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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Dec 2004
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jan 2004
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Development of Homogeneous Road Section Determination and Outlier Filter Algorithm
Do, Myung-Sik ; Kim, Sung-Hyun ; Bae, Hyun-Sook ; Kim, Jong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 7~16
The homogeneous road section is defined as one consisted of similar traffic characteristics focused on demand and supply. The criteria, in the aspect of demand, are the diverging rate and the ratio of green time to cycle time at signalized intersection, and distance between the signalized intersections. The criteria, in that or supply, are the traffic patterns such as traffic volume and its speed. In this study, the effective method to generate valuable data, pointing out the problems of removal method of obscure data, is proposed using data collected from Gonjiam IC to Jangji IC on the national highway No.3. Travel times are collected with licence matching method and traffic volume and speed are collected from detectors. Futhermore, the method of selecting homogeneous road section is proposed considering demand and supply aspect simultaneously. This method using outlier filtering algorithm can be applied to generate the travel time forecasting model and to revise the obscured of missing data transmitting from detectors. The point and link data collected at the same time on the rational highway can be used as a basis predicting the travel time and revising the obscured data in the future.
Calculating Social Benefit in Travel Time Considering Seasonal and Daily Variation in Traffic Pattern
Han, Khun-Soo ; Baek, Seung-Kirl ; Kim, Ik-Ki ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 17~23
Origin-Destination(O/D) trip table is the fundamental input data for transportation network analysis. The results of the network analysis are used to assess various transportation policies through feasibility studies for new construction or expansion of highway. As the result, accuracy of O/D data affects on the reliability of results in transportation network analysis and feasibility study. In Korea, most transportation analysis has used one pattern of O/D, which represent a typical day of a year, so called the annual average daily traffic (AADT) O/D pattern. However, previous studies showed that there are significant variations of traffic pattern in days and seasons. Therefore, if the daily and seasonal variation of traffic pattern is reflected in the feasibility study, the result might be much different from one without considering the variation. This error might lead wrong decision making in transportation policies. Moreover, the proportion of recreational trips in total trips would be increased by increasing income and leisure time. Especially, because the Korean government has a plan to implement the five-day-working in a week due to the pressure of the labor union, the recreational trip is expected to increase much more during weekend. The increase of recreational trip would affect on the weekend and seasonal traffic pattern a lot. This change will demand needs of reflecting the traffic variation in days and seasons on transportation analysis and feasibility study. This study tried to show the difference of traffic pattern in days and seasons by analyzing the data collected from TCS (Toll Collecting Systems) of Korea Highway Corporation, which only shows the traffic pattern from toll-gate to toll-gate using the Korean freeway systems. By using the real observed TCS data, the study calculated the AADT O/D pattern from toll-gate to toll-gate. The study also calculated the average traffic patterns of weekday and weekend for each four season. Then, the day and season factor was calculated with the observed data to find out the O/D pattern for a specific day and season from the AADT O/D pattern. The TCS data includes only traffics using the freeway system, which does not include traffics using other highway systems in Korea. The TCS data is only representing the traffic pattern from toll-gate to toll-gate, which does not coincide with the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) systems normally used in national-wide network analysis in Korea. The study needed to get the day and seasonal O/D pattern which includes traffics of all kinds of highway from zone centroid to ether zone centroid in the Korea national-wide network systems. Therefore, the day and season factor from the TCS data was used to convert the AADT O/D pattern of national-wide TAZ to a specific day and season's O/D pattern of TAZ. After Setting the day and seasonal O/D data coinciding with the Korea TAZ system, the study performed the traffic assignment for a specific day and season. The results were compared between weekday and weekend, and between different seasons. The link volumes from the traffic assignment analysis were compared with the actual observed traffic volume at a specific day and season. The study also tried to show that there can be enormous differences in time-saving calculation during the feasibility study Process between the uniform AADT O/D data and the daily-and-seasonal O/D data in a year.
A Study on the Evaluation of Design of Road Horizontal Alignments Based on the Operating Speed
Kim, Yong-Seok ; Cho, Won-Bum ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 25~32
It is implicated in the current road design manual that design speed is well representing the operating speed of drivers. On the contrary, the disparity between the design speed and operating speed means that current road design cannot guarantee the safety and comfort of driving. In this context, operating speed was observed at the two lane rural roadways to find out the relation of operating speed and design speed. In addition to this, the friction factor from supply and demand which was derived from the operating speed was compared in terms of the dynamics in driving safety factor. It was concluded that the actual speed was consistently exceeding the design speed at the horizontal curves having the radius less than or equal to 200 m. Similarly, the demanded side friction was also consistently exceeding the supplied side friction at the horizontal curves having the radius less than or equal to 200 m and the amount of difference was also inversely proportional to the radius of the horizontal curves.
A Study on Characteristics of On-Street Parking on Local Streets
Kim, Ki-Hyuk ; Lee, Sang-Inn ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 33~40
This study aims to provide guidelines for the selection of on-street parking spot on local streets considering conditions of surrounding area and characteristics of traffic generation. This guideline provides the method which determine required roadway width for planning and design of local streets. It is necessary to identify factors for the location selection analysis. This research team selects 12 case study areas to investigate traffic environment on the sites for this analysis. Most of factors which influence on-street parking are found to have a qualitative data format except traffic volume and pedestrian movement data. Quantification theory II which is known to be suitable for qualitative analysis has been applied to identify the meaningful variables for dependent variable. In addition, discriminant analysis has performed to verify the correlation for each variable with hit ratio. Road width, traffic volume, street traders and their heavy packages, and illegally parked vehicle are found to be most significant factors for selection of on-street parking location. Therefore, it is necessary to consider traffic volume generated from massive residential complex and traffic volume for outside and above-mentioned factors for installation of on-street parking facility in the case of new road construction or road width widen.
Development and Application of Subway's Operating Cost Functions with Full Allocation Method (For Seoul, Incheon, Busan and Daegu)
Song, Sun-Ah ; Suh, Sun-Duck ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 41~48
We may consider the inducement of demand to public transportation as a solution to relieve traffic congestion and pollution. Subway has merits as moving on schedule, transporting more people than bus. But subway is required a vast investment in the early stage of construction has a huge debt. So it runs into red figures, and on this account, services of subway are falling more and more. Development of subway's operation cost function is useful to understand structure of subway's operation and catch the relations of operation cost and actual results. In addition, we can present the policy that is a helpful to the operation as development of operation cost function. But there are short of studies about operation cost deal with a subway comparison with local train. Because local train has many lines and data, on the other hand, subway has one to four lines and less data. Most of previous studies sought the operation cost function of Seoul. So this study aimed to develop and apply the operation cost function of Seoul, Incheon, Busan and Daegu area using full allocation method. In this study, we considered the number of passengers, track-km, train-km, revenue as actual results. By appling the operation cost function, we compared the average cost of each city and confirmed the existence of economies of scale about the number of passengers, train-km.
The Analysis of Competitiveness in Container Ports of Shanghai and North China & Korea Using Inverse Relation of Fuzzy Evaluation and Scenario Analysis
Ryu, Hyung-Geun ; Lee, Hong-Girl ; Yeo, Ki-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 49~59
In order to be a hub-port in Northeast Asia, current China government has intensively invested in port development. Further, this development Project is significantly big scale, compared with those projects which Korea and Japan have. Thus, China is beginning to threaten Korean ports, especially Busan port which try to be a hub port in Northeast Asia. For this reason, recently many studies to evaluate competitiveness between Korean ports, especially Busan and Gwangyang, and Chinese ports have been conducted. In the mean time, implications of those pervious research has mainly been based on evaluation of port competitiveness using evaluation methodologies, such as AHP(Analytical Hierarchy Process) and HFP(Hierarchical Fuzzy Process). However, as previous evaluation algorithms are methodologies that only calculate ranking of ports by competitiveness level, from the results of analysis, critical weak points affected current port competitiveness could not clearly fine out. That is, because there has not been any algorithm that can extract critical points from the evaluation results. The aim of this paper is to present critical points that affect port competitiveness using an algorithm based on IRFE(Inverse Relation of Fuzzy Evaluation), and scenario analysis, from previous results of evaluation of port competitiveness. And The research scope is to covey the subjective ports of Korea and China's 7 major ports (Busan, Gwangyang, Sanghai, Qingdao, Tienjin, Dalian and Kaoshuing). From analysis, it was found that critical weak point of Busan port is the level of hinterland including availability of free trade zone.
Development of Emission Monitoring System Using ITS
Park, Jun-Hwan ; Lee, Jun ; Lee, Young-Ihn ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 61~67
It is needed for one to design the better models estimating emission and then with the real time data, make the monitoring system simulating emission rate because of having built the basement of accepting real-time traffic information in ITS projects. The objective of the study is to develop the monitoring system visualizing air pollution to a certain place. It is based on the estimated emission from the patterns of individual vehicles and the changes of traffic flow. For constructing simulator, we loaded referring algorithm in actuality program and simulates the traffic flow movement in a microscopic viewpoint. The simulator is able to express not only the movement of each car but also to visualize processing the emission and diffusion of the air pollutant by computer program. Not only expresses the simulation process the angle of vision but it also cutting down environment expenses and improving the traffic impact assessment and the traffic impact assessment.
Variable Message Sign Operating Strategies Based on Bayesian Games
Kwon, Hyug ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Shin, Sung-Whee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 71~78
This paper presents a game-theoretic model of information transmission for variable message sign(VMS) operations. There are one VMS operator and many drivers as players. Operator wants to minimize the total travel time while the drivers want to minimize their own travel time. The operator who knows the actual traffic situation offers information strategically. The drivers evaluate the information from operator, and then choose the route. We model this situation as a cheap-talk game which is a simplest form of Bayesian game. We show that there is a possibility that the operator can improve the traffic efficiency by manipulating the electric signs at times. Indeed, it is an equilibrium of the game. This suggests that the operator must consider the strategic use of VMS system seriously.
Design and Implementation of Trip Generation Model Using the Bayesian Networks
Kim, Hyun-Gi ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Kim, Kang-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 79~90
In this study, we applied the Bayesian Networks for the case of the trip generation models using the Seoul metropolitan area's house trip survey Data. The household income was used for the independent variable for the explanation of household size and the number of cars in a household, and the relationships between the trip generation and the households' social characteristics were identified by the Bayesian Networks. Furthermore, trip generation's characteristics such as the household income, household size and the number of cars in a household were also used for explanatory variables and the trip generation model was developed. It was found that the Bayesian Networks were useful tool to overcome the problems which were in the traditional trip generation models. In particular the various transport policies could be evaluated in the very short time by the established relationships. It is expected that the Bayesian Networks will be utilized as the important tools for the analysis of trip patterns.
Development of Multiclass Assignment For Dynamic Route Guidance Strategy
Lee, Jun ; Lim, Kang-Won ; Lee, Young-Ihn ; Lim, Yong-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 91~98
This study focuses on the development of dynamic assignment for evaluation and application for dynamic route guidance strategy. Travelers are classified according to information contents which they received pre/on trip. The first group have no traffic information, so they travel with fixed route. The second group have real-time shortest path and travel according to it. The last group have car navigation system or individual method(cellular phone, PDA-two way communication available) for traffic information on trip. And then they are assigned in accordance with the proposed multiclass dynamic assignment model. At this time the last group is gotten under control with DFS(decentralized feedback strategy). In use of this Process we expect that various traffic information strategy can be tested and also be the key factor for success of ITS, location of VMS(variable message sign), cycle of information, area of traffic information, etc).
Comparison between Cournot-Nash and Stackelberg Game in Bi-level Program
Lim, Yong-Taek ; Lim, Kang-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 99~106
This paper presents some comparisons between Cournot-Nash and Stackelberg game in bi-level program, composed of both upper level program and lower level one. The upper level can be formulated to optimize a specific objective function, while the lower formulated to express travelers' behavior patterns corresponding to the design parameter of upper level problem. This kind of hi-level program is to determine a design parameter, which leads the road network to an optimal state. Bi-level program includes traffic signal control, traffic information provision, congestion charge and new transportation mode introduction as well as road expansion. From the view point of game theory, many existing algorithms for bi-level program such as IOA (Iterative Optimization Assignment) or IEA (Iterative Estimation Assignment) belong to Cournot-Nash game. But sensitivity-based algorithms belongs to Stackelberg one because they consider the reaction of the lower level program. These two game models would be compared by using an example network and show some results that there is no superiority between the models in deterministic case, but in stochastic case Stackelberg approach is better than that of Cournot-Nash one as we expect.
Study on Vehicle Routing Problem with Minimum Delivery Completion Time
Lee, Sang-Heon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 107~117
The growing demand for customer-response, made-to-order manufacturing and satisfactory delivery are stimulating the importance of commercial fleet management problem. Moreover, the rapid transformation to the customer-oriented multi-frequency, relatively small fleet, such as home delivery and Perishable goods, requiring prompt delivery and advanced real-time operation of vehicle fleets. In this paper we consider the vehicle routing problem(VRP) to minimize delivery completion time which is equal to the time that last customer wait for the vehicle in fleet operation. The mathematical formulation is different from those for the classical VRP which is minimizing cost/distance/time by running vehicles in manager's point of view. The key aspect of this model is not considering the return time from the last customer to depot in every vehicle path. Thereby, the vehicle dispatcher can afford to dynamically respond to customer demand and vehicle availability. The customer's position concerned with minimizing waiting time that may be applied for the delivery of product required freshness or delivery time. Extensive experiments are carried out to compare the performance of minimizing delivery completion time by using the ILOG Solver which has the advantage of solving quickly an interim solution very near an optimal solution. The experimental results show that the suggested model can easily find near optimal solution in a reasonable computational time under the various combination of customers and vehicles.
Evaluation of Incident Detection Algorithms focused on APID, DES, DELOS and McMaster
Nam, Doo-Hee ; Baek, Seung-Kirl ; Kim, Sang-Gu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 119~129
This paper is designed to report the results of development and validation procedures in relation to the Freeway Incident Management System (FIMS) prototype development as part of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research and Development program. The central core of the FIMS is an integration of the component parts and the modular, but the integrated system for freeway management. The whole approach has been component-orientated, with a secondary emphasis being placed on the traffic characteristics at the sites. The first action taken during the development process was the selection of the required data for each components within the existing infrastructure of Korean freeway system. After through review and analysis of vehicle detection data, the pilot site led to the utilization of different technologies in relation to the specific needs and character of the implementation. This meant that the existing system was tested in a different configuration at different sections of freeway, thereby increasing the validity and scope of the overall findings. The incident detection module has been performed according to predefined system validation specifications. The system validation specifications have identified two component data collection and analysis patterns which were outlined in the validation specifications; the on-line and off-line testing procedural frameworks. The off-line testing was achieved using asynchronous analysis, commonly in conjunction with simulation of device input data to take full advantage of the opportunity to test and calibrate the incident detection algorithms focused on APID, DES, DELOS and McMaster. The simulation was done with the use of synchronous analysis, thereby providing a means for testing the incident detection module.
A Signal Optimization Model Integrating Traffic Movements and Pedestrian Crossings
Shin, Eon-Kyo ; Kim, Ju-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 131~137
Conventional traffic signal optimization models assume that green intervals for pedestrian crossings are given as exogenous inputs such as minimum green intervals for straight-ahead movements. As the result, in reality, the green intervals of traffic movements may not distribute adequately by the volume/saturation-flow of them. In this paper, we proposed signal optimization models formulated in BMILP to integrate pedestrian crossings into traffic movements under under-saturated traffic flow. The model simultaneously optimizes traffic and pedestrian movements to minimize weighted queues of primary queues during red interval and secondary queues during queue clearance time. A set of linear objective function and constraints set up to ensure the conditions with respect to pedestrian and traffic maneuvers. Numerical examples are given by pedestrian green intervals and the number of pedestrian crossings located at an arm. Optimization results illustrated that pedestrian green intervals using proposed models are greater than those using TRANSYT-7F, but opposite in the ratios of pedestrian green intervals to the cycle lengths. The simulation results show that proposed models are superior to TRANSYT-7F in reducing delay, where the longer the pedestrian green interval the greater the effect.
An Observational Study on the Driver Behaviours at Long Tangent Sections Followed by Sharp Horizontal Curve
Kim, Yong-Seok ; Cho, Won-Bum ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 139~146
Road design should be conformed to the expectancy of drivers. The alignment such as long tangent followed by the sharp horizontal curve should be avoided for the road design consistency. Currently, operating speed profile model is generally used to check the consistency of the successive road alignments. In this model, the hypothesis about the drivers' behaviour on the long tangent followed by the sharp horizontal curve is also included. This study compares the hypothesized drivers' behaviour in the existing operating speed profile model with the actual drivers' behaviour observed at the two lane rural roads. In addition to this, comparison between the acceleration for the vehicles approaching and departing horizontal curves suggested by the foreign research and the value observed at this study was made, From this study, it was concluded that the hypothesis in the existing model was well representing the actual drivers' behaviour. The deceleration for vehicles approaching the horizontal curves was ranged
with the average of
. The average acceleration for the vehicles departing horizontal curves was
The Method of the Phase Split Adjustment Considering the Minimum Green time in COSMOS
Kang, Da-Mi ; Oh, Young-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 147~154
The purpose of this paper is to improve the existing phase split algorithm considering the minimum green time in COSMOS. In the case of a signalized intersection where two wide and narrow streets intersect each other, the time required for the pedestrian crossing is frequently longer than the time alloted to the through traffic on a minor street. In order to meet the minimum green time requirement for the pedestrian less time in alloted automatically to the left-turn traffic, creating heavy congestion on the left-turn approach. To solve this problem, this study suggests a new algorithm which shares the barrier using minimum green time and shares the burden with signal phases alloted to the crossing street traffic on the basis of the equal ratio of the degree of saturation, while maintaining the minimum green time requirement. The new algorithm was compared with the existing algorithm by using a microscopic simulation model for COSMOS evaluation developed at Ajou University. The simulation results show that the new algorithm produces better performance than the existing one.
Traffic Forecasting Model Selection of Artificial Neural Network Using Akaike's Information Criterion
Kang, Weon-Eui ; Baik, Nam-Cheol ; Yoon, Hye-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 155~159
Recently, there are many trials about Artificial neural networks : ANNs structure and studying method of researches for forecasting traffic volume. ANNs have a powerful capabilities of recognizing pattern with a flexible non-linear model. However, ANNs have some overfitting problems in dealing with a lot of parameters because of its non-linear problems. This research deals with the application of a variety of model selection criterion for cancellation of the overfitting problems. Especially, this aims at analyzing which the selecting model cancels the overfitting problems and guarantees the transferability from time measure. Results in this study are as follow. First, the model which is selecting in sample does not guarantees the best capabilities of out-of-sample. So to speak, the best model in sample is no relationship with the capabilities of out-of-sample like many existing researches. Second, in stability of model selecting criterion, AIC3, AICC, BIC are available but AIC4 has a large variation comparing with the best model. In time-series analysis and forecasting, we need more quantitable data analysis and another time-series analysis because uncertainty of a model can have an effect on correlation between in-sample and out-of-sample.
An Algorithm for Real-Traffic Signal Control at An Isolated-Intersection
Shin, Eon-Kyo ; Kim, Young-Chan ; Lee, Jong-Man ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 161~167
While most or fixed-time control systems such as UTCS produce the signal timing plans that either maximizing bandwidth or minimizing a disutility index of delay and stops, cannot consider the fluctuation of traffic flow. One category of the traffic-response control systems, which make small changes on a predefined signal plan such as SCOOT, cannot be easily modified for feedback real-time control schemes based on observation of variables other than traffic flow. The other category, which decide to whether switch the traffic lights or not at each step of time as in PRODYN, does not adequately consider the relations between traffic flows and traffic lights at each step of time. In this paper we present a complete formulation that adequately consider the relations between traffic flows and traffic lights at each step of time. The formulation is a binary mixed integer linear programing (BMILP) that obtain traffic lights at each step for minimizing delay. Since numarical examples for application of the proposed model illustrated that the model adequately produced dynamic traffic signal plans minimizing delay at each step, the model may be expected to contribute to advanced transportation management systems (ATMS) for dynamic traffic signal control.
Dynamic Travel Time Prediction Using AVI Data
Jang, Jin-Hwan ; Baik, Nam-Cheol ; Kim, Sung-Hyun ; Byun, Sang-Cheol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 22, issue 7, 2004, Pages 169~175
This paper develops a dynamic travel time prediction model for ATIS in a national highway. While there have been many research on travel time prediction, none of them is for national highway in Korea. The study uses AVI data installed on the national highway No.1 with 10km interval for travel time prediction model, and probe vehicle data for evaluating the model. The study area has many access points, so there are many outlying observations in the raw AVI data. Therefore, this study uses the algorithm proposed by the author for removing the outliers, and then Kalman filtering algorithm is applied for the travel time prediction. The prediction model is performed for 5, 10, 15 and 30 minute-aggregating interval and the results are
for 5, 10 and 15 interval and 0.078 for 30 minute one with a little low performance as MAREs.