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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
A Study on Driver Behavior and Dilemma Zone during Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 7~16
Objective of this research is to analyze drivers' behaviors at signalized intersection during yellow interval. For this, deceleration rate of stopping, PRT(Perception-Response Time), and the relationship between dilemma zone and deceleration rate of stopping were surveyed at two signalized intersections located at urban area(Songtan and Suwon) and local area(Yongin) As a result, the deceleration rate of stopping at signalized intersections and a range of dilemma zone were estimated. It was found that the deceleration rate of stopping and PRT were 1.6m/sec
and 1.27sec, respectively. These values are bigger than ITE's values which have been used in our country. Accordingly, it is considered that these values should be used as a new design criteria for the traffic signal control.
Analyzing Passenger Arrival Behavior Based on the Spent Time for Airport Access
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 17~27
In general, an airport access system has influenced on airport terminal operation. The congestion and delay in service facilities at an airport are definitely depended on the patterns of passenger arrival behavior and time spent in a terminal. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the passenger arrival behavior at an airport to improve the operations at passenger terminal. Passenger arrival patterns to an airport are mainly depended on factors such as the length of access time. reliability of access time. and provision of transport modes, etc. The focus of this paper is to estimate the relationship between the length of access time and passenger's total time spent to board aeroplane. For this, passenger surveys were conducted at the Gimpo International Airport for a large airport and Sacheon Airport for a small size airport. The mathematical relationship between arrival time at an airport prior to the scheduled time of departure(STD) and access time spent was then estimated. It is considered that the results of this study can be used to reduce congestion and delays, thereby to improve the efficiency of the passenger services at the airports.
Quantitative Evaluation Indicators for the City Bus Route Network
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 29~44
A balanced evaluation system for a bus route network was proposed for a mid-sized suburban city. The evaluation system consists of 7 criteria-accessibility, riding comfort. transfer rate, directness of route, productivity of operation, regional equity, and minimum requirement of bus fleet - and quantitative indicators representing each of the criteria. The proposed system was applied in Siheung, a suburban city in Seoul Metropolitan Area. Four alternative scenarios of bus route network including the existing one were evaluated. The results showed that the suggested criteria and indicators are acceptable for the evaluation of a bus route network. In order to enhance the proposed evaluation procedure, further studies on the normalization of produced values and weights for each of the indicators are needed.
Development of Design Criteria for Crosswalks at Signalized Intersections
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 47~56
There are no specific criteria deciding what type of crosswalk installs although 4 typed crosswalks at signalized intersections classify according to number of stop line, spacing from the border of intersections and existence of traffic islands or not. Accidents involving pedestrians at signalized intersections are classified by type of crosswalks by traffic volume, pedestrian volume at crosswalk, intersection geometry and phase in view of pedestrians' safety at 50 intersections in Gwangju. The Multiple regression models are applied to express the pedestrian accident rate. In addition, process deciding what type of crosswalk installs which includes accident rate involved pedestrian is changed into number of accident is represented to reduce number of accidents. This paper presents what type of crosswalk installs in order to reduce pedestrian involved accidents at new or existing crosswalk.
Development and Application of the Heteroscedastic Logit Model
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 57~66
Because the Logit model easily calculates probabilities for choice alternatives and estimates parameters for explanatory variables, it is widely used as a traffic mode choice model. However, this model includes an assumption which is independently and identically distributed to the error component distribution of the mode choice utility function. This paper is a study on the estimation of the Heteroscedastic Logit Model. which mitigates this assumption. The purpose of this paper is to estimate a Logit model that more accurately reflects the mode choice behavior of passengers by resolving the homoscedasticity of the model choice utility error component. In order to do this, we introduced a scale factor that is directly related to the error component distribution of the model. This scale factor was defined so as to take into account the heteroscedasticity in the difference in travel time between using public transport and driving a car, and was used to estimate the travel time parameter. The results of the Logit Model estimation developed in this study show that Heteroscedastic Logit Models can realistically reflect the mode choice behavior of passengers, even if the difference in travel time between public and private transport remains the same as passenger travel time increases, by identifying the difference in mode choice probability of passengers for public transportation.
Warrants of Permissive Left-Turn Signal Systems Based on a Cross Road Volumes
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 67~77
The purpose of this study is to provide the criteria for implementing unprotected left turn at intersections with variation of traffic volume on a cross road approach. Using Transyt-7F model, the delays calculated from permissive and protected left turn signal system were compared by gradually increasing the left turn volume for a certain opposing through volume up to the volume limits to which permissive left turn is more effective, Average stopped delay of the intersection was used as the measure of effectiveness in this study. The major conclusions are (1) the lighter the traffic gets in a cross road, the more the allowable left turn volume increases. The allowable left turn volume when the ratio of cross traffic to the concerned approach traffic is 0.6 appears about 50% more than the volume when the ratio is 1.0. (2) Comparing to the criteria of the manual of traffic safety facility, the results when the traffic ratio is 0.6 seem to be most similar the criteria of manual and the results when the traffic ratio are 0.8 and 1.0 appears to be lower than the criteria of manual. (3) The possible amount of making a left turn that is inversely proportional to the opposing through traffic, decreases as the number of opposing through lanes increases. The products of volume need to be used as the criteria of permissive left turn with considerable cautions because of its low consistency.
On the Introduction of the Internal Metering Policy in COSMOS
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 79~90
Internal metering policy(IMP) is a control strategy to improve the quality of traffic flow within a network by avoiding queue spillback or intersection blockage. It is a more aggressive control strategy than the current control strategy employed in COSMOS. A preliminary study was made to incorporate the IMP logic within the COSMOS system to improve its' functionality at oversaturated conditions. From the study results, a set of guideline for real implementation was recommended : traffic conditions, detector configurations, and control procedures, etc. A simulation study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed guidelines. It was shown that the occurrence of queue spillback was minimized. and overall network performance was also improved by applying IMP logic as compared to COSMOS control onl.
Cognitive Evaluation of Geometrical Structure on Express Highway with Driving Simulator
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 91~101
This study modeled 4-lane highway in three-dimensional virtual reality in order to overcome difficulties of field experiment. and the research subject was placed in a driving simulator. We survey the driver's cognitive characteristics to the alignment changes in the three-dimensional virtual reality highway. Especially, maximizing the identity of driving movements and virtual scenery on the basis of the data obtained by dynamic analysis module. we minimized simulator sickness for the graphic module of driving simulator. And we carried out cognitive evaluation on the basis of adjective words extracted by dictionary and the opinion of specialist. In this study LISREL model was used to detect the causal relation between geometry and safety in cognitive side, and found that geometric change affects the safety of drivers by static and dynamic road safety model in three-dimensional combined alignments. As the result, for constructing safety road. we consider drivers' cognitive characteristics as human factors in road design, and we think that they are very important factors to improve road safety.
A Study on Model Development of Pedestrian Crossing Capacity at Unsignalized Crosswalks with Pedestrian Refuge Area
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 103~111
This study proposes methodology deterimining a basic pedestrian crossing capacity that plays a critical role in the installation of pedestrian signal at the crosswalks. The methodology is based on the pattern of vehicle arrived at the crosswalks. Erlang distribuion is used as headway distribution that can cover the various levels of flow rate. Models using Erlang distribution are represented by Erlang parameter (K) of 1, 2, or 3 at 2-, 4-, or 6-lane roadway in both directions. In addition, this study considered the only type of road with a pedestrian refuge area in the median that is used to wait for the allowable gap provided by the flow of another direction. As a result, the pedestrian capacity decreases as flow rate increases and Erlang parameter increases for the road with the pedestrian refuge. This study develops the models to determine the pedestrian capacity under a variety of flow rates and the outcomes of this study could be used as the criteria for the determination of the installation of pedestrian signal or for the provision of pedestrian refuge in the median of road.
Analyzing the Efficiency of Korean Rail Transit Properties using Data Envelopment Analysis
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 113~132
Using nonradial data envelopment analysis(DEA) under assumptions of strong disposability and variable returns scale, this paper annually estimates productive. technical and allocative efficiencies of three publicly-owned rail transit properties which are different in terms of organizational type: Seoul Subway Corporation(SSC, local public corporation), the Seoul Metropolitan Electrified Railways sector (SMESRS) of Korea National Railroad(the national railway operator controlled by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation(MOCT)), and Busan Urban Transit Authority (BUTA, the national authority controlled by MOCT). Using the estimation results of Tobit regression analysis. the paper next computes their true productive, true technical and true allocative efficiencies, which reflect only the impacts of internal factors such as production activity by removing the impacts of external factors such as an organizational type and a track utilization rate. And the paper also computes an organizational efficiency and annually gross efficiencies for each property. The paper then conceptualized that the property produces a single output(car-kilometers) using four inputs(labor, electricity, car & maintenance and track) and uses unbalanced panel data consisted of annual observations on SSC, SMESRS and BUTA. The results obtained from DEA show that, on an average, SSC is the most efficient property on the productive and allocative sides, while SMESRS is the most technically-efficient one. On the other hand. BUTA is the most efficient one on the truly-productive and allocative sides, while SMESRS on the truly-technical side. Another important result is that the differences in true efficiency estimates among the three properties are considerably smaller than those in efficiency estimates. Besides. the most cost-efficient organizational type appears to be a local public corporation represented by SSC, which is also the most grossly-efficient property. These results suggest that a measure to sort out the impacts of external factors on the efficiency of rail transit properties is required to assess fairly it, and that a measure to restructure (establish) an existing(a new) rail transit property into a local public corporation(or authority) is required to improve its cost efficiency.
Development of Traffic Accident Prediction Models by Traffic and Road Characteristics in Urban Areas
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 133~144
The current procedure of estimating accident reduction benefit shows fixed accident rates for each level of roads without considering the various characteristics of roadway geometries, and traffics. In this study, in order to solve the problems mentioned in the above, models were developed considering the characteristics of roadway alignments and traffic characteristics. The developed models can be used to estimate the accident rates on new or improved roads, In this study, only urban highways were included as a beginning stage. First of all. factors influencing accident rates were selected. Those factors such as traffic volumes. number of signalized intersections, the number of connecting roads, number of pedestrian traffic signals, existence of median barrier, and the number of road lane are also selected based upon the obtainability at the planning stage of roads. The relationship between the selected factors and accident rates shows strong correlation statistically. In this study, roads were classified into 4 groups based on number of lanes, level of roads and the existence of median barriers. The regression analysis had been performed for each group with actual data associated with traffic, roads. and accidents. The developed regression models were verified with another data set. In this study, in order to develop the proposed models, only data on a limited area were used. In order to represent whole area of the country with the developed models. the models should be re-analyzed with vast data.
Multilevel and Multivariate Structural Equation Models for Activity Participation and Travel Behavior
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 145~154
Multilevel and Multivariate Structural Equation Mpdel is applied to handle the hierarchical nature of the data and explain complex relationship among socioeconomic factors of individuals and household, activity participation, and travel behavior using Puset Sound Transportation Panel data. From analysis, variations of individual activity participation and travel behavior can be divided into two categories : Within-household variation and Between-households variation. Empirical results show that the interdependency index(p) of variables for household members within a household is between 0.13 and 0.33 indicating high interdependency. These results suggest that Multilevel and Multivariate SEM approach is an appropriate modeling methodology and gives additional information for activity participation and travel behavior. Also most of personal and household characteristics influence on activity participation and travel behavior within a household as well as between households.
Building up Road Transport Research Directions of Korea through Trend Analysis
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 21, issue 4, 2003, Pages 165~178