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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Home Economics Association
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 12 - Dec 1998
Volume 36, Issue 11 - Nov 1998
Volume 36, Issue 10 - Oct 1998
Volume 36, Issue 9 - Sep 1998
Volume 36, Issue 8 - Aug 1998
Volume 36, Issue 7 - Jul 1998
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Jun 1998
Volume 36, Issue 5 - May 1998
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Apr 1998
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Mar 1998
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Feb 1998
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Property and the Skin Irritability of the Reclaimed Soap
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~11
The purpose of this study is to find troubles in producing and using the reclaimed soaps to get the solutions of their troubles. Five kinds of reclaimed soaps were taken from religious or civic organizations and nine kinds of soaps were made by adding sodium hydroxide of different concentrations to the used vegetable oil in our laboratory. Washing efficiency, pH test, BOD, and skin irritability of the reclaimed of manufactured soaps were examined. The washing efficiency of the manufactured soaps were ±80%. The percent of free-alkali tended to increase as the amount of NaOH increased. The skinirritability was proportional to the amount of NaOH added. To make the reclaimed soap, the best percent of NaHO to used oil is 17% or 18% and this ratio(17%∼18%) should be kept. Manufactured soaps by this ratio have good apperance condition and washing efficiency. And also they have low skin irritability and free-alkali. This study has the limitations that the skin irritability test can have individual and the collected soaps couldn't represent all kinds of recaimed soap.
Children's Attributional Style and Self:Perceived Competence
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1.2~1.2
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between children''''s attributional style and their self-perceived competence. The subjects of this study were 301 third and sixth grades. For data analysis, two-way ANOVA, Pearson''''s correlation coefficients, and multiple regression were used. Results indicated that there was significant correlation between children''''s attributional style and their self-perceived competence. Children who attributed good events to internal, stable, or global causes and bad events to external, unstable, or specific causes perceived themselves more competent.
The Impact of Coping Resources on Positive Changes of Single Mothers and their Children
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 13~21
Coping resources may be a crucial aspect in single mothers' and their childrens' adjustment. Using a survey data collected from 275 pairs of single mothers and their children, this study investigated the perceived effects of economic resoures, family relational resources, and social support on positive changes of both mothers and their children. Results revealed that both mothers and their children perceived positive changes of themselves and their children(mothers) relatively high. The degrees of positive changes of mothers were influenced mostly by family relational resources. In the same token, the degrees of positive changes of children were also affected by family relational resources. Overall, the findings suggested the importance of relational resources in explaining the positive changes of single mothers and their children.
Maternal parenting behaviors, child's stranger anxiety, separation anxiety, and maternal separatio anxiety
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 13.1~13.1
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of maternal parenting behaviors, child''''s stranger anxiety, and separation anxiety to maternal separation anxiety. A total of 288 middle class mothers having children aged from 36- to 59-month-olds answered to a questionnaire based on Maternal Separation Anxiety Scale(Hock, 1989). They also answered the questions about maternal parenting behaviors, chil''''s stranger anxiety, and separation anxiety. The main results were as follows: 1. There were no significant differences in maternal separation anxiety as a function of demographic variables. 2. Maternal parenting behaviors such as physical contact and discipline involvement were significantly related to maternal separation anxiety. And child''''s stranger anxiety and separation anxiety were also significantly related to maternal separation anxiety. 3. Maternal separation anxiety was accounted for 15% of the variance by maternal physical contact, discipline involvement, and child''''s stranger anxiety and separation anxiety.
Is Authoritative Parenting the Best for Children's Social Adjustment\ulcorner: Reconsideration Based on Western and Asian Cultures, and Social Behaviors
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 21~21
The purpose of this study was to review the importance of authoritative parenting for children''''s social adjustment. From the review it was suggested that the importance of authoritative parenting might be different according to the cultural contexts, which are Western and Asian cultures, and aggressive and social withdrawal behaviors. From the comparative cultural viewpoint, authoritarian parenting is not considered negatively by Asian parents, comparing with western parents. Therefore the assumption that authoritative parenting has universal positiveness and authoritarian parenting has universal negativeness should be reconsidered. Regardless of cultures, children''''s aggressive behavior was related to the authoritarian parenting positively. But, in Asia, especially in China, the social withdrawal did not show at least negative relation with authoritative parenting. And it was reported that the authoritarian parenting could contribute to the change of inhibited behavior and enhancing the social adjustment. In addition, some implications were suggested for future researches about the relation between children''''s social adjustment and child rearing practices. Though this literature review was not exclusively based on the empirical studies, it would be valuable for reconsidering the perspective of Korean developmentalists interested in the relation between parenting and children''''s development in Korean culture.
The Relationships between Maternal Variables and Children's Social Competence
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 23~34
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between maternal education level, social support, attribution, mother-child communication and children's social competence. The major findings of this study were as follows; (1) The higher maternal education level and the higher internal attribution were, the more negative mother-child communication was. (2) The higher maternal education level is, the higher perceived social support is, and the more open-mined/positive mother-child communication is, the higher children's initiative, competence and sociability. Also, the more mother attribute children's behavior internally, the lower the children's competence is.
The Relationship between Mothers' Marital Adjustment and Children's Social Adjustment in Commuter Couples
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 35~49
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mothers' marital adjustment and children's social adjustment in commuter couples. The subjects of this study were 96 mother-child dyads. The children were first to sixth grade in the elementary schools. For data analyses, one-way ANOVAs, Scheffe Test for pairwise comparison, Pearson's Correlation were used. Results indicated that there were significant differences in mothers' marital adjustment in terms of the duration of commuting, the number of children, the frequency of fathers' visit and frequency of making a call. And, there was significant difference in children's adaptation in terms of the frequency of fathers' visit. Also, there were significant positive correlations between mothers' marital adjustment subscales and children's social adjustment subscales in commuter couples.
The Types of Parental Abuse and Maladjustmental Behaviors Experienced by Adolescents
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 39~39
This study investigated the relationship between the types of parental abuse and maladjustmental behaviors of adolescents. The subjects were 448 junior and senior middle school students. Statistics were frequencies, percentile, Pearson''''s r-coefficient, and regression analysis. The main results of this study were as follows; 1. There were significantly positive correlation between the types of parental abuse and maladjustmental behaviors. 2. The variables, neglect, unreasonable rearing behavior of the parents, and physical abuse were found to be the important variables n predicting social withdrawal. Neglect, unreasonable rearing behavior of the parents, and sex of the child were found to be the important variables in predicting hyperactivity. neglect, emotional abuse, and unreasonable rearing behavior of the parents were found to be the important variables in predicting aggression. Sex of the child, emotional abuse, and unreasonable rearing behavior of the parents were found to be the important variables in predicting retreat. And, neglect and unreasonable rearing behavior of the parents were found to be important variables in predicting obsessive-compulsion.
The Study on Korean Traditional Ancestral Rites
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 51~63
The purpose of this study was to relate confucian ideas in Chosun-Dynasty with ancestral rites in order to recover our traditional rules of propriety and morality which is disappeared in mordern society. For this object, this study reviewed ceremonies of traditional society in examining original literature such as
by Lee Yul Kok,
y Kim Jang Saeng,
by Lee Jae which is written in Chosun-Dynasty. By this literatures, the main idea of ancestral rites represented in literture is that filial piety is the most important thing and a true heart rather emphasized more than formality. From this study, I figured out that our traditional ancestral rites and its performance offered the mode군 good opportunities to learn how to respect other and made a great contribution to create better cultural life in modern home.
Mechanical and Surface Properties for Akaline Hydrolyzed Polyster Fabrics
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 51.1~51.1
This paper discussed the assessment of hand of polyester fabrics changed by alkaline hydrolysis. This study analyzed the relations between the change of mechanical property and the hand value according to the weight loss of polyester fabrics. The results are as follows; Objective hand by KES-FB system, revealed that for tensile properties, as the weight loss increased, WT, RT increased and LT decreased. For bending properties, as the weight loss increased, B and 2HB showed smaller values. For shear properties, as the weight loss increased, G, 2HG and 2HG5 decreased. For surface properties, as the weight loss increased, MIU increased, but MMD and SMD did not show any trend. For compression properties, LC,MC and RC did not show significant differences according to the degree of weight loss. In case of hand value, Koshi(stiffness), Hari(anti-drape stiffness), Kisimi(scrooping feeling)and Shinayakasa(flexibility with soft feeling) showed a meaningful results depending on the degree of weight loss. However, Shari(crispness) adn Fukurami(fullness and softness) did not show meaningful result. Koshi, Hari and Shinayakasa are high correlation with tensile property, bendibg property shear properties, thickness and weight. Kisimi is high correlation with tensile property, bending property, thickness adn weight. Shari, Fukurami and THV did not show any meaningful difference with any mechanical properties.
The Efficiency of the interspouse Communication and the Level of Stress Recognition
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 63~63
The purposes of this research were to find out general trends of the efficiency of the interspouse communication and the level of stress recognition, to estimate the differences of the efficiency of communication and the level of stress recognition and communication efficiency. The subjects of this study were 220 couples in Kwang-ju. The major results were as follow; 1) The level of wives'''' stress recognition was higher than husband''''s and the level of interspouse communication efficiency was median. 2) Communication efficiency showed significant differences according to the hours they spend in daily communication, the types of communication, the satisfaction of communication in both groups of husbands and wives. 3) Marital communication efficiency was negatively correlated with the level of stress recognition in couples.
Woman's Labor Force Participation and Mobility Willingness in the Labor Market
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 65~79
The purposes of this study were to establish a conceptual model on the woman's labor force participation and mobility in the labor market and to analyze the correlation between them. Included in those models were two independent variable sets. The one was related to household's financial conditions and the other was associated to the woman's role such as marital status, the number of children and the existence of young children. KHPS's national data was used and the Binomial Probit Model and Bivariate Probit Model were employed to analyse the effects of independent variables and the correlations between two dependent variables. The results of this study were as follows. The rate of women's labor force participation and the percentage of mobility willingness were 15.4% and 22.0%. Among the variables which have affected women's labor force participation were total wage income, non-wage income, expenditure on children's education and the subject judgement of their financial status. The existence of children under the age of 6 and marital status had significant influences on women's mobility willingness. The correlation between women's labor force participation and mobility willingness was very significant statistically. These findings clarified the status of woman as a secondary worker and pointed that a woman's economic activity would be subject to the woman's condition rather than her human capital.
Parental role responsibilities, performance and satisfaction of the rural elderly
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 77~77
Have elderly parents parted with parental role after the children were grown up? If they still have, what kinds and degrees of parental responsibilities endured? Do they actively perform the role? Do they satisfy to engage in parenting? The main purpose of present study explored these questions concerning rural old-aged families using data of 143 elderly parents aged 60 years and above. The results indicate that elderly parents perceived parenting adult children to be very important, regarding themselves as househeads to teach family members how to integrate together. The results also demonstrate that elderly parents performed parental role actively I teaching family rituals and providing emotional support. The elderly parents also report that they were fairly satisfied with involvement in adult children''''s lives. Our findings suggest that further in-depth research is required in eliciting the role parameters of elderly parents based on our social and cultural changes. In addition, it is encouraged to examine the adult children''''s expectation of their elderly parents for renegotiating and restructuring parent-child relationships when both are adults.
Mother & Teacher's Need Assesement for the Preschooler Consumer Education: In Ulsan City
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 81~98
The purpose of this research is to investigate the mother and teachers need assessment for preschooler consumer education and related variables and to provide a basis for the development of consumer education program. The survey of this research was conducted by means of self-administered questionnaire with 302 mothers of the preschoolers who are 4-5 years old and attend nursery and kindergarten and 221 teachers of nursery and kindergarten in Ulsan. The statistics used for data analysis are frequencies and percentage, mean and standard deviation, on way ANOVA and Scheffee-test, Person's correlation using the SPSS/PC+ program. Some conclusions from the above investigation are as follows: 1. Each level of the need for consumer education on 22 subject area perceived by mothers and teachers of preschoolers was high and relatively high. Thus consumer education program for preschooler must include all subject area. 2. The mother's need for preschooler consumer education differs significantly according to age. The teacher's need for preschooler consumer education differs significantly according to family income. But these variables take a little effect to the need of mother and teacher. So the consumer education program doesn't need to classify by socio-economic characteristics of mother and teacher. 3. The mother's need for preschooler consumer education are positively correlated to consumer knowledge and consumer skill but negatively correlated to consumption oriented attitude. So the consumer education program needs to develop the consumer knowledge and skill and reduce consumption oriented attitude for the preschooler's mother. 4. The teacher's need for preschooler consumer education are positively correlated to the level of consumer role performance. Thus the reeducation program for the teacher needs to develop the consumer role performance.
The Characteristics of PET Micro Fiber Fabrics Decomposed by Sodium Ethylene glycol Solution
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 95~95
PET microfiber fabric dissociation reactions by ethylene glycol(EG) catalayzed by the corresponding EG anions were examined to provide an empirical basis for the improvement of a PET microfiber fabrics. The alkoxide ions, monosodium ethylene glycolate in ethylene glycol solution (MSEG-EG) are prepared by the reactio between NaH and the EG respectively. The dissociation reactions were carried out until the sample PET microfiber fabrics dissociate up to 80%. Temperature used ranged 100-16
. The kinetic behaviors of the dissociated PET microfiber fabrics were examined. The results are as follows: 1. In all cases, it was found that the PET-alkoxide dissociation rate constants increased exponentially with increasing temperature. The activation energies(Ea) of the reactions were 23.31kcal/mol in PET-EG system respecively. The calculated enthalpies of the activated [PET-EG] complexes from the corresponding Ea values were 22.53-22.61kal/mol, and the entropies were -19.03~-19.24kcal/mol/K respectively. 2. The kinetic behavior of the PET-alkoxide dissociation reactions examined was explained by the transitio state theory. PET-alkoxide transition state is believed to be formed during the ester interchange mechanism between PET and MSEG-EG in the course of the PET dissociation reactions.
The Influence of Wife's Home Management Behavior Pattern and Husband's Perception about It on Family Life Satisfaction
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 99~116
The purposes of this study were to find the influence of wife's home management behavior pattern and husband's perception about it on family life satisfaction, and to find out variables which influence them. For theses reviewing literature and empirical research were conducted. The major results were as follows; 1) The couple's psychological variables (ie, degree of life level recognition, of resourcefulness recognition and of communication) were relatively high. The wife's home management behavior pattern was relatively morphogenesis and the husband's perception about wive's it was relatively morphogenesis. And the couple's degree of family life satisfaction were relatively high. 2) Influential variables on wife's home management behavior pattern were level of education, degree of resourcefulness recognition and of communication. And influential variables on husband's perception about vive's it was degree of communication. 3) Influential variables on wive's the degree of family life satisfaction were degree of life level recognition, of resourcefulness recognition and of communication. And influential variables on husband's it were level of education, job, degree of life level recognition, of resourcefulness recognition and of communication. 4) The wife's home management behavior pattern and husband's perception about wive's it were to predict the couple's degree of family life satisfaction. 5) In cause-effect pathway mode. level of education·job·degree of life level recognition·of resourcefulness recognition and of communication showed direct and indirect effect on family life satisfaction through wife's home management behavior pattern or husband's perception about wive's it.
The Relationships between the Agreement on the Korean Proverbs about Parent-Child Relations, Families' Environment, and Familism
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 105~105
This research investigated the relationships between families'''' environment, familism, and the agreement on the parent-child relations as depicted in Korean proverbs to find the change of the traditional values about parent-child relationships. The sample was comprised of 474 Korean married people. They were asked to rate the degree to which they agreed on the underlying value of each proverb. The data were collected through a mailed questionnaire and interview. The findings indicated that the responses of subjects varied as a function of families'''' environment and familism variables. More specifically, while the subjects living with extended family were more likely to rate the value toward children and daughter high, the subjects from nuclear family were more likely to express the affection toward children, to prefer boys, and to express child-rearing stress. In addition, the people who had lived with grandparents together tended to agree with the value of filial piety. The respondents from conservative surroundigs were more likely to express the affection toward children and to prefer boys. The subject from a rural community tended to prefer boys and to place high value on the authoritative control. The people who supported familism tended to express the affection toward children and child-rearing stress, to prefer boys, and to agree with the filial piety and authoritative control But they tended to rate low on the value of children and daughter.
A Study on the Differences Between the Textle Fiber Preference Groups in Children's Outdoor Clothing
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 117~128
This study examined the relationships between textile fiber preference(natural, synthetic, blended) and the perceived importance of textile properties, knowledge of textile fibers and demographic variables, focused on children's outdoor clothing. Subjects were 291 mothers with preschool children. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using analysis of variance and crosstabulation analysis. The results indicated that; (1)preference of fiber was significantly related to the perceived importance of textile fiber properties concerning flame resistance, absorbency, and hand. (2)blended fiber preference group had more knowledge on textile fibers than the other groups. (3)preference of fiber was significantly related to the perceived differences of textile performance characteristics in comfort. (4)None of demographic variables influenced textile fiber preference. (5)No difference in price consideration was found between the textile fiber preference groups.
Classification and Family Characteristics of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 123~123
The purpose of this study was to verify preschool children can be classified of Atention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) children across situation. It also was to examine differences among groups according to sex and age, and to investigate the family caracterisitcs of ADHD groups. The subjects of this study consisted of 228 preschool chilren(147 boys and 136 girls aged from 3-to 7-year-old) drawn from five Child Care Centers in Chung-Ju. Data were analyzed by the frequency, percentages, Cronbach''''s α coefficient, x2-test, F-test, Tukdy post-hoc test, and Pearson correlation using SAS program. The results were as follows: 1. Preschool children could be classified by four diagnostic groups across situation; (1) 168 children(59%) of the control group(no disorder of ADHD), (2) 49 children(17%) of ADHD-Home group(ADHD only at home), (3) 43 children(15%) of ADHD-School group (ADHD only at school), and (4) 23 children(8%) of ADHD-PH group (ADHD botyh at home and at school). Ratings by parents and by teachers correlted very low with each other, as in previous studies. These results confirm the findings that ADHD be classified across situation. 2. There were significant differences among four groups according to sex and age. In the ADHD-PH groups, the boys is 3 times higher than the girls and the children aged 6- to 7-year-old was shown highly distributed in the pervasive ADHD. 3. There were no significant differences in family cohesion and adjustment but were differences in maternal depression and marital discord of their parents among four diagnostic groups. Children of ADHD-oHome group were more likely to have marital discord of their parents and maternal depression than those of other groups.
Expenditure for Education of Two children
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 129~142
The purposes of this study were to identify education expenditure and to analyze contributing factors to total education expenditure for two children among married couples. For these purposes, total sample of 1,256 married couples those having two children of both pre-school aged and school aged were selected, and total sample was divided into four groups by first child's school aged; those were pre-school aged(375), elementary school aged(385), middle & high school aged(248) & college aged(248). Statistics used for the analysis were frequencies, means, percentile, and tobit and OLS analysis. The results were as follows. First, the households those having the first child of pre-school aged didn't spent for public education expenditure, while public education xpenditure of school aged increased continuously. The households having the first child of high school aged spent the most private education expenditure among four groups, however, total education expenditure of the households having the first child in college aged spent the most education expenditure were household head's age, family size, home ownership and financial asset amount, and elementary school-aged's factors were household head's age, education level, home ownership and total household income. Also, household head's education level, wife's expectation of future economy, residence, total household income had significant effects on total education expenditure in middle and high school-aged, and household head's job, home ownership, contact with neighborhood, residence and Engel's coefficient were significant variables in college aged.
Consumption Values of Adolescent Consumers and Related Variables
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 141~141
The purpose of this study is to investigate consumption values of adolescent consumers and related variables. The data were collected from self administered questionnaire with 560 students attending 6 middle/5 high schools in Seoul. Sub dimensions of each consumption value were extracted through factor analysis. Differences were found on some sub dimensions of each consumption value according to demographic variables, consumer abilities and the level of mother''''s consumer socialization practice perceived by students.
Comparative Assessment of Nutrient Intake and Quality Obtained by Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-Hour Recall Method in Korean Adults Living in Rural Area
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 143~155
This study was conducted to compare dietary intake and quality obtained by food frequency questionnaire(FFQ) and 24-hour recall method among 1249 Korean adults living in rural area. The survey was conducted twice; first with 65-items FFQ by interview and then with 24-hour recall method two years later. Nutrients intake estimated from two dietary methods showed significant difference. For nutrients except fat and iron, average intake value estimated from the FFQ were significantly higher than that from the 24-hour recall method(p<0.001). Ranking of the subjects by nutrient intake levels obtained by two methods were significantly correlated, but correlation coefficients were low. Percentage of subjects in the lowest or in the highest quintile by 24-hour recalls who belong to the nearest two categories by FFQ ranged from 45% to 61%, while the percentage falling into the opposite category ranged from 7% to 15%. Subjects' percentile rank of nutrient intake by 24-hour recall correlated with their average rank of nutrient intake by FFQ. Information on food groups by two method were not comparable because of the limited number of food items in FFQ. For most nutrients, RDA% or NAR from FFQ were higher than those from 24-hour recall, but INQ from 24-hour recall were higher than those from FFQ. From the results, results of 24-hour recall method seems to be useful in classifying subjects according to their nutrient intake if sample size is large enough.
Development of Parent Education Program
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 157~168
An education program for parents has been developed in order to meet the needs of those who have problems in rearing their children. The program has been applied two times to a middle size group of parents who live in the urban and the country. The effectiveness of the program has been evaluated by taking pre- and post-tests. The test results suggest that the program has been effective in improving the parent's knowledge on all of the following areas, such as, developmental characteristics, individual traits, learning attitudes cultivation, sex education, locus of self control, parenting behavior and communication skills.
Wife's Employment and Family Expenditures
Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association , volume 36, issue 1, 1998, Pages 169~186
The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of wife's employment to the family expenditures. The data used in the study was 28,329 husband-wife families taken from 1994 Expenditure Survey of Urban Families. The results showed that total expenditure for employed-wife families was 1,171,651won, which is more than 1,078,788won for non-employed-wife families. After controlling other income(total family income minus wife's income), employed-wife families spent more than non-employ-wife famillies for all expenditure categories. Also, when family income and other characteristics to be constant, expenditures of employed-wife families were more on food way from home, domestic services, public transportation, personal care services, and fees, but less on food at home, utilities, health care, and communication, compared to those of non-employed-wife families. Families with high-income-employed wife spent more on clothing services, but less on education, than those with non-employed-wife families.