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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Dec 2005
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Dec 2005
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Oct 2005
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Sep 2005
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Aug 2005
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jan 2005
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
An Estimation for Highway Trip Demand Functions Based upon Time Series Analysis
Lee, Jai-Min ; Park, Soo-Shin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 7~15
The objective of this study is to estimate highway trip demand functions in Korea. In order to estimate them, I propose various socio-economic variables that affect the highway trip demand functions. I use the unit root test for each variable and the cointegration test to and the relationships among variables. Finally, I use the vector error correction model, to get the highway trip demand functions. The implication which I derive from the estimation is that real GDP and highway tolls have positive and negative effects, respectively. on the highway trip demand.
A Study On Context Sensitive Highway Design Based On Improved Operating Speed Prediction Methods in National Roads
Kim, Sang-Youp ; Choi, Jai-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 17~33
Highway design speed is a very important design element which determines highway design level. When determining highway design speed, one would estimate it utilizing the most likelihood of design speed and vehicle operating speed relationship. Existing operating speed prediction models only include highway geometric characteristics and their impacts on speed, which usually can not consider the impact of highway design speed on surrounding roadway environment and land use pattern. If this happens, excessive highway construction cost and huge environmental impact can occur. In this research project, a new vehicle operating speed prediction model was developed which can reflect the effect of surrounding roadway environment into vehicle speed prediction. The followings are the research findings : Firstly, highway terrain types and land use pattern on national roads were classified and integrated into drivers' visual recognition pattern. This was performed using a data management software. Secondly, the developed highway terrain types and land use pattern were related to vehicle speeds and it was found that there were significant statistical differences among vehicle speed for each different terrain and land use pattern. Thirdly. the General Linear Model analysis was employed to analyze the effects of highway geometric features, terrain types, and land use patterns. For two-lane highway and four-lane highway tested in this research project, it was found that R squares were 0.67 and 0.85, respectively. Additionally an optimal highway design speed range table, based on this research project. was proposed for practical use. This table can be reliably used on South Korean national road design, but discretion is required for applying this table to other types of highways including provincial roads and municipal roads.
A Study on the Relationship Between Road Design, Operating and Posted Speeds
Kim, Yong-Seok ; Cho, Won-Bum ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 35~42
Few studies have been carried out to find out the interaction of design speeds, operating speeds, and posted speeds though they have a complementary relationships. As an attempt to find the relationships, this study measured the speeds of the free flowing vehicles at four lane rural highways. In comparison of 95th percentile speeds and inferred design speeds determined from the road design manual with the geometric features of each sites, operating speeds were constantly higher than the inferred design speeds at the sites where the inferred design speed is under 110km/h. and the reverse situation was observed at the sites where the inferred design speed is over 130km/h. In the comparison of operating speeds and posted speeds. the range of the 85th percentile speeds at the sites where posted speeds is 80km/h was distributed from 95km/h to 110km/h. and the range was distributed from the 105km/h to the 120km/h at the sites where posted speeds is 90km/h. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop prediction equations for mean. 85th. and 95th percentile speeds at approach and curve midpoint locations. At the midpoint, only posted speeds influenced the mean, 85th. At the approach locations, the mean, 85th, 95th percentile speeds were influenced by posted speeds and length of the approach tangent.
A Comparison Study of Different Offset Transition Lengths in Simulation Environment
Kim, Jin-Tae ; Chang, Myung-Soon ; Park, Jae-Wan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 43~52
Signal timing transition has recently been highlighted with Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) providing advanced traffic signal operation including real-time grouping of coordinated intersections. Signal timing transition occurs when such signal timings as cycles and offsets are changed at coordinated intersections. Setting a proper length of signal timing transition has become in interest for real-time coordination. This paper presents a study verifying the effects of different lengths of signal timing transition. Four different transition lengths were tested and compared in simulation environment. They include a single, double, treble, quadruple cycle length transitions. The number of cycles represents the ones used (interpolation) for transition. Signal timings were controlled to be adjusted uniformly and discretely during a transition period. Transition times considered in the test are within ranges of
percents of cycle lengths. It was found from the study that a single cycle transition performs better than or at least equal to the ones from the other with fifteen different operational conditions, which are developed based on a hypothetical arterial. It was suggested that a single cycle length transition be beneficial when amount of transition is within
percents of cycle lengths.
Productivity Changes by Public Transport Reforms in the Seoul's Urban Bus Industry
Oh, Mi-Young ; Kim, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 53~61
The Seoul City Government recently reformed the entire public transport system in an effort to prevent further deterioration in urban bus system's performance and service level. To analyze into impact on the productivity of Seoul's urban bus firms, this paper measures firm-level technical efficiency and productivity change with data envelopment analysis and Malmquist index approach. The paper then conceptualizes that these forms produce three kinds of output (bus-kilometers, passengers, or bus-kilometers and passengers) using five inputs (driver, maintenance, management, vehicle and fuel). The findings show that most (over one half) firms experienced a decline (an improvement) in productivity in the case of specifying only bus-kilometers (passengers) as output. As a result, it is discovered that an average firm had no change in productivity in the case of combining bus-kilometers and passengers as output. This is because the efficiency of an average firm declined due to increase in employees per bus and to an decrease in kilometers per bus. while its effectiveness improved due to an increase in passengers per bus which was caused by an increase in routes and a change in fare structure.
Determination of the Optimal Bus-stop Location and Headway of Bus Rapid Transit Using Bus-stop-based O-D Data
Cho, Hye-Jin ; Lee, Young-In ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 63~74
When we introduce the BRT systems, it is very important to decide the operating factors, such as bus-stop locations or headway. If the factors are inappropriate, unessential expenses for the operator and users of the bus line may be caused, and it leads increase of social total cost. So, it is necessary that we consider users' origin and destination of each bus line when we set location of bus-stops and the optimal headway. Meanwhile, Smart Card System was introduced of fare collection for the Public Transportation Reform in Seoul last year. This new card system makes it possible to store up the information about bus operating and passenger's trip link. With these substantial information. we can estimate bus-stop-based O-D table. So, in this thesis, it was studied a systematic methodology to find the optimal location and headway for skip-stop bus system (as a type of first step for BRT). The proposed methodology in this thesis is expected to be useful to effect analysis or setting operating factors for skip-stop bus system in each bus line.
Evaluating of Risk Order for Urban Road by User Cost Analysis
Park, Jung-Ha ; Park, Tae-Hoon ; Im, Jong-Moon ; Park, Je-Jin ; Yoon, Pan ; Ha, Tae-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 77~86
Level of service(LOS) is a quantify measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream, generally, in terms of such service measures as speed, travel time, freedom to measures, traffic interruptions, comfort and convenience. The LOS is leveled by highway facilities according to measure of effectiveness(MOE) and then used to evaluate performance capacity. The current evaluation of a urban road is performed by only a aspect of traffic operation without any concepts of safety. Therefore, this paper presents a method for evaluation of risk order for urban road with new MOE, user cost analysis, considering both smooth traffic operation(congestion) and traffic safety(accident). The user coat is included traffic accident cast by traffic safety and traffic congestion cost by traffic operation. First of all, a number of traffic accident and accident rate by highway geometric is inferred from urban road traffic accident prediction model (Poul Greibe(2001)) Secondly, a user cost is inferred as traffic accident cast and traffic congestion cost is putting together. Thirdly, a method for evaluation of a urban road is inferred by user cost analysis. Fourthly a accident rate by segment predict with traffic accidents and data related to the accidents in
on 11 urban road segments, Gwang-Ju, predicted accident rate. Traffic accident cost predict using predicted accident rate, and, traffic congestion cost predict using predicted average traffic speed(KHCM). Fifthly, a risk order are presented by predicted user cost at each segment in urban roads. Finally, it si compared and evaluated that LOS of 11 urban road segments, Gwang-Ju, by only a aspect of traffic operation without any concepts of safety and risk order by a method for evaluation of urban road in this paper.
Development of an Technique for Assessing Priority of Alternatives in Railroad Projects Considering Civil Petitions
Chung, Sung-Bong ; Song, Ki-Han ; Hong, Sang-Yeon ; Kim, Dong-Jun ; Kim, Dong-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 87~98
Through rail transit has many merits as a safe, environmental harmonic and scheduled transit, there are many problems to construct railroads because of the public resentment. However, there is no reasonable way to settle the conflict properly and it causes enormous social and economic losses. This paper suggests a methodology to evaluate public complaint using the AHP technique, which is generally used as the methodology to evaluate public complaint using the AHP technique, which is generally used as the Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). However, the result from the AHP has some defects to control conflicts because the interests related to railroad projects are so complex that it is hard to make people persuaded easily. Therefore, this paper suggests 'the improvement ranking method', 'the sensitive analysis', and 'the assessment of independence relationship' which can aid the basic AHP to be robust. And the AHP. modified by fuzzy method, is also suggested to apply this methodology to example rail paths in Korea.
Finding the One-to-One Optimum Path Considering User's Route Perception Characteristics of Origin and Destination (Focused on the Origin-Based Formulation and Algorithm)
Shin, Seong-Il ; Sohn, Kee-Min ; Cho, Chong-Suk ; Cho, Tcheol-Woong ; Kim, Won-Keun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 99~110
Total travel cost of route which connects origin with destination (O-D) is consist of the total sum of link travel cost and route perception cost. If the link perception cost is different according to the origin and destination, optimal route search has limitation to reflect the actual condition by route enumeration problem. The purpose of this study is to propose optimal route searching formulation and algorithm which is enable to reflect different link perception cost by each route, not only avoid the enumeration problem between origin and destination. This method defines minimum unit of route as a link and finally compares routes using link unit costs. The proposed method considers the perception travel cost at both origin and destination in optimal route searching process, while conventional models refect the perception cost only at origin. However this two-way searching algorithm is still not able to guarantee optimum solution. To overcome this problem, this study proposed an orign based optimal route searching method which was developed based on destination based optimal perception route tree. This study investigates whether proposed numerical formulas and algorithms are able to reflect route perception behavior reflected the feature of origin and destination in a real traffic network by the example research including the diversity of route information for the surrounding area and the perception cost for the road hierarchy.
A BI-Level Programming Model for Transportation Network Design
Kim, Byung-Jong ; Kim, Won-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 111~123
A network design model has been proposed. which represents a transportation facility investment decision problem. The model takes the discrete hi-level programming form in which two types of decision makers, government and travelers, are involved. The model is characterized by its ability to address the total social costs occurring in transportation networks and to estimate the equilibrium link volumes in multi-modal networks. Travel time and volume for each link in the multi-modal network are predicted by a joint modal split/traffic assignment model. An efficient solution algorithm has been developed and an illustrative example has been presented.
Dynamic Origin-Destination Demand Estimation Using Traffic Data of VDS and AVI
Kim, Ju-Young ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Lee, Young-Ihn ; Son, Bong-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 125~136
The goal of this paper is to develop freeway Origin-Destination (OD) demand estimation model using VDS and AVI data. The formulation of methodology proposed in this paper includes traffic flow technique to be able to remove the bi-level problem and optimal solution algorithm using a kalman filter algorithm. The proposed dynamic OD estimation model use ilk and off-ramp volumes collected from VDS and partial OD collected from AVI data to raise the accuracy of dynamic OD estimation. The proposed model is evaluated by using the real-time data of SOHAEAN freeway, South Korea. The result of the proposed dynamic OD estimation model based on VDS and AVI data is better than that of based on VDS data. The more AVI systems are equipped at on and off-ramp, the more excellent result of estimation accuracy is expected.
Development of Vision-Based Vehicle Tracking for Extracting Microscopic Traffic Information
Lee, Ki-Young ; Chang, Myung-Soon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 137~148
The position information of individual vehicles on a road at every time instant can be used to analyze the microscopic behaviors of driving of each vehicle. The limited information obtained from previous imaging technology such as traffic volume and interval velocity cannot be used to explore such microscopic traffic conditions. Also, information gathering for the microscopic behaviors by manual analysis of captured video takes large amount of time and man-power. In the paper we develop the rule-based vehicle tracking technology from which the position information of individual vehicles on a road at every time instant can be automatically obtained. Also, we extract the position data of driving vehicles on a road, length of 130m for every 0.05 second, and calculate the velocity of each traced vehicles to compare with the real velocity for the verification of accuracy. In the future, this type of tracking techniques based on video analysis can be widely used to provide the practically important information of road traffic conditions and to analyze the academically important microscopic behaviors of driving patterns.
Development of the Multi-Path Finding Model Using Kalman Filter and Space Syntax based on GIS
Ryu, Seung-Kyu ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Ahn, Woo-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 149~158
The object of this paper is to develop the shortest path algorithm. The existing shortest path algorithm models are developed while considering travel time and travel distance. A few problems occur in these shortest path algorithm models, which have paid no regard to cognition of users, such as when user who doesn't have complete information about the trip meets a strange road or when the route searched from the shortest path algorithm model is not commonly used by users in real network. This paper develops a shortest path algorithm model to provide ideal route that many people actually prefer. In order to provide the ideal shortest path with the consideration of travel time, travel distance and road cognition, travel time is predicted by using Kalman filtering and travel distance is predicted by using GIS attributions. The road cognition is considered by using space data of GIS. Optimal routes provided from this paper are shortest distance path, shortest time path, shortest path considering distance and cognition and shortest path considering time and cognition.
Estimation of the Superelevation Safety Factor Considering Operating Speed at 3-Dimensional Alignment
Park, Tae-Hoon ; Kim, Joong-Hyo ; Park, Je-Jin ; Park, Ju-Won ; Ha, Tae-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 159~163
The propriety between suppliers and demanders in geometric design is very important. Although the final purpose of constructing roads is to concern about the driver s comfort, unfortunately, it has not been considered so far. We've considered the regularity and quickness in considering driver's comfort but there should be considered the safety for the accident as well. If drivers are appeared to be more speeding than designer's intention, there will be needed some supplements to increase the safety rate for the roads. Even if both an upward and downward section are supposed to exist at the same time for solid geometry of the roads like this, it is true that the recent design for the 3-D solid geometry section has been done as flat 2-D and the minimum plane curve radius and the maximum cant have been decided just by calculating without considering operating speed between an upward and downward section at the same point. In this investigation, thus, I'd like to calculate the safety of the cant by considering the speed features of the solid geometry for the first lane of four lane rural roads. To begin with, we investigated the driving speed of the car, which is not been influenced by a preceding car to analyze the influence of the geometrical structure by using Nc-97. Secondly, we statistically analyzed the driving features of the solid geometry after comparing the 6 sections, that is, measuring the driving speed feature at 12 points and combining the influence of the vertical geometry and plane geometry to the driving speed of the plane curve which was researched before. Finally, we estimated the value of cant which considers the driving speed not by using it which has applied uniformly without considering it properly, though there were some differences between a designed speed and driving speed through the result of the basic statistical analysis but by introducing the new safety rate rule, a notion of
. As a result of the research, we could see the driving features of the car and suggest the safety rate which considers these. For considering the maximum cant, if we apply the safety rate, the result of this experiment, which considers 3-D solid geometry, there'll be the improvement of the driver's safety for designing roads. In addition, after collecting and analyzing the data for the road sections which have various geometrical structures by expanding this experiment it is considered that there should be developed the models which considers 3-D solid geometry.
A Stochastic User Equilibrium Transit Assignment Algorithm for Multiple User Classes
Yu, Soon-Kyoung ; Lim, Kang-Won ; Lee, Young-Ihn ; Lim, Yong-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 165~179
The object of this study is a development of a stochastic user equilibrium transit assignment algorithm for multiple user classes considering stochastic characteristics and heterogeneous attributes of passengers. The existing transit assignment algorithms have limits to attain realistic results because they assume a characteristic of passengers to be equal. Although one group with transit information and the other group without it have different trip patterns, the past studies could not explain the differences. For overcoming the problems, we use following methods. First, we apply a stochastic transit assignment model to obtain the difference of the perceived travel cost between passengers and apply a multiple user class assignment model to obtain the heterogeneous qualify of groups to get realistic results. Second, we assume that person trips have influence on the travel cost function in the development of model. Third, we use a C-logit model for solving IIA(independence of irrelevant alternatives) problems. According to repetition assigned trips and equivalent path cost have difference by each group and each path. The result comes close to stochastic user equilibrium and converging speed is very fast. The algorithm of this study is expected to make good use of evaluation tools in the transit policies by applying heterogeneous attributes and OD data.
Development of Passenger Forecasting System to Improve the Service for the Passenger in the Terminal Building
Lee, Sang-Yong ; Yoo, Kwang-Eui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 23, issue 7, 2005, Pages 181~190
The time required for airport process is considered more important as the airports are becoming bigger. International Civil Aviation Organization mattes this international standards and recommends not to exceed it. The passenger forecasting model is developed to predict the number of passengers at the check-in counter, and the area of formalities for departure and entry. In case of forecasting the number of outbound-passengers. the patterns of show-up lead time(SLT) at the check-in counter and lag time from check-in counter to the area of departure formalities are modeled in terms of time. On the other hand, the matter of the choice of check-in counters and areas of departure formalities are modeled in terms of space. In case of forecasting the number of inbound-passengers and transfer passengers, the time of airplane movement from arrival to block on at the gate and the time of passengers required from gate to the area of formalities for entry are modeled in terms of time. While the matter of the choice of gates and the areas of formalities for entry are modeled in terms of space. The average error of forecasting outbound-passengers and inbound-passengers is respectively 15% and 10%, which are considered excellent with the 5% error of passenger reservation information as input data. Through the development of passenger forecasting models, we assure we could provide passengers with valuable service because we allocate resource such as employees and equipments according to the degree of concentration of passengers.