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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Dec 2002
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
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An Analysis of Economic Interdependency between Regions using the Canonical Correlation (for the working trip in Seoul metropolitan area)
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 5~13
The purpose of this paper is to quantify the economic interdependency between regions using the observed data for the working trips among 72 zones Seoul metropolitan area including Incheon-si and Kyunggi-do. The canonical correlation analysis technique, which is very helpful technique to estimate the interrelation between two sets of variables, is introduced here. The canonical correlation coefficients between regions which are consist of zones and also canonical weight coefficient for each zone are estimated statistically. The result shows that Kyunggi-do and Incheon-si are economically depend upon Seoul-si in degree of 0.9753 and 0.2968 respectively. Canonical weigh coefficients estimated here show that Bundang-ku and Jung-ku of Seoul-si highly contributes the economic dependency of Kyunggi-do upon Seoul-si. Also the economic dependencies of 3 regions of Inchon-si 16 regions of Kyunggi-do upon 5 regions of Seoul-si are investigated
Development of Analytic Hierarchy Process or Solving Dependence Relation between Multicriteria
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 15~22
Transportation project appraisal should be precise in order to increase the social welfare and efficiency, and it has been evaluated by only a single criterion analysis such as benefit/cost analysis. However, this method cannot assess some qualitative items, and cannot get a proper solution for the clash of interests among various groups. Therefore, the multi-criteria analysis, which can control these problems, is needed, and then Saaty has developed one of these methods, AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) method. In AHP, the project is evaluated through weighted score of the criteria and the alternatives, which is surveyed by a questionnaire of specialists. It is based on some strict suppositions such as reciprocal comparison, homogeneity, expectation, independence relationship between multi-criteria, but supposing that each criterion has independence relation with others is too difficult in two reasons. First, in real situation, there cannot be perfect independence relationship between standards. Second, individuals, even though they are specialists of that area, do not feel the degree of independence relation as same as others. This paper develops a modified AHP method for solving this dependence relationship between multi-criteria. First of all. in this method, the degree of dependence relationship between multi-criteria that the specialist feels is surveyed and included to the weighted score of multi-criteria This study supposes three methods to implement this idea. The first model products the degree of dependence relationship in the first step for calculating the weighted score, and the others adjust the result of weighted score from the basic AHP method to the dependence relationship. One of the second methods distributes the cross weighted score to each standard by constant ratio, and the other splits them using Fuzzy measure such as Bel and Pl. Finally, in order to validate these methods, this paper applies them to evaluate the alternatives which can control public resentments against Korean rail path in a city area.
Safety Enhanced Signal Phase Sequence Design of a Rotary with Five Leg Intersection
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 23~29
Five and more leg intersections have been still in operation in many urban areas. The number of conflicts in five leg intersection is more than four leg intersection. The signal timing design in the five leg intersection should be performed not only to reduce delay but also to increase safety. This paper suggests safety enhanced signal phase sequence design of a rotary with five leg intersection such as phase sequence minimizing the number of conflict points at the rotary with five leg intersections and the phase-length-design procedure by utilizing the Traffic Network Study Tool(TRANSYT). Field data was collected from Gonguptap five leg intersection in Ulsan and TRANSYT-7F was applied for signal timing design model. Optimal signal phase length and sequence of TRANSYT-7F is rearranged based on the Principal of "two moving traffic flows per phase". In conclusion, proposed signal phase design increased delay by 6.2% compared with the optimal signal phase of TRANSYT-7F. However, it could decrease the number of conflict in the five leg intersection by 61.5%.
A Study on the Warrant of Permitted Left-Turning Movements based on the Korean Highway Capacity Manual
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 31~41
The selection criteria of left-turn phase based on the Korean Highway Capacity Manual is determined through many factors like the traffic volume in each direction of 4-way approach, the existence of exclusive left-turn lane, the number of lanes and so forth. These factors have a different influence on the selection criteria of left-turn phase according to each characteristic, and the variables should be determined according to the magnitude of the influence. However, the selection criteria of the most left-turn phase being used domestically is determined without this consideration on the criteria only of the left-turn volume of the street in question. the opposing through volume and the number of lanes. Therefore, this study intend to prove the main factor having an influence on the selection criteria of left-turn phase by using the algorithm of the Korean Highway Capacity Manual and to establish the warrant of Permitted left-turn phase by suggesting the critical left-turn volume(the maximum left-turn volume maximizing the operating efficiency of a signal intersection with permitted left-turn phase) by using this result. The result of this study is as follows. Firstly, the main factors having an influence on the selection criteria of left-turn Phase are the left-turn volume, the opposing through volume, the number of lanes of the street in question. and the traffic volume, the number of lanes of cross street. It was analyzed that the number of the lanes of the street in question among these factors has the greatest influence on the selection criteria of left-turn phase. However, as permitted left-turn phase is generally operated in 2-lane street, the selection criteria of permitted left-turn phase in the common situation is dependent on the left-turn volume, the opposing through volume of the street in question and the traffic volume of cross street. Secondly, it was analyzed that as the opposing through volume increases, the critical left-turn volume decreases. Namely, there will be more cases of operating the street in question with permitted left-turn phase as the opposing through volume is smaller and conversely there will be more cases of operating the street in question with protected left-turn phase as the opposing through volume is larger. Thirdly, it was analyzed that the critical left-turn volume decreases as the traffic volume of cross street is larger. Namely, there will be more cases of operating the street in question with Permitted left-turning phase as the traffic volume of cross street is smaller and conversely there will be more cases of operating the street in question with protected left-turning phase as the traffic volume of cross street is larger.
Strategies to Attract Transshipment Container Cargoes among Main Competitive Ports in North (East Asian Region)
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 43~50
Competition to attract the increasing container cargoes of North China and the West Japan in North-East Asia region is fairly intensed in recent days between the main ports of Korea, China, and Japan. Inducing a new container cargo make those countries possible to invest enormous fund to mordernize its port facilities, as well as to improve efficiency in Port operation and management. In this situation, Strategy to attract transshipment cargoes is of the immediate necessity, This study, therefore, aims to establish the feasible strategies to attract transshipment container cargoes in the North-East Asian region by empirical analysis, he major output of the research is as follows : First, Busan Port to attract transshipment cargoes is required to adjust port tariff and free storage period with flexibility for liner shipping companies and freight forwarder. Second, Price-Demand function of Busan port between main competitive ports in North-East Asian region that is derived from strategies to attract transshipment cargoes, helps marketing manager to fix scientifically port price as understanding the change of demand quantity.
An Analysis on the Distribution of Transshipment Container Cargoes in Korea (with particular reference to China)
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 51~58
The purpose of this paper is to find some implications for Korean seaports in terms of operation and development of ports, in particular for attracting more transshipment container cargoes into major Korean seaports. This was accomplished by the O-D analysis between major Korean seaports and top 20 Chinese ports.
Development of Criteria for Installing Facilities Preventing Median Encroachment for Rural Two-lane Highways
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 59~67
According to "Statistics for Traffic Accident, 2001" by Korean National Police Agency, the median encroachment accident the overspeed accident are major causes by measurement "fatal rate", which represents severity of damage. Also, the median encroachment accident occupied 39.5% in severe accidents. Actually, in the year 2000, the rate for the median encroachment accidents in total accidents was 6.52% and the rates for the dead and the wounded in total ones were 14.38% and 8.21% respectively. Therefore, all sorts of median encroachment accident facilities. such as, median barrier, road stud, and optical guidance rod have been installed in order to decrease the number of the median encroachment accidents. However, there is the lack of median barrier establishment standard. Thus, economic traffic accident expense loss as the results of occurring the median encroachment accident and waste of country financial resource by excess establishment of median barriers include problems that cannot be overlooked. Forecasting models for the median encroachment accidents in tangent section on rural two-lane highway were established in "A study on development of median encroachment accident model". Also, this paper showed forecasting models for one in curved section on rural two-lane highway and calculated social expense for the median encroachment accidents. Moreover, traffic accident expense loss can be at the least and economic benefit can be at the greatest as standards of determining the existence for establishing the cost-effective median barrier are represented.
Development of the software transforming a transportation analysis network from GIS
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 69~76
In conducting studies related to the national base networks, it is very important to construct a simulation network. This research provides an algorithm to construct the simulation network from the digital transportation map which is constructed based on the National Geographic Information System(NGIS). The algorithm consists of three functions(extraction of networks from transportation digital map, transform of the derived network into one suitable to transportation simulation model, and inspection of errors in the network). The direct derivation of a simulation network from GIS enables to enhance the reliability of an analysis related to a transportation facility investment as well as to reduce cost and time. In this research, Emme/2 which is generally accepted transportation planning fields is adapted for the target system. However, this algorithm will be extended to other simulation models such as Satong-Paldal which is the only transportation simulation model developed in Korea, and Tranplan in the near future.
Multi-Level Models for Activity Participation and Travel Behaviors
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 79~85
In this paper, multilevel models are adopted to identify interactions among household members in trip making behaviors. The multilevel approach is a proper methodology to handle samples, which are extracted from a hierarchical structure universe. PSTP dataset is used in developing models and understand proportion of variations among individuals and household. The results of this study show that for activity participation and travel behavior household level variance is more than 1/4 of person level variance and therefore not negligible. The results confirm the importance of multilevel model in travel behavior analysis.
Development of An Optimal Lane Assignment Model
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 87~94
The directional traffic volume is one of the most important components in designing and operating intersection. In the United States, optimal lane assignment is designed and operated by functionality of the road because there is not much turning volume. In Korea, it is also determined without special consideration of directional volume. Compared to other countries, intersections in Korea have more lanes and operate super blocks. So, the queue in turn movement not only affects through movement but also causes traffic accidents. Although the attempt which efficiently manages turn movement such as has done, there is a limitation in treating traffic volume by just signal timing. In addition, the standard of an optimal lane assignment has not been made until now. In this paper, an optimal lane assignment model which is a precondition for designing and operating intersection is developed. The concept of managing space has been introduced. First, an optimal lane assignment was determined using Transyt-7F. Second, the nomograph for deciding lane assignment was made by a determined optimal lane assignment. Third, the model was verified by TSIS. Last, it was applied to two intersections in Seoul. The result was appropriate in both TSIS and real application.
Characteristics and Modeling of Operating Speed at Horizontal Curves on Rural Four-Lane Highways
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 95~105
Under a specific roadway alignment condition by design-speed standards, safety of the roadway is determined by an actual operating speed of a driver. This research takes first lanes of four-lane(hi-direction) rural highways as target facility. It also takes the straight and curved lanes of the selected highways for in-depth study. This study used NC-97 to detect speeds of passenger cars whose speeds are not affected by front vehicles. This research analyzed properties of 85th percentile operating speed at upstream of horizontal and through curves under various alignment conditions. The results show that 53∼65 Percent of drivers drive faster than the posted speed-limit (80KPH) by 14∼20 KPH on average. It also shows that the 85th-percentile operating speeds are the lowest at the middle point of curve length when curve radius is smaller. However, they are lowest at 1/4 point of curve length when curve radius is greater. Along roadways where curve radius is small, difference between upstream speed and the speed along the curve is considerably large. On the other hand. the speed difference is setting smaller as the curve radius is increasing. According to the results, significant variables affecting the 85th percentile operating speeds are curve radius and the 85th-Percentile operating speeds of upstream curves.
Development of Determination Criteria Installing Crash Cushion on Freeway Off-Ramp
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 107~116
Crash Cushion is a kind of safety facilities on roadside which acts the role of absorbing impact energy when vehicles are driven out of normal route such as Gore area of freeway off ramp. Criteria for severity index considering accident occurrence possibility are needed to have strong effect on installing the facilities. However, present criteria for establishing crash cushion design do not include such processes. Therefore, the paper presents two kinds of study to develop criteria for severity index. First of all, development of accident forecasting model on freeway off ramp is presented. The module is a relationship between accidents and road environment by negative binomial distribution (NB) which is called to reflect very well quality of accidents at Gore of crash cushion installed freeway Secondly, freeway exiting behavior model is developed because the human factor is the most important one. However, many literatures have shown between road environment and accidents which are more quantitative than human factor. The study supposed advanced process steps on actual freeway and analysed correlation between variables and accidents. The criteria for severity index is presented to determine whether to install or not by benefit cost analysis for each module. The standard for severity index will help to determine whether to install the crash cushion or not and to estimate severity for freeway and off ramp.
Planning of Train Operation with Different Objectives Utilizing Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming Models
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 117~133
Scheduling of regional trains can be developed with many different objectives, such as views of operators, transport users or society as a whole. Planning goals of the society usually determines which perspective should prevail. Different perspectives produce different rail operating plans and the results are not usually comparable. Therefore, it is imperative to devise all possible rail operating plans with different perspectives and compare them objectively to select the best alternative for the society. In Korea, a high speed rail HSR service is planned for 2004 and some of the existing line are shared with HSR. It is necessary to include HSR in developing operation plans for existing rail. In this study, three rail operating Plans were developed with three different objectives, i.e. cost and time minimization, and profit maximization with mathematical integer nonlinear programming(MINLP). The models were applied for the Seoul-Busan corridors and Seoul-Mokpo corridors. Operation plans developed were evaluated with various measure of effectiveness, that is, passenger km, passenger-hour, trips. They were compared with alternatives which reflect current operating patterns. Further research issues were also identified.
Structural Equation Model for Bus Service Evaluation
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 135~142
This study develops a structural equation model for bus service evaluation, which shows the structural effects of perceived services(i.e. ‘perception of service quality', ‘perception of mobility', 'Perception of transfer' and ‘perception of economy') with structural linkage among them to bus service evaluation when ‘personality' and/or ‘traffic behavior' are also linked to them. The data used in developing the model are surveyed in two case study areas(i.e. Wolsong-Sangin, (Sangin and) Jisan-Bomul) in Daegu Metropolitan City. The four Perceived services are derived from factor analysis and reliability test(i.e. Chronbach's). The model is estimated by using SEM through AMOS(Analysis of Moment Structure) software. The exploratory model shows as follows. Firstly in Sangin-Wolsong, the bus drivers and fare have directly effect on ‘service evaluation' and the former is stronger than the latter. Secondly, in Jisan-Bomul a strong relationship exists between cleanness and ‘service evaluation'.
A Study on Discriminant.Classification Model of Impact Factors about Understanding of Traffic Accident Causes and Acknowledgement to Decrease Traffic Accidents
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 143~153
This study has established the discriminant and classification models of the impact factors about understanding of traffic accident causes and acknowledgement to decrease traffic accidents using Quantification Ⅱ Theory and CHAID analysis. In the discriminant model of Quantification Ⅱ Theory, the total hit ratio of the impact (actors about understanding of traffic accident causes is very high as 78.4%. The partial correlation indicating the contribution degree for the exogenous variables has effects on the items such as academic back-ground, gender, driving experience and types of own cars. The contribution of the exogenous variables has ordered absence of the traffic crackdown, the imperfection of traffic system, the over-using of passenger car and the wrong consciousness. Also, the total hit ratio of the impact factors about acknowledgement to decrease traffic accidents is high as 59.9%. The partial correlation has effects on the items such as academic background, gender, driving experience and age. The exogenous variables have ordered the reinforcement of the traffic crack-down, the leading public transport modes, the improvement of traffic system and the consciousness reform. In classification models of CHAID analysis. the four prediction variables of the impact factors about understanding of traffic accident causes such as academic background, age, gender and the traffic mode are statistically significant. Moreover, the four prediction variables of the impact factors about acknowledgement to decrease traffic accidents such as academic background, driving experience, gender and transport modes are statistically significant. In this research, the results of frequency and cross-tabulation analysis highly appeared such as the related factors of the consciousness. However, the discriminant and classification models are highly appeared such as the related factors of the traffic crackdown and are lowly appeared such as the related factors of the consciousness. It is clearly reveled that the consciousness levels are immanent in mentally and don't revel on the surface are low.
Development of a Traffic Accident Prediction Model and Determination of the Risk Level at Signalized Intersection
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 155~166
Since 1990s. there has been an increasing number of traffic accidents at intersection. which requires more urgent measures to insure safety on intersection. This study set out to analyze the road conditions, traffic conditions and traffic operation conditions on signalized intersection. to identify the elements that would impose obstructions in safety, and to develop a traffic accident prediction model to evaluate the safety of an intersection using the cop relation between the elements and an accident. In addition, the focus was made on suggesting appropriate traffic safety policies by dealing with the danger elements in advance and on enhancing the safety on the intersection in developing a traffic accident prediction model fir a signalized intersection. The data for the study was collected at an intersection located in Wonju city from January to December 2001. It consisted of the number of accidents, the road conditions, the traffic conditions, and the traffic operation conditions at the intersection. The collected data was first statistically analyzed and then the results identified the elements that had close correlations with accidents. They included the area pattern, the use of land, the bus stopping activities, the parking and stopping activities on the road, the total volume, the turning volume, the number of lanes, the width of the road, the intersection area, the cycle, the sight distance, and the turning radius. These elements were used in the second correlation analysis. The significant level was 95% or higher in all of them. There were few correlations between independent variables. The variables that affected the accident rate were the number of lanes, the turning radius, the sight distance and the cycle, which were used to develop a traffic accident prediction model formula considering their distribution. The model formula was compared with a general linear regression model in accuracy. In addition, the statistics of domestic accidents were investigated to analyze the distribution of the accidents and to classify intersections according to the risk level. Finally, the results were applied to the Spearman-rank correlation coefficient to see if the model was appropriate. As a result, the coefficient of determination was highly significant with the value of 0.985 and the ranks among the intersections according to the risk level were appropriate too. The actual number of accidents and the predicted ones were compared in terms of the risk level and they were about the same in the risk level for 80% of the intersections.
Value of Travel-Time Savings in Metropolitan Road Freight Transportation with Freight Classification Code
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 167~175
The objective of this study is to reveal a shipper's preference for road freight transport according to commodity classification code. The shipper's preference in freight transport can be obtained by using value of travel-time savings. The characteristics of freight are so various that the shipper's preference also appear widely different. In these days, there were few attempts to estimate value of freight travel-time savings in Korea. but most of them included only rail or marine freight transport so it couldn't obtain unique travel-time savings for road freight transport. In this study the value of travel-time savings of road freight transport was estimated according to commodity classification code. Revealed preference method and associated binominal logit models were applied to estimate the value of travel-time savings in transit from a Seoul metropolitan commodity flow survey data in 1998. Data sets were segmented by commodity classification code and nineteen binominal legit models were estimated according to segmented groups. The results of this study showed that the value of freight travel-time savings varied wide ranges from 16,441 won to 66,769 won per hour a vehicle along with commodity classification code.
Conceptual Design of Automatic Control Algorithm for VMSs
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 177~183
Current state-of-the-art of VMS control is based upon simple knowledge-based inference engine with message set and each message's priority. And R&Ds of the VMS control are focused on the accurate detection and estimation of traffic condition of the subject roadways. However VMS display itself cannot achieve a desirable traffic allocation among alternative routes in the network In this context, VMS display strategy is the most crucial part in the VMS control. VMS itself has several limitations in its nature. It is generally known that VMS causes overreaction and concentration problems, which may be more serious in urban network than highway network because diversion should be more easily made in urban network. A feedback control algorithm is proposed in this paper to address the above-mentioned issues. It is generally true that feedback control approach requires low computational effort and is less sensitive to models inaccuracy and disturbance uncertainties. Major features of the proposed algorithm are as follows: Firstly, a regulator is designed to attain system optimal traffic allocation among alternative routes for each VMS in the network. Secondly, strategic messages should be prepared to realize the desirable traffic allocation, that is, output of the above regulator. VMS display strategy module is designed in this context. To evaluate Probable control benefit and to detect logical errors of the Proposed feedback algorithm, a offline simulation test is performed using real network in Daejon, Korea.
Fitting Distribution of Accident Frequency of Freeway Horizontal Curve Sections & Development of Negative Binomial Regression Models
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 197~204
The ATP Installation Strategy for Railway Long-term Development in Korea
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 20, issue 7, 2002, Pages 205~211