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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Applications of Airspace Design Criterions Affecting on the Flight Safety
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 7~19
The airspace has to be designed considering the flight safety and economic efficiency of aircraft operators. The International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) published standards and recommended practices for safe design of the airspace. Each contracting country must follow the ICAO standards in designing the airspace for the utilization of civil aviation. Normally each member establishes its own standards and national aviation law for the safe and efficient design of the airspace, regarding the ICAO standards. However, our government has not developed yet clear and detailed standards and regulation system for airspace design. This might lead to aviation accidents and disputes between operators of aviation system This study is to review the characteristics of ICAO standards and a legal problem related to application of international standards for airspace design. Specifically this research analyzed the case of airspace design and operation of a domestic airport. The results of analysis are as follow: (1) per the safety of civil aviation, it is very required to establish national regulation system to follow ICAO standards in designing airspace, (2) It is also necessary to establish separate procedure for civil aircraft in military air base, when the aerodrome is co-used by military and civil aircraft. If the same procedure for military aircraft is applied to civil aircraft, it is necessary to make clear what the design concept is, (3) and the differences from ICAO standards have to be publicly known.
A GIS-based Traffic Accident Analysis on Highways using Alignment Related Risk Indices
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 21~40
A traffic accident analysis method was developed and tested based on the highway alignment risk indices using geographic information systems(GIS). Impacts of the highway alignment on traffic accidents have been identified by examining accidents occurred on different alignment conditions and by investigating traffic accident risk indices(TARI). Evaluative criteria are suggested using geometric design elements as an independent variable. Traffic accident rates were forecasted more realistically and objectively by considering the interaction between highway alignment factors and the design consistency. And traffic accident risk indices and risk ratings were suggested based on model estimation results and accident data. Finally, forecasting traffic accident rates, evaluating the level of risk and then visualizing information graphically were combined into one system called risk assessment system by means of GIS. This risk assessment system is expected to play a major role in designing four-lane highways and developing remedies for highway sections susceptible to traffic accidents.
An Assessment of the Quantitative Effect of TSS by Vessel Traffic Flow Simulation
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 41~49
Marine traffic management could be defined as the implementation of managerial technical measures to improve vessel traffic safety. The managerial elements of vessel traffic management for ports and harbours or narrow channels include the total amount of traffic control, the vessel traffic separation scheme, speed restriction, traffic control by signals, the navigation information service and so forth. This research aims to quantify how much the traffic separation schemes(TSS) contribute to the alleviation effect of ship handling difficulty and to propose a design standard when the individual management measure is applied in an actual waterway. Traffic separation schemes have now been established in most of the major routes and congested waters of the world, and the number of collisions and groundings have often been dramatically reduced. In this part, the relationship between the alleviation of ship handling difficulty and the reduction of encounter figures among ships is quantitatively clarified by applying the ES model. As results of simulation analysis, it is recognized that a traffic separation system is most effective in the case of narrow width and heavy traffic volume. The centre buoy installation reduces about 1/4 of the alleviation of ship handling difficulty, TSS establishment 1/3, and design change to one-way traffic from two-way traffic reduces 1/2.
Selection of the Optimal Location of Traffic Counting Points for the OD Travel Demand Estimation
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 53~63
The Origin-Destination(OD) matrix is very important in describing transport movements in a region. The OD matrix can be estimated using traffic counts on links in the transport network and other available information. This information on the travel is often contained in a target OD matrix and traffic counts in links. To estimate an OD matrix from traffic counts, they are the major input data which obviously affects the accuracy of the OD matrix estimated, Generally, the quality of an estimated OD matrix depends much on the reliability of the input data, and the number and locations of traffic counting points in the network. Any Process regarding the traffic counts such as the amount and their location has to be carefully studied. The objective of this study is to select of the optimal location of traffic counting points for the OD matrix estimation. The model was tested in nationwide network. The network consists of 224 zones, 3,125 nodes and 6,725 links except to inner city road links. The OD matrix applied for selection of traffic counting points was estimated to 3-constrained entropy maximizing model. The results of this study follow that : the selected alternative to the best optimal counting points of six alternatives is the alternative using common links of OD matrix and vehicle-km and traffic density(13.0% of 6,725 links), however the worst alternative is alternative of all available traffic counting points(44.9% of 6,725 links) in the network. Finally, it should be concluded that the accuracy of reproduced OD matrix using traffic counts related much to the number of traffic counting points and locations.
A Transit Assignment Model using Genetic Algorithm
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 65~75
In these days, public transportation has become important because of serious traffic congestion. But. there are few researches in public transportation compared with researches in auto. Accordingly, the purpose of paper is development of transit assignment model, which considers features of public transportation, time table, transfer capacity of vehicle, common line, etc. The transit assignment model developed in this paper is composed of two parts. One part is search for optimum path, the other part is network loading. A Genetic algorithm has been developed in order to search for alternative shortest path set. After the shortest paths have been obtained in the genetic algorithm, Logit-base stochastic loading model has been used to obtain the assigned volumes.
Effect of uncertain information on drivers' decision making (Application of Prospect Theory)
CHO, Hye-Jin ; KIM, Kang-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 77~90
This paper explores the way and the extent to which drivers' route choice was influenced by uncertain information. In particular, this paper investigates the effect of qualitative information on route choice when drivers face a choice with different degrees of uncertain information. The SP survey was conducted and route choice legit models were estimated. We also applied Prospect Theory to the analysis of drivers' decision making under uncertain information. The main findings are firstly, drivers tend to prefer a route with information than(to) one without information. This indicated that providing charge information encouraged drivers to choose the routes for which information is provided in preference to those for which it is not provided. Secondly, drivers also prefer a route with a certain and precise information over one with uncertain and imprecise information. Thirdly, when the information is given as a range, the size of the range of the information influenced route choice slightly and as the range of the charge increases, the route becomes slightly less unattractive. Fourthly, when the information is given as a range, drivers' route choices are influenced more by the median value of the ranges than by the size of the overall ranges of the information. Application of Prospect Theory to the results explains the way drivers may be interpreting the choice situation and how they make a route choice in response to uncertain information. The results of this paper implicate that drivers' decision making under uncertainty seem to be very complicated and flexible, depending on the way drivers interpret the choice situation. Therefore, it is recommended to apply wider related theories to the analysis of the drivers' behaviour.
A Study on Link Travel Time Prediction by Short Term Simulation Based on CA
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 91~102
There are two goals in this paper. The one is development of existing CA(Cellular Automata) model to explain more realistic deceleration process to stop. The other is the application of the updated CA model to forecasting simulation to predict short term link travel time that takes a key rule in finding the shortest path of route guidance system of ITS. Car following theory of CA models don't makes not response to leading vehicle's velocity but gap or distance between leading vehicles and following vehicles. So a following vehicle running at free flow speed must meet steeply sudden deceleration to avoid back collision within unrealistic braking distance. To tackle above unrealistic deceleration rule, “Slow-to-stop” rule is integrated into NaSch model. For application to interrupted traffic flow, this paper applies “Slow-to-stop” rule to both normal traffic light and random traffic light. And vehicle packet method is used to simulate a large-scale network on the desktop. Generally, time series data analysis methods such as neural network, ARIMA, and Kalman filtering are used for short term link travel time prediction that is crucial to find an optimal dynamic shortest path. But those methods have time-lag problems and are hard to capture traffic flow mechanism such as spill over and spill back etc. To address above problems. the CA model built in this study is used for forecasting simulation to predict short term link travel time in Kangnam district network And it's turned out that short term prediction simulation method generates novel results, taking a crack of time lag problems and considering interrupted traffic flow mechanism.
A Route Search of Urban Traffic Network using Fuzzy Non-Additive Control
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 103~113
This paper shows alternative route search and preference route search for the traffic route search, and proposes the use of the fuzzy non-additive controller by the application of AHP(analytic hierarchy process). It is different from classical route search and notices thinking method of human. Appraisal element, weight of route is extracted from basic of the opinion gathering for the driving expert and example of route model was used for the finding of practice utility. Model evaluation was performed attribute membership function making of estimate element, estimate value setting, weight define by the AHP, non additive presentation of weight according to
-fuzzy measure and Choquet fuzzy integral. Finally, alternative route search was possible to real time traffic route search for the well variable traffic environment, and preference route search showed reflection of traffic route search disposition for the driver individual. This paper has five important meaning. (1)The approach is similar to the driver's route selection decision process. (2)The approach is able to control of route appraisal criteria for the multiple attribute. (3)The approach makes subjective judgement objective by a non additive. (4)The approach shows dynamic route search for the alternative route search. (5)The approach is able to consider characteristics of individual drivers attributed for the preference route search.
A Comparison of Concrete Median Barriers in terms of Safety Performance using Computer Simulation
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 115~125
The concrete median barriers are the most popular safety appurtenance that can be installed on narrow medians and are effective in keeping uncontrolled vehicles from crossing into opposing lanes of traffic. It is necessary to install and maintain median barriers because it is very difficult to reserve enough room required for medians in KOREA. Also, concrete median barriers are accepted as the actual alternatives for median barriers, mostly because they require almost no maintenance even after serious collisions. Typical concrete median barriers are 810mm high and have 596mm high glare screens on top of them. However we have experienced a number of "climb" and "roll-over" accidents of heavy vehicles and most of all, there have been some serious accidents caused by the part of broken glare screens. So the improvement study of concrete median barriers started. Prior to this study, a new type of concrete median barrier was suggested which is 1,270mm high and has no glare screens on top of it. So it was required to compare the properties of various types of concrete median barriers including the new type to find the optimal type of concrete median barrier. In this study, we have evaluated the characteristics of four types of concrete median barriers (New Jersey type, F type, constant slope type, and wall type). We have performed many computer simulations for the evaluation of the crashworthiness of them, and through the simulations we have tried to find a proper type of concrete median barrier. Through the computer simulations, we evaluated the structural stability and safety of the four types of concrete median barriers. We confirmed the structural stability and safety of them But in regard to the probability of "roll-over" of heavy vehicles, the higher concrete median barriers showed better performances than the lower. As the result of this study a new type of concrete median barrier was recommended.
Development of Highway Safety Evaluation Considering Design Consistency using Acceleration
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 127~136
Road safety is defined under the minimum design standard and design examination process is consisted of the standard according to current road design. However, road safety in practical way is correlative to not only all element of roads but also road shape, such as, between straight line and curved line and between curved lines. Also. it is related to alignments such as horizontal alignment and vertical alignment, and cross section. That is, the practical road design should be examined in both sides of 3 dimension and consecutiveness (consistency) as the actual road is a 3 - dimensional successive object. The paper presents a concept for acceleration to evaluate consistency of road considering actual road shape on 3-dimension. Acceleration of vehicle is influential to road consistency based on running state of vehicles and state of drivers. The magnitude of acceleration. especially, is a quite influential element to drivers. Based on above, the acceleration on each point on 3-D road can be calculated and then displacement can be done. Computation of acceleration means total calculation on each axis. Speed profile refers to “Development of a safety evaluation model for highway horizontal alignment based on running speed(Jeong, Jun-Hwa, 2001)” and then acceleration can be calculated by using the speed pronto. According to literature review, definition of acceleration on 3-D and g-g-g diagram are established. For example, as a result of the evaluation, if the acceleration is out of range, the road is out of consistency. The paper shows calculation for change of acceleration on imaginary road under minimum design standard and the change tried to be applied to consistency. However accurate acceleration is not shown because the speed forecasting model is limited and the paper did not consider state of vehicles (suspension, tires and model of vehicles). If speed pronto is defined exactly, acceleration is calculated on all road shapes, such as. compound curve and clothoid curve. and then it is appled to consistency evaluation. Unfortunately, speed forecasting model on 3 -D road and on compound curves have rarely presented. Speed forecasting model and speed profile model need to be established and standard of consistency evaluation need to developed and verified by experimental vehicles.
Application of Agent-based Modelling on Transport Systems Analysis
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 1, 2003, Pages 147~156