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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Dec 2004
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jan 2004
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Modal Choice with Travel Time Reliability
Nam, Doo-Hee ; Park, Dong-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 7~16
In mode choice decision, travelers consider not only travel time but also reliability of its modes. In this paper, reliability was expressed in terms of standard deviation and maximum delay that were measured based on triangular distribution. In order to estimate value of time and value of reliability, the Multinomial and Nested Logit models were used. The analysis results revealed that reliability is an important factor affecting mode choice decisions. Elasticity is used to estimate the impacts of the different policies and system improvements for water transportation mode. Among these policies, decision maker can assess and select the best alternative by doing the benefit and cost analysis based on a new market share, the value of time, and the value of reliability. Finally, a set of promising policies and system improvement of the water transportation were proposed.
A Study on the Systematic Improvement of Civil Aviation Safety
Kim, Maeng-Sern ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 17~33
Korea's economic development plans instituted in the 1970's, affected by the growth centered policy and rapid industrialization, have prevailed without having aviation safety management system, along with the safety of the other various means of transportation, settled in its place, and subsequently, the aviation accidents occurred until the beginning of year 2000 have incurred an enormous social expense, not to say of a massive loss of human lives. Especially, with regard to the causal factors of accidents, most of recent accidents have been associated with human factor of airmen, thus, only if this can be detected in advance and prevented, the aircraft accident rate will be reduced by a large margin. Therefore, in order to develope improvement methods on the safety system of civil aviation, in this study, safety management system has been divided into three stages: an advance preventive system, a handling system at an accident's occurrence and a post accident handling system, and thereby improvement methods on aviation safety have been suggested for each stage. The threatening factors agatinst aviation safety have been found to be the absence of management standards and regulations, the indifference to or the lack of the law abiding apirit as major factors, and in order to improve on which, it is required that the settlement of the institutional safety management system should precede, and that the Government and the aviation industry should also make a continuous effort to identify the threatening factors against aviation safety, and to provide incentives for the law abiding spirit and the attitude of giving top priority to safety to spread among all the employees.
Analyzing the Productivity of Korean Rail Transit Authorities: A Nonparametric Malmquist Approach
Kim, Min-Jung ; Kim, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 35~47
Using data envelopment analysis, this paper annually estimates Malmquist total factor productivity indices and decomposes them into productive efficiency change, technical change, and scale change components for three publicly-owned rail transit properties: the Seoul Subway Corporation(SSC), the Seoul Metropolitan Electrified Railways Sector of Korea National Railroad (SMESRS) and the Busan Urban Transit Authority (BUTA). The paper then conceptualizes that the property produces a single output(car-kilometers) using four inputs(labor, electricity, car and maintenance, and track) and uses unbalanced panel data consisted of annual observations on SSC, SMESRS and BUTA. The results show that the average annual growth rate of productivity of the three properties is 6.6 percent, which is 0.5 percent less than the average annual increasing rate of their labor price. They also show that the greatest part of the growth in productivity is explained by technical change and to a lesser degree by scale change and changes in productive efficiency though each of the three components contributes more than 20 percent to the growth in productivity, These results suggest that the three properties should base the increasing rate of their wages on the growth rate of their productivity and utilize existing technologies more efficiently prior to introducing new ones to raise their productivity, and that all the three components should be considered to evaluate their productivity more correctly.
Estimating the Impact on Aviation Demand by High Speed Railroad Service in Korea
Park, Yong-Hwa ; Kim, Yeon-Myung ; Oh, Sung-Yeol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 47~54
Recently, a large reduction in domestic aviation demand had roughly shown in the range between 34% and 75% in east central and western corridor of Korea. The reasons for the drop in air traffic demand were the provisioning of several new highway serveces and the national economic difficulties. Since April 2004, moreover, the Korea Train Express(KTX) was operated between Seoul and Daegu in the first phrase of 293Km in KTX operational distance and 258Km in air route distance. The operation of KTX significantly impacted air traffic volume, particularly on the overlapped air routes with KTX routes. This study analyzed the effects on air traffic demand in accordance with the opening of KTX by applying the Stated Preference (SP) survey method, the survey conducted prior to 8 months of the KTX initiative. Also, the comparison of the decreased demand forecast by SP analysis and actual revealed traffic volume during two months service after inauguration of KTX was conducted. The Seoul-Daegu route was analysed using the 3 variables considered access and egress time, fare rate, operational frequency. The result obtained from the analysis showed that air users would be preferred only 14%. Comparatively, however, the actual revealed air passengers after the opening KTX were remained 28%, The less "decreased demand" was caused by the instability of the KTX's operation in the initial stage. Therefore, small numbers of passenger were preferable to airservices rather than high speed railroad service.
Selection of the Optimal Traffic Counting Links using Integer Program Method for Improving the Estimation of Origin Destination Matrix
Lee, Heon-Ju ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Park, Yong-Kil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 57~66
When we estimate an origin-destination matrix from traffic counts. origin-destination matrix estimation from traffic counts according to the selected optimal traffic counting links is method for improving the results of origin-destinaation matrix estimation and for increasing economic efficiency. This paper proposed model of selecting traffic counting links using integer program technique, and selected a traffic counting links using this model, and estimated and origin-destingtion matrix from traffic counts according to the selected optimal traffic counting links. Also, we compared a result of estimating origin-destination matrix from the selected optimal traffic counting links using this model to a result of estimating origin-destination matrix from the randomly selected traffic counting links. The error analysis result was more improved a result of origin-destination matrix estimation using this model than a result of randomly selected links.
A Time Series-based Algorithm for Eliminating Outliers of GPS Probe Data
Choi, Kee-Choo ; Jang, Jeong-A ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 67~77
A treatment of outlier has been discussed. Outliers disrupt the reliability of information systems and they should be eliminated prior to the information and/or data fusion. A time series-based elimination algorithm were proposed and prediction interval, as a criterion of acceptable value width, was obtained with the model. Ten actual link values were used and the best model was identified as IMA(1,1). Although the actual verification was difficult in a sense that the matching process between the eliminated data and model data was not readily available, the proposed model can be successfully used in practice with some calibration efforts.
Development of Incident Detection Model Using Compression Wave Test Module
Lee, Hwan-Pil ; Kim, Nam-Sun ; Oh, Young-Tae ; Kim, Soo-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 77~88
This study aims at developing the model that is able to detect the compression wave, which is included as a similar situation in incidents, that causes false applicable to the similar character such as incidents in the incident detection model for expressways. In this study, it has been checked whether the number of false alarms is decreased or not by modularizing this model for being able to applicable to other models such as DES and DELOS, etc. which do not perform the compression wave test based on the compression wave test process of APID model which has been being used in the expressway traffic management system currently. The evaluation in this study focuses on the sensitivity of the model and the results analysis is performed classified by each polling cycle. And how well these models are working is evaluated by each polling cycle. In addition to this, the detection rate, the false alarm rate and the average detection time in both the existing models and the model in this study are calcuated. As a result of appling the model in this study, it is found that the false alarm rate is improved through the reasonable decrease in the number of false alarm frequencies and there are not remarkable changes concerning the detection rate and the average detection time. To sum up, it is expected that a good number of improvement effects will be occurred when this model is applied to the actual expressway traffic management system.
Evaluating Value of Information on Bus-Route Concerning on the User's Individual Value
Park, Yong-Jin ; Kang, Sin-Hwa ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 89~99
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of information on Bus-Route concerning on the User's Individual value. The value of information is estimated with the price of time saving by using the information. The price of unit time for each user is applied to convert the saving time to the cost. To estimate the user's expense from origin to destination the previous model is modified. Bus-travel cost is estimated with variables such as bus-travel time, bus-interval, bus-fare, and the price of walking distance. In this study, to estimate in-vehicle time the bus-travel time model is developed based on the spatial characteristics distinguished by three types of circular-road in the network of Daegu Metropolitan area. For the case study, a set of the origin and destination is selected as Dalsu-gu District Office and East Daegu Train Station respectively. There are several bus-routes which can be used as direct or transferable bus-routes selected. The study showed that when the value of time for individual users is \1,738/hr, there is no benefit to using information of transferable bus-routes. It also showed that the more discount rates of bus fare is increased, the benefit to using information of transferable bus-routes is increased, and that the lower value of time is, the benefit to using information of transferable bus-routes is increased.
Finding a Minimum Fare Route in the Distance-Based System
Lee, Mee-Young ; Baik, Nam-Cheol ; Nam, Doo-Hee ; Shin, Seon-Gil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 101~108
The new transit fare in the Seoul Metropolitan is basically determined based on the distance-based fare system (DBFS). The total fare in DBFS consists of three parts- (1) basic fare, (2) transfer fare, and (3) extra fare. The fixed amount of basic fare for each mode is charged when a passenger gets on a mode, and it proceeds until traveling within basic travel distance. The transfer fare may be added when a passenger switches from the present mode to another. The extra fare is imposed if the total travel distance exceeds the basic travel distance, and after that, the longer distance the more extra fare based on the extra-fare-charging rule. This study proposes an algorithm for finding minimum fare route in DBFS. This study first exploits the link-label-based searching method to enable shortest path algorithms to implement without network expansion at junction nodes in inter-modal transit networks. Moreover, the link-expansion technique is adopted in order for each mode's travel to be treated like duplicated links, which have the same start and end nodes, but different link features. In this study, therefore, some notations associated with modes can be saved, thus the existing link-based shortest path algorithm is applicable without any loss of generality. For fare calculation as next steps, a mathematical formula is proposed to embrace fare-charging process using search process of two adjacent links illustrated from the origin. A shortest path algorithm for finding a minimum fare route is derived by converting the formula as a recursive form. The implementation process of the algorithm is evaluated through a simple network test.
Investigating Optimal Aggregation Interval Size of Loop Detector Data for Travel Time Estimation and Predicition
Yoo, So-Young ; Rho, Jeong-Hyun ; Park, Dong-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 109~120
Since the late of 1990, there have been number of studies on the required number of probe vehicles and/or optimal aggregation interval sizes for travel time estimation and forecasting. However, in general one to five minutes are used as aggregation intervals for the travel time estimation intervals for the travel time estimation and/or forecasting of loop detector system without a reasonable validation. The objective of this study is to deveop models for identifying optimal aggregation interval sizes of loop detector data for travel time estimation and prediction. This study developed Cross Valiated Mean Square Error (CVMSE) model for the link and route travel time forecasting, The developed models were applied to the loop detector data of Kyeongbu expressway. It was found that the optimal aggregation sizes for the travel time estimation and forecasting are three to five minutes and ten to twenty minutes, respectively.
Finding the First K Shortest Loopless Paths in a Transportation Network
Shin, Seong-Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 121~131
The K-shortest path algorithms are largely classified into two groups: oneis for finding loopless path (simple path), another loop paths. In terms of cimputational complexities, in general the loop-paths-finding ones are considered more efficient and easier to be handled than the loopless-paths-finding. The entire path deletion methods have been known as the best efficient algorithms among the proposed K-shortest path algorithms. These algorithms exploit the K-th network transformation to prevent the same path, which was already selected as the (K-1)th path, from being redetected. Nevertheless, these algorithms have a critical limitationto be applied in the practical traffic networks because the loops, in which the same modes and links can be unlimitedly repeated, are not preventable. This research develops a way to be able to selectively control loop-paths by applying link-label. This research takes an advantage of the link-based shortest path algorithms that since the algorithms can take care of two links simultaneouslyin the searching process, the generation of loops can be controlled in the concatenation process of the searched link and the preceded link. In concatenation of two links, since the precede link can be treated a sub-shortest to this link from the origination, whether both the node and the link of the searched link were already existed or not can be evaluated. Terefore, both the node-loopless path, in which the same node is not appeared, and the link-loopless, in which the same link is not appeared, can be separately controlled. Especially, the concept of the link-loopless path is expended to take into consideration reasonable route choice behaviors such as U-Turn, P-Turn, and Turn-Penalty, which are frequently witnessed in urban traffic network with intersections. The applicability of the proposed method is verified through case studies.
Development of the Risk Evaluation Model for Rear End Collision on the Basis of Microscopic Driving Behaviors
Chung, Sung-Bong ; Song, Ki-Han ; Park, Chang-Ho ; Chon, Kyung-Soo ; Kho, Seung-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 133~144
A model and a measure which can evaluate the risk of rear end collision are developed. Most traffic accidents involve multiple causes such as the human factor, the vehicle factor, and the highway element at any given time. Thus, these factors should be considered in analyzing the risk of an accident and in developing safety models. Although most risky situations and accidents on the roads result from the poor response of a driver to various stimuli, many researchers have modeled the risk or accident by analyzing only the stimuli without considering the response of a driver. Hence, the reliabilities of those models turned out to be low. Thus in developing the model behaviors of a driver, such as reaction time and deceleration rate, are considered. In the past, most studies tried to analyze the relationships between a risk and an accident directly but they, due to the difficulty of finding out the directional relationships between these factors, developed a model by considering these factors, developed a model by considering indirect factors such as volume, speed, etc. However, if the relationships between risk and accidents are looked into in detail, it can be seen that they are linked by the behaviors of a driver, and depending on drivers the risk as it is on the road-vehicle system may be ignored or call drivers' attention. Therefore, an accident depends on how a driver handles risk, so that the more related risk to and accident occurrence is not the risk itself but the risk responded by a driver. Thus, in this study, the behaviors of a driver are considered in the model and to reflect these behaviors three concepts related to accidents are introduced. And safe stopping distance and accident occurrence probability were used for better understanding and for more reliable modeling of the risk. The index which can represent the risk is also developed based on measures used in evaluating noise level, and for the risk comparison between various situations, the equivalent risk level, considering the intensity and duration time, is developed by means of the weighted average. Validation is performed with field surveys on the expressway of Seoul, and the test vehicle was made to collect the traffic flow data, such as deceleration rate, speed and spacing. Based on this data, the risk by section, lane and traffic flow conditions are evaluated and compared with the accident data and traffic conditions. The evaluated risk level corresponds closely to the patterns of actual traffic conditions and counts of accident. The model and the method developed in this study can be applied to various fields, such as safety test of traffic flow, establishment of operation & management strategy for reliable traffic flow, and the safety test for the control algorithm in the advanced safety vehicles and many others.
Development of Cut-in Lane Changing Model Based on Observed Driver's Behavior in Uninterrupted Traffic Flow
Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Chang, Myung-Soon ; Kim, Jin-Tae ; Kim, Eung-Cheol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 145~157
Microscopic freeway simulation models project the uncertain values of performance measures for subject traffic conditions by explaining drivers' driving behavior with lane changing and car-following models. However, the existing lane changing models are limited to gap acceptance oriented passive behavior of drivers and not able to capture more-or-less aggressive driving behavior(e.g. cut-in lane changing) ordinarily obseved in field. This paper suggests the definition of cut-inlane changing and presents its characteristics based on the findings from two different freeway on- and off-ramp sections. In addition, this paper proposes a new lane changing model capable of handling both passive and active drivers' driving behavior for better performance of simulations. The proposed lane changing model was tested with Hanyang Simulatin (HYTSIM), a microscopic freeway simulation program developed for this study. The HYTSIM simulation results reflecting the performance of the proposed lane changing model were compared against the field data. The test results showed that the distribution of gaps collected when vehicles change lanes were statistically identical to the field data at 95% confidence level.
Economies of Scale and Scope in the Korean Railway Industry: A Generalized Translog Cost Function Approach
Park, Jin-Kyung ; Kim, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 159~173
Using a generalized translog multiproduct cost function model, this paper examines economies of scale and scope in the vertically-integrated Korean railway industry. The paper then conceptualizes that the Korea National Railroad (KNR) produces four outputs (passenger-kilometers, ton-kilometers of freight, average length of passenger trips, and average length of freight haul) using three input factors(labor, fuel and maintenance, and rolling stock and capital). Using time series data collected from the KNR's annual records for the years from 1977 to 2002, the simultaneous equation system consisting of a cost function and two input share equatins is estimated with the Zellner's iterative seemingly unrelated regression. The findings show that the cost function corresponding to a non-Cobb-Douglas, non-homothetic, and non-homogeneous production technology adequately represents the KNR's cost structure. On the other hand, the Korean railway industry experiences sizeable overall scale economies, which result from substantial product-specific scale economies associated with passenger-kilometers and freight ton-kilometers and from scope economies associated with their joint production. In addition, the magnitude of economies of scope is influenced largely by the ratio of passenger trips, and has increased over time as the former has increased while the latter has decreased.
Development of a Freeway Incident Detection Model Based on Traffic Congestion Classification Scheme
Kim, Young-Jun ; Chang, Myung-Soon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 175~196
This study focuses on improving the performance of freeway incident detection by introducing some new measures to reduce false alarms in developing a new incident detection model. The model consists of the 5 major components through which a series of decision makings in determining the given traffic flow condition are made. The decision making process was designed such that the causes of traffic congestions can be accurately classified into several types including incidents and bottlenecks according to their unique characteristics. The model performance was tested and found to be compatible with that of the existing well-recognized models in terms of the detection rate and detection time. It should noted that the model produced much less false alarms than most of the existing models. The study results prove that the initial objective of the study was satisfied as it was an experimental trial to improve the false alarm rate for the incident detection model to be more pactically usable for traffic management purposes.
Development of Scaled Explosion Logit Model Considering Reliability of Ranking Data
Kim, Kang-Soo ; Cho, Hye-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 197~206
In ranking data, respondents are required to rank a number of alternatives in order of their preferences and an exploded logit model is generally used. It assumes that each rank contains the same amount of random noise. This study investigates the reliability of ranking data and identifies whether there are different decision rules at each rank stage. The results show that there were differences in the amount of unexplained variation in different ranking stage. A single scaling parameter could not explain the difference of variations of individual coefficients between two ranking data average difference of variations. This paper also investigated the optimal explosion depth in the exploded logit model by using the suggested scaling approach. The scaling approach should be based on particular variables which have different variances rather than based on the whole data set. The empirical analysis show that an explosion depth of 2 is appropriate after scaling the second rank data set, while an explosion including the third rank is inappropriate even though the third rank data set is scaled.
A Study on the Status Quo of Short-term Operation and Issues of KTX
An, Byeong-Uk ; O, Se-Chang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 6, 2004, Pages 219~226