed each of 4 kinds of detoxifying diets different with protein(40%, 15%) and calcium(1.3%, 0.6%) levels without cadmimum in drinking water for following 15 days of detoxifying period. Results were summarized as follows: 1) Food intake, body weight gain, F.E.R. and weights of liver, kidney and femur were increased by detoxifying diets and high protein diet was most effective in weight gains of liver and kidney. 2) When cadmium and metallothionein contents of initial intoxication group and those of all detoxication groups were compared, cadmium and metallothionein contents in the liver were not changed, but those in kidney increased, and those in intestine decreased markedly. 3) Only dietary protein level affected cadmium and metallothionein distribution among organs, and cadmium contents of whole blood, liver, kidney and femur were lower in high protein diet, but metallothionein contents in liver and kidney were higher in high protein diet. 4) Gel filtration chromatogram showed that most of cadmium in the cytosol was bound to metallothionein fractions in high protein-high calcium group. Results obtained indicated that high protein diet was effective in cadmium detoxication by increasing the induction of metallothionein synthesis. But high calcium diet did not play a role in cadmium detoxication.
Resicential Chair Design for Physically Handicapped Children
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 115~131
The purpose of this study is the investigation of the physically handicapped childrens' residentical life, using furniture and opinion of auxiliary furniture ot find out alternative forms of desirable furniture. This study consists of two parts: a survey of residential life and furniture usage and a new chair design based on the survey. Documentary research, observational investigation and questionaire survey methods were used. According to the survey, a chair was chosen as the most needed piece of furniture. The alternative chair was designed to accomodate to the individual physical needs of each child. The structural charasteristics of the chair form consist of four parts: 1) basic seat 2) supporting metal frame 3) detachable chair legs 4) detachable table top. Auxilliary options include adjustable parts such as a head rest, seat belt, arm rest and pedestal.
Consumers' Purchasing Style Characteristics according to the Level of Product Involvement -The Case of University Students-
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 133~148
The purpose of this study are; 1) To identify the basic characteristics of consumers' purchasing styles according to the level of product involvement. 2) To analyze the statistical differences about each purchasing style characteristics according to the level of product involvement and demographic variables. 3) To develop the model format for a Profile of Consumer Purchasing Style Characteristics, which will provide basic data for consumer education. The university students in Taegu area were the subjects of the survey. the sample size analyzed in this study was 310. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentile, mean, standard deviation, factor analysis, t-test, ANOVA and Scheff -test as a post-hoc analysis. The major findings of this study can be summarized as follows; 1) consumers' purchasing style characteristics of Korean university students were identified as 8 purchasing styles. 2) Each purchasing style characteristics of Korean university students showed middle level.(average 5-7 paints) 3) The demographic variables which generally affect each purchasing style characteristics were age, sex and family income. 4) A Profile of Consumer Purchasing Style Characteristics was proposed on the basis of these results. The model format developed in this study will be appliable to consumer education.
Information Search Factor of Consumer Behavior -In case of purchasing electric goods-
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 149~161
The purpose of this study is to analyze information search activity in purchasing behavior of household electric goods. Qusetionare survey method was used in this research. The sample was taken from 302 housewives living in Seoul, from 9th of Nov. to 20th of Nov, in 1991. Used statical methods were Frequency, Percentage, Crosstab, Anova, and Regression Analysis. The major findings are summarized as follows : 1) Component elements of information search : The means of acquiring information is that friends, neighbors, sales are most. A cause of choosing information is the sequence of satisfaction after using, easiness of interaction. The time in choosing goods is more month. 2) Component element of information search as social economic status housewife : children numbers and means of acquiring information(P<.01), education and a cause of choosing information(P<.05), life cost per month and a cause of choosing information(P<.05), social economic status and a time information search are significant. 3) A perception of risk as searching information : Among searching content of information a price influence a perception of risk. 4) Content of searching information and satisfaction of purchasing experience : Best choice is significant as quality of goods, difference of quality is significant as safety and degree of offering information is significant as a brand. 5) Satisfaction of purchasing experience following practical use of information : Best choice is significant as viewing of an exhibit and opinion of user. Difference of quality is not significant as any vairable. Degree of offer information influence searching pamphlet, searching an advertisement and opinion of user. 6) A perception of risk following source of an information : A perception of risk is most influenced by pamphlet.
The Empirical Test of System Model for Family Resource Management -Based on the Managerial Behaviors of Wives Living in Seoul-
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 163~178
The purpose of this study was to test system model for family resources management developed by Deacon and Firebaugh. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire destributed to a stratified sample of 600 housewives living in Seoul. The questionnaires specially developed by the researchers contained of 118 items. the coefficient alpha reliability estimate for this instrument was conducted using Cronbach' procedures. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentile, mean, step wise multiple regression and path analysis. The results of path analysis showed that the level of the elements of satisfaction with the management was correlated with demands(the household size, the age of the last child, employment status of respondents), resources(marital satisfaction, health of respondents), and throughput(standard setting, reality in planning, the existence of facilitating conditions). A system model for family resource management received considerabel empirical support. This presumed that the components of demands lead to the lower satisfaction with management. The throughput components were also important in explaining satisfaction with management some of research and methodology issues for the advanced study were suggested.
A Study on the Socialization of Household Work and it's Related Variables -Focusing on the Employed and Unemployed Wives-
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 179~198
The purspoe of this study is to identify the socialization level of household work of the employed and unemployed housewives and it's related variables in order to provide some fundamental information for the rational and effective performation of the household task. For the purpose of this study, 700 questionnaire were distributed to the employed and unemployed wives who lived in Seoul. The data were analyed by the Frequency distribution, Percentile, t-test, F-test, Duncan's Multiple Range Test, and Multiple Regression Analysis. The main results were as follows : (1) Socialization level of household work of the employed wives was a little below medium point. When the household work was devided into three subdomains, in the domain of food and shelter, the socialization level was far below medium point. In the domain of clothes, the socialization level was a little higher than medium point. Socialization level of household work of the unemployed wives far below average. When the household work was devided into three sudbomains, in the domain of food, clothes and shelter, the socialization level was far below average, too. Socialization level of household work was significantly different according to the employment. (2) Among the background veriables, family income, household work helper, and frequency of leisure activities have a significant influence on the socialization level of the employed wives. Duration of marriage, housewife's education level and house income have a important effect on the socialization level of the unemployed wives background. (3) Among the background variabels of household work, performing competence of household work is powerful effect on the socialization level of the employed wives. And as for the unemployed wives, performing competence of household task and recognition of the velue of household work are significant variables. (4) The psychological variable such as sex-role attitude gave no noticeable influence on the socialization level of employed and unemployed wives. (5) In conclusion, classifing the variances influencing on the socialization level of household work in a measure of respcetive effect, it appears to be performing competence of household task, frequency of leisure activities, house income, sex-role attitued and educational level in the order of their influences for the employed wives. And as for the unemployed wives, it seems to be house income, educational level, performing competence of household work and frequency of leisure activities. To the two sides, the rate of explanation is shown at 35%.
A Study on The Household Investment Planning According to Family Life Cycle
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 199~217
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the household investment planning according to the family life cycle, to improve the household investment planning process, and to develop research model. The results were as follows : Household investment planning varied with stages of the family life cycle because the stock of resources shifted and financial goals changed as the family life cycle stage changed. The main financial goals of family in each stage of the life cycle were the purchasing of house in the establishing stage, children's education and marriage in the extending stage, and the elderly's economic welfare in the diminishing stage. Also, in the Ⅰ & Ⅱ stage the most important investment goals were the purchasing of house, children's education in the Ⅲ stage, children's marriage in the Ⅳ stage, and the elderly's economic welfare in the Ⅴ stage. Therefore, the financial goals were recognized as the important goals underlain the investment-planning goals, and alternatives for the accomplishment of investment-planning goals were determined. The results of this study can contribute to establish the long-run investment planning process and improve the level of household's financial well-being.
A Causal Model on Household Investment Behavior
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 219~235
This study attempted to examine a theoretical framework which synthesizes risk attitude, type of investment management and investment behavior and to provide the specific investment strategy by analysing several variables which have effect upon the investment behavior. The results of this research were as follow : 1. Risk attitude had significant differences by the variabels such as age, sex, education, income and debt/asset ratio. Also the type of investment management was influenced significantly by the variables such as age, education, occupation, income, total asset, debt/asset ratio, achievement motivation and risk attitude. The ratio of risky asset holdings was affected by the variabels such as age, education, occupation, housing ownership, income, total asset, debt/asset ratio, achievement motivation, risk attitude and type of investment management. 2. Among several variables affecting the ratio of risky asset holding risk attitude, education, type of investment management, debt/asset ratio and achievement motivation had direct effect on it. Besides age had indirect effect through risk attitude and age, achievement motivation and risk attitude had indirect effect through the type of investment management. 3. The results of this study showed that causal relation between input, throughput and output can be applied to household's investment behavior and the concept of risk or risk attitude can be applied to other fields except household's investment. Also it could be attributed to provide the investment strategy for improving level of household's financial well-being.
An Analysis of Financial Statement Among Urban Households Based On a System Approach
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 237~255
The purpose of this study was to investigate relations of resources and demands, family financial management and financial statement of urban households by applying a system approach. The results of this study were as follows; Saving rate had significant differences according to resources variables such as age, family life cycle, occupation of househead and housewife, ratio of employed to family member, and to demands variabels such as subjective prospect of business cycle, and value orientation, whereas total saving amount had significant differences according to resources vaiables such as age, family life cycle, educational level, percapita income, occupation of househead, type of income and to demand variable, perception of relative income. Also average monthly saving amount had significant differences according to resources vaiables such as educational level, per capita income, occupation of housewife, housing ownership, ratio of employed to family member, ratio of dependent to employed, and to demands variable, perception of relative income. The stocks had significant differences according to resources variables such as age, family life cycle, educational level, per capita income, occupation of househead, type of income, and housing ownership. Finally, real estate had significant differences according to resources variables such as age, family life cycle, educational level, percapita income, occupation of househead, type of income, housing ownership, and to demands variable, perception of relative income. Financial Statement among urban households according to family financial management had significant differences. And among all variables affecting financial statement among urban households, per capita income had the highest effect and perception of relative income was the second.
Individual and Family Background Predictors of Nontraditional Career Orientation among Korean College Women
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 257~265
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences between traditional and nontraditional college women in regard to personality and family background characteristics. Subjects were 180 college women majoring in Education, Nursing, Medicine, and Law. ANOVA and discriminant analysis were conducted to analyze the data. The results showed that nontraditional women scored significantly higher in acacemic achievement, SES, and parental support and influence than traditional women. SES, psychological masculinity, and parental support and influence were the most powerful predictors of nontraditional career orientation. Suggestions were made regarding precautions and need of cross-cultral study.
Need Assessment of Kindergarten Mother for Parent Education
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 267~282
This study investigated (1) present modes of parent education in the kindergartens, (2) mother's level of and need for knowledge about child development, child rearing and related areas, and (3) the variables that related to mothers' needs in these areas. The subjects of this study were 80 teachers and 674 mothers of 21 kindergartens in Seoul. The instruments were two questionnaires on a 4-point scale. The questionnair for mothers was composed of 86 items, and that for teachers was of 14 items. The data were analyzed with frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and multiple regression. The results showed that (1) The most common type of parent education was techer-parent conference and newsletter. The contents and methods of parent education was mainly decided by the directors in consulation with teachers. (2) Among the six general areas, mothers had most knowledge abut modification of child behavior, but their most felt needs was knowledge about child development (3) Need assessment based on item analysis revealed, in descending order, felt needs for knowledge about creative development, observation techniques, social developement, saftey and first-aid, and ways to stimulate educational motivation. (4) The variables that predicted mothers' felt needs were the birth order of the child, mother's experience in parent education, family cohesion, adaptability and communication.
A Study on Work and Family Life of Married Female Production Workers and Policy Implications(II)
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 283~309
This study examines work and family life of married women employed in a manufacturing industry. Data were gathered from the use of fact-to-face interview method from a sample of 230 married working women. The major findings of this study can be summarized as follows : (1) With high rates of change of job, most of the respondents remain unstable in their working situation. It was shown that the important factors influencing job satisfaction of married women are women's life cycle, degree of contribution of wife's income toward total family income, and husband's attitude toward wife's empolyment. The degree of job satisfaction is also strongly influenced by labor structural factors such as pay, work environment and fringe benefits. (2) The amount of household labor time was limited by job-related factors rather than by family-related factors, because among these working women employment itself is necessarily for their subsistance. (3) It was shown that wives participated more actively in their marital communications than their husbands. Most of the respondents showed the syncratic type of the decision making patterns, but this results does not necessarily mean wives exercised an equal power with their husbands. The economic factors and the emotional instability of the husband are the ones mostly influencing marital conflicts of the employed women. It was found that the respondents easily revealed marital conflicts related to personal problems of their husbands(such as extramarital affairs, gambling and alchoholism). However, they tried to overcome the structural conflicts related to authoritarian attitudes of their husbands or economic problems without any complaints. (4) Mothers have difficulty in controlling their adolescent children, due to the weakening of parental authority. Although most of the respondents perceived their employment as having negative impacts on their children, they still have high expectations toward their children. Inspite of low degree of father role expectations and facther role performance of their husbands, most of the respondents anticipated expressive roles as well as traditionally instrumental role from their husbands. Finally, these findings would help us determine family welfare policies in Korea. Improvements in paid and household labor structure of married women should be accomplished at the national level. Also, the acting programs for parent education, marital councelling services, and law enforcement for equal employment between men and women should be provided in our society.
The Analysis on the Relation between Smoking Behavior and Delinquent of Boys' High School Students
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 311~324
The purpose of this study is to take precautions against smoking behavior and delinquent by investigating the relation between smoking behavior and delinquent, analysing variables influence smoking behavior and delinquent. For the data set 1522 boys' high school students living in Pusan were chosen. The data were analyzed with the SPSS PC+ statistical package using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression. The main results are as follows: First, the rate of smoking is 39.4% among 1522 boys' high school students. First grade is 22.0%. Second grade is 44.5%. Third grade is 53.4%. Second, Delinquent experiences are in the order of going to game room(92.7%), drinking(89.4%), going to the prohibited movies(74.2%), thief(39.8%), going to discotheque(32.8%), kiss(29.8%). Third, smoking behavior and delinquent have positive correlationship. Forth, among the independent variables, grade, scholastic attainments, pocket-money, relegion, intimate friend's smoking, number of smoking friend, number of smoking family, family's thought on smoking have influence on smoking behavior. Fifth, among the sociopopulational variables, pocket money, scholastic attainments, club have influence on delinquent experience. Among enviornmental variables, intimate friend's smoking, number of smoking friend, girl friend, girl friend's smoking have influence on delinquent experience. Number of smoking family, parents' smoking, sibling's smoking, family's thought on smoking have partially influence on delinquent experience.
A Study on Shyness in Korean Preschoolers
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 325~338
The study was designed to examine the nature of shyness in children focused on the relationshiop between shyness in parents and children. The subjects were 80 triads including fathers, mothers, and their children aged 58.5 months on the average. The parents completed the questionnaire which included items about shyness and sociability devised by Cheek & Buss(1981) and the mothers also answered for their children. Identified by teachers, the children were divided into 4 groups based on both their sexes and a quality of shyness(shy/unshy). No sex differences were found throughout the study, so the analysis was made only by their quality of shyness. The main results were as follows: 1) 45% of the shy children had begun to show shyness ar 3~3
and 41% of them showed it the most strongly at 4~5. 2) Birth order and educational experiences(an attendance period at the institutions) were not related to shyness in children. 3) The more and the stronger they experienced stranger anxiety, the more they showed shyness; Shyness and sociability in children were negatively related(r=-.45) each other, implying that they are likely to be distinct traits. 4) Shyness in children was positively related to shyness in their parents regardless of their sexes, and negatively related to sociability in their mothers. 5) Most of the mothers had negative reactions on shyness in their children and wished them not to be shy.
Children's perception of Parental Authority and Parental Child-Rearing Behavior
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 339~348
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the parental authority and the parental child-rearing behavior. The subjects of this study were 380 children from an elementary school in SEOUL. Statistical analysis of the data was by MANOVA, the simutaneous confidence interval. The results were as follows : 1) There were sex differences on children's perception of parental authority. 2) There was no differences between the sex on children's perception of parental child-rearing behavior. 3) There were relationships on children's perception of parental authority and parental child-rearing behavior.
The Effect of P.E.T. Program for Kindergarten Mothers
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 30, issue 1, 1992, Pages 349~359
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Gordon's Parent Effectiveness Training on maternal attitude and communication skill. the subjects were 56 mothers from a kindergarten in Seoul. 30 mothers were assigned to the control group and 26 mothers to the experimental group. Pre and post measures on the two dependent variables using Hereford's Parent Attitude Survey and Umstot's Sensitivity To Children Questionaire were administered to the subjects on the first and last of the 8 week pp.E.T. course. The collected data was statistically analyzed by using t-test and paried t-test. The result showed no significant difference between the control and the experimental groups in changing the mothers' attitude. But significant differences in communication skill were found.