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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Sep 1996
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Jun 1996
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
Selecting the target year
The Impacts of the Traffic Demand Management Policies across the Different Income Classes in Seoul
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 14, issue 1, 1996, Pages 7~27
It is very costly to construct transportation facilities such as roads, bridges, tunnels, and public parking lots mainly because land price is very high in metropolis like Seoul. Private car oweners use these facilities more extensively than public transportation users. However, the government does not impose proper charges for using these facilities. Such improper charge causes traffic congestion and then decreases social welfare in efficiency and equity. To solve problem, many traffic demand management policies are used. Traffic management policies which are currently used or under consideration by the City Government of Seoul include the imposition of road tolls, increase of parking fees in public parking lots, increase of gasoline taxes, expanded implementation of bus only lanes, and shippujae, which requires one(1) non-driving day for 10 calendar days. This study examined the impacts of such policies on the different income classes using simulation analysis. We found that the impacts of market-oriented policies such as the imposition of road tolls and the increase of gasoline taxes is regressive. Also, we found that while the low and middle income private car users have incentive have incentive for public transportation use, the high income private car users have no incentive for public transportation use in many cases.
A study on the Application of Gravity Model using 1990 Seoul O/D Data
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 14, issue 1, 1996, Pages 29~42
Among trip distribution models, The BPR type Gravity Model is the one which is the most widely used. The key issue associated with this model is a functional form of friction factor which should be calibrated in the process, and interpretation for socioeconomic factor known as K-factor(Kij) which is used to adjust the difference between observed zone-to-zone trips and the estimated trips. In this study, the BPR type Gravity Model has been fitted to 1990 O/D data for Seoul. Two type of function form for friction factor has been employed : one is a form of Generalized function and the orther is UTP function. With above two function, the parameters for travel distance(Skin-tree) are prepared. The relationship between socioeconomic factor and trips is identified by calculating and analyzing the characteristics of Kij. Consequently, both of the friction factor functions are statistically signified. However, it show an overestimation tendency when estimated with UTP function. It is found that the Generalized function is suitable for the city of Seoul, and also, in case there are a lot of trips correlatively, the socioeconomic factor is close to 1, on the other hand if it's small, it shows a bias which is dispersed around 1.
Testing Goodness of Fit of Gravity Models
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 14, issue 1, 1996, Pages 43~50
This paper is concerned with assessing goodness of fit of gravity models. The Chi-square test, or one of its asymptotic equivalents, is usually recommended for the purpose. A difficulty that frequently arises, particularly when working with urban travel data, is that the expected number of trips for most origin-destination(O-D) pairs are small. In order to test goodness of fit of gravity model, a simple approach, which depends on the number of O-D pairs and certain trip totals being large, is proposed in this paper. In addition, derivation of variance of Chi-square ratio is proposed to test the confidence interval of Chi-square ratio and application of its results with simulated data set is made to verify the usefulness of the results.
Development of Optimal-Path Finding System(X-PATH) Using Search Space Reduction Technique Based on Expert System
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 14, issue 1, 1996, Pages 51~67
The optimal path-finding problem becomes complicated when multiple variables are simultaneously considered such as physical route length, degree of congestion, traffic capacity of intersections, number of intersections and lanes, and existence of free ways. Therefore, many researchers in various fields (management science, computer science, applied mathematics, production planning, satellite launching) attempted to solve the problem by ignoring many variables for problem simplification, by developing intelligent algorithms, or by developing high-speed hardware. In this research, an integration of expert system technique and case-based reasoning in high level with a conventional algorithms in lower level was attempted to develop an optimal path-finding system. Early application of experienced driver's knowledge and case data accumulated in case base drastically reduces number of possible combinations of optimal paths by generating promising alternatives and by eliminating non-profitable alternatives. Then, employment of a conventional optimization algorithm provides faster search mechanisms than other methods such as bidirectional algorithm and
algorithm. The conclusion obtained from repeated laboratory experiments with real traffic data in Seoul metropolitan area shows that the integrated approach to finding optimal paths with consideration of various real world constraints provides reasonable solution in a faster way than others.
A Study on Zonal Operation of Buses - 2-Zonal operation Case -
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 14, issue 1, 1996, Pages 69~80
In most cities, travel demand is distributed along long corridors and its destinations tend to concentrate in a central business district. For this kind of many-to-one or one-to-many travel demand pattern, a zonal operation of buses can be an efficient bus operation technique in which a long bus-demand corridor is divided into service zones and each service zone is provided with its own bus route connecting the service zone and single destination separately. This paper develops models of the total transportation costs for a single-zone operation and 2-zonal operation of buses for a long demand corridor with single destination in terms of various cost parameters, demand density, bus operation speeds, and location of the boundary between two service zones. In this study the total transportation cost is assumed to consist of the bus operation cost, passenger waiting cost and passenger travel time cost. It was proved that a zonal operation of buses can be more efficient than a single-zone operation for certain circumstances of the system and an boundary condition between two operation techniques was obtained. Also, several case studies were performed for various values of the cost parameters.
Mode Choice Models for Freight Transportation Using SP Data
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 14, issue 1, 1996, Pages 81~99
This study aims to assess the potential competition among road, rail, and coastal transport under various scenarios concerning the future inland container transport systems in Pusan-KyungIn corridor. For this SP approaches are adopted to collect data from shippers and carriers, and multinomial logit models are estimated at disaggragate level. The results of the analysis indicate that the SP data are reliable, and that the mode choice models estimated are valid. The results also indicate that the most effective policy to divert the freight volume from road to other modes is to reduce freight rates for the railway, and is to transport time for the coastal water with improved reliability.
Traffic Flow Analysis Methodology Using the Discrete Event Modeling and Simulation
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 14, issue 1, 1996, Pages 101~116
Increased attention has been paid in recent years to the need of traffic management for alleviating urban traffic congestion. This paper presents a discrete event modeling and simulation framework for analyzing the traffic flow. Traffic simulation models can be classified as being either microscopic and macroscopic models. The discrete event modeling and simulation technique can be basically employed to describe the macroscopic traffic simulation model. To do this, we have employed the System Entity Structure/Model Base (SES/MB) framework which integrates the dynamic-based formalism of simulation with the symbolic formalism of AI. The SES/MB framework supports to hierarchical, modular discrete event modeling and simulation environment. We also adopt the Symbolic DEVS (Discrete Event System Specification) to developed the automated analysis methodology for generating optimal signal light policy. Several simulation tests will demonstrates the techniques.
A Study for Optimal Phase Design of Traffic Signal Using Fuzzy Theory
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 14, issue 1, 1996, Pages 117~133
In the paper a superior performance algorithm compared to the existing vehicle actuated controller and time fixed controller and the additional controller is described through realization of fuzzy traffic phase controller. Fuzzy theory is encouraging since the application is similar to human's decision ability that is approately coped with uncertain conditions. The paper presents that selection of the phase adequated the variable traffic conditions through the fuzzy theory algorithm and decision of optimal cycle time approated the uncertain traffic volume are predominant in traffic jam solution compared to the existing Webster's cycle time decision method and the sequential traffic phase design method and dual-ring phase operation system.
Development of a Vehicle Classification Algorithm Using an Inductive Loop Detector on a Freeway
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 14, issue 1, 1996, Pages 135~154
This paper presents a heuristic algorithm for classifying vehicles using a single loop detector. The data used for the development of the algorithm are the frequency variation of a vehicle sensored from the circle-shaped loop detectors which are normal buried beneath the expressway. The pre-processing of data is required for the development of the algorithm that actually consists of two parts. One is both normalization of occupancy time and that with frequency variation, the other is finding of an adaptable number of sample size for each vehicle category and calculation of average value of normalized frequencies along with occupancy time that will be stored for comparison. Then, detected values are compared with those stored data to locate the most fitted pattern. After the normalization process, we developed some frameworks for comparison schemes. The fitted scales used were 10 and 15 frames in occupancy time(X-axis) and 10 and 15 frames in frequency variation (Y-axis). A combination of X-Y 10-15 frame turned out to be the most efficient scale of normalization producing 96 percent correct classification rate for six types of vehicle.
A Study on the Evaluation Criteria of Privately Financed Light Weight Rail Transit System
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 14, issue 1, 1996, Pages 165~177
Recently, many local governments suffering from traffic congestion have plans to introduce light weight (mid-size) rail transit systems, since the systems' investment costs are known to be much less than heavy rail transits such as the subway in Seoul. Most of the governments expect private partners to be involved in the systems' constructions and operations mainly because of their financial difficulties. Since the governments do not have experiences of evaluating and selecting privately financed transportation systems, they may need an evaluation guideline. This paper discusses evaluation criteria, methodologies, and procedures which will be helpful to local governments faced with evaluating light weight rail transit systems proposed by private companies.