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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jan 2003
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Effect of Air Bag and Seat Belt on Driver's Safety
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 7~16
To minimize the death and injury by a collision, the installation of an air bag is recommended as a mandatory practice together with the wearing of the seat belt. By using simulated collision experiments, this research focused on the effect of an air bag and seat belt on the driver safety. The vehicle deceleration characteristics were obtained from impact experiment. LSDYNA, a software program for vehicle collision analysis, and MADYMO. a software program for driver motion after collision, were used for simulated experiment. Four cases such as air bag installed and seat belt wearing (case A), air bag installed but seat belt not wearing (case B), air bag not installed but seat belt wearing (case C), air bag not installed and seat belt not wearing (case D) were analyzed. The impact of acceleration on the injury of driver's head was analyzed by Head Injury Criterion (HIC) as well. It was found that having air bag and wearing seat belt effectively reduced driver's head injury about 52.9% to 70.5% compared with the case of having neither air bag nor wearing seat belt.
Throughput Analysis of Right Turn Shared Lane with Lane Width Change
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 17~31
This study is about throughput analysis of the shared right turn lane at signalized intersection with lane width change. It is expected that the increased width of the right turn shared lane causes to increase the volume of right turn on red(RTOR) In this study, the throughput computation is designed to take into account the lost time which is caused by the blocked right turn due to the stop of through traffic. The saturation flow rate of right turn using the rest of lane after through traffic stops is included as well. Results show that the different RTOR volume levels due to the various shared lane width leads to a difference in throughput. For the shared right turn lanes. throughput capacity for various lane widths is bigger than that of the KHCM as much as from 1.1 to 2.1 times.
Factor Analysis and LISREL Model Development for Landscape Estimation on The Road Cutting Slope Area
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 33~43
In South Korea, about 74% of total area is mountainous terrain It is therefore inevitable to make tunnel or cutting slope for road construction. According to a related survey, approximately 2,400 sites of cutting slopes were found from 24 different routes of roadway which is overall 900 km long, implying 2.7 slopes per 1km of roadway on average. Even though safety matter such as the slope failure prevention would be the most important consideration for the construction of cutting slopeslandscape of sloped face is nowadays becoming another important factor due to the growing demand for the driver-friendly road environment Various construction methods which attain this goal should therefore be considered in the design stage of the roadway. The objective of this study is to identify important factors in landscape of sloped-cut roadway using factor analysis. For this, 10 main treatment methods of sloped-cut fact were analyzed. This study employed the LISREL(structural analysis of common variance) model in order to capture the qualitative characteristics of the slope-cut road and examine the relationship between the suey error and the variable(s). As a result, more reasonable landscape evaluation model for the road design and construction was proposed.
A Study of the Analysis on the Accident Reduction Effect of the Median
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 45~60
A median is a safety feature most commonly used to separate opposing traffic on a divided highway. In designing highways, the selection and installation of a median can be a critical part from a safety viewpoint because road crossing accidents are definitely more serious than other accidents. In regard to the important function of the median. the proper countermeasure ought to have been provided and thorough study should have been carried out. In this paper, traffic accident data are analyzed to examine the accident reduction effect of the median, which are gathered from all over 4-lane national roads in Korea. The traffic accident data were categorized into two groups by the existence of a median. For more effective analysis, the data have been classified by accident type, severity. and occurrence time. To compare the effectiveness of median installation, not only the accident frequency but also the accident severity, EPDO. and the occupancy rate of specific accidents have been used as a mode of effectiveness. The analysis of the effectiveness of medians shows that both the accident frequency and the accident severity could decrease by providing a median. Also the section where a median was supplied showed the improvement of overall safety through fewer serious and fatal crashes as well as fewer head-on crashes. Therefore, conclusions can be drawn from results of this study that the median installation is an important means to increase the safety of over 4-lane national roads. This study is expected to provide the reasonability of the median installation by identifying the reduction of traffic accident after the median installation and to play a major role in selecting sections where the median is to be offered.
Queue Detection using Fuzzy-Based Neural Network Model
KIM, Daehyon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 63~70
Real-time information on vehicle queue at intersections is essential for optimal traffic signal control, which is substantial part of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Computer vision is also potentially an important element in the foundation of integrated traffic surveillance and control systems. The objective of this research is to propose a method for detecting an exact queue lengths at signalized intersections using image processing techniques and a neural network model Fuzzy ARTMAP, which is a supervised and self-organizing system and claimed to be more powerful than many expert systems, genetic algorithms. and other neural network models like Backpropagation, is used for recognizing different patterns that come from complicated real scenes of a car park. The experiments have been done with the traffic scene images at intersections and the results show that the method proposed in the paper could be efficient for the noise, shadow, partial occlusion and perspective problems which are inevitable in the real world images.
Shortest Path Problems of Military Vehicles Considering Traffic Flow Characteristics
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 71~82
The shortest path problems(SPP) are critical issues in the military logistics such as the simulation of the War-Game. However, the existing SPP has two major drawbacks, one is its accuracy of solution and the other is for only one solution with focused on just link cost in the military transportation planning models. In addition, very few previous studies have been examined for the multi-shortest path problems without considering link capacity reflecting the military characteristics. In order to overcome these drawbacks, it is necessary to apply the multi-shortest paths algorithm reflecting un-expected military incidents. This study examines the multi-shortest paths in the real networks using Shier algorithm. The network contains both military link capacity and time-based cost. Also, the modes are defined as a platoon(group) rather than unit which is used in most of previous studies in the military logistics. To verify the algorithm applied in this study. the comparative analysis was performed with various sizes and routes of network which compares with Dijkstra algorithm. The major findings of this study are as follows ; 1) Regarding the unique characteristics of the military transportation plan, Shier algorithm, which is applied to this study, is more realistic than Dijkstra algorithm. Also, the time based concept is more applicable than the distance based model in the military logistics. 2) Based on the results from the various simulations of this study the capacity-constraint sections appeared in each scenarios. As a consequence, the alternatives are necessary such as measures for vulnerable area, improvement of vehicle(mode), and reflection of separated-marching column in the military manuals. Finally. the limits and future research directions are discussed : 1) It is very hard to compare the results found in this study. which is used in the real network and the previous studies which is used in arbitrary network. 2) In order to reflect the real military situations such as heavy tanks and heavy equipment vehicles. the other constraints such as the safety load of bridges and/or the height of tunnels should be considered for the future studies.
Development of a Microscopic Traffic Simulator for Evaluating Signal Operating Strategy of Traffic Adaptive Control System
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 83~94
Many cities, recently, have convertedoptimized fixed-time control to adaptive traffic system in the control of their signalized traffic network. The expected benefit from the adaptive traffic system is its ability to constantly modify signal timing to most effectively accommodate changed traffic conditions. While the potential benefits from this control structure may be significant, few studies have compared the effect of implementing this method of signal control against other alternative signal control strategies, because it is too difficult to evaluate the efficiency of the real-time adaptive system. The objectives of this research are : to develop a microscopic simulator and to compare the effect at isolated intersections, corridors, and networks between the fixed signal timing plan and adaptive traffic signal system. This simulator will have allowed more sophisticated analysis techniques for the study of traffic control. Also, this research using this simulator evaluated a real-time traffic responsive signal system used in Seoul Korea
Solution Algorithms for Logit Stochastic User Equilibrium Assignment Model
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 95~105
Because the basic assumptions of deterministic user equilibrium assignment that all network users have perfect information of network condition and determine their routes without errors are known to be unrealistic, several stochastic assignment models have been proposed to relax this assumption. However. it is not easy to solve such stochastic assignment models due to the probability distribution they assume. Also. in order to avoid all path enumeration they restrict the number of feasible path set, thereby they can not preciously explain the travel behavior when the travel cost is varied in a network loading step. Another problem of the stochastic assignment models is stemmed from that they use heuristic approach in attaining optimal moving size, due to the difficulty for evaluation of their objective function. This paper presents a logit-based stochastic assignment model and its solution algorithm to cope with the problems above. We also provide a stochastic user equilibrium condition of the model. The model is based on path where all feasible paths are enumerated in advance. This kind of method needs a more computing demand for running the model compared to the link-based one. However, there are same advantages. It could describe the travel behavior more exactly, and too much computing time does not require than we expect, because we calculate the path set only one time in initial step Two numerical examples are also given in order to assess the model and to compare it with other methods.
Improvement of the HCM Delay Estimation Model for Exclusive Permitted Left Turns
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 107~118
Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) provides an analytical delay estimation model to assist the evaluation of traffic at a signalized intersection. The model revised and included in the HCM published in the year 2000 reflects the results of recent studies and is utilized in various fields of transportation studies. For the implementation of the model in the case of permitted left turns, the HCM supplement provides a computational procedure to adjust the saturation flow rate of permitted left toms. The model however, is originally designed for a protected movement and thus underestimates the delay of permitted left turns due to its difference right-of-way nature. This document describes (1) a review of the theoretical background of the HCM delay estimation model, (2) problems embedded in the model for the delay estimation of permitted left turns, (3) a proposed model developed in this study to improve the delay estimation for permitted left turns and (4) a set of verification tests. In order to reflect various traffic and control conditions in the test, simulation studies were performed to by using the field data based on 120 different permitted left-turn scenarios. Comparison studies conducted between sets of delays estimated by the HCM and the proposed models against a set of the CORSIM delays and showed that the proposed model improved the estimation of the permitted left-turn delays. The explanatory variable of the relationship between the HCM delay and the simulation delay was 0.47 and the one between the delay estimated by the proposed model and the simulation delay was 0.77.
Development of the RP and SP Combined using Error Component Method
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 119~130
SP data have been widely used in assessing new transport policies and transport related plans. However, one of criticisms of using SP is that respondents may show different reaction between hypothetical experiments and real life. In order to overcome the problem, combination of SP and RP data has been suggested and the combined methods have been being developed. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a new SP and RP combined method using error component method and to verify the method. The error component method decomposes IID extreme value error into non-IID error component(s) and an IID error component. The method estimates both of component parameters and utility parameters in order to obtain relative variance of SP data and RP data. The artificial SP and RP data was created by using simulation and used for the analysis, and the estimation results of the error component method were compared with those of existing SP and RP combined methods. The results show that regardless of data size, the parameters of the error component method models are similar to those assumed parameters much more than those of the existing SP and RP combined models, indicating usefulness of the error component method. Also the values of time for error component method are more similar to those assumed values than those of the existing combined models. Therefore, we can conclude that the error component method is useful in combining SP and RP data and more efficient than the existing methods.
A Study on the Relationship of NGO and Government in Mass Transportation Policy
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 141~153
Establishment of Important Impact Parameters of Traffic Accident Reconstruction Program "PC-CRASH"
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 155~164