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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
A Review of Emissions Studies for Transportation Engineering
Gang, Jong-Ho ; Lee, Cheong-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 7~18
There are few studies on air pollution due to vehicle emissions in spite of the importance of this field. Therefore, this study describes trends and suggests implications through analysis relating to existing emissions research. This study has been divided into three areas. The first part is about estimating vehicle emissions. In this part, the authors analyze limits in ways of calculating emissions in the existing macroscopic view and then suggest the development of a model for calculating emissions considering velocity and acceleration. These variables are a function of traffic and individual driving behavior in the microscopic view. The second part is about management techniques for reducing vehicle emissions. The traffic management techniques for reducing vehicle emissions should conform to regional characteristics. The final part is about traffic operation for reducing vehicle emissions. The authors suggest the development of a micro-simulator and then the development of strategies for traffic operation. It is necessary to design better models estimating emissions and then, using real time data, to make a monitoring system simulating emission rates. This study serves as a literature review to make a foundation for further research about emissions research for transportation engineering.
A Study on Improving Reliability of Benefit Estimation Based on User Equilibrium Traffic Assignment Results
Kim, Jae-Yeong ; Son, Ui-Yeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 19~31
When estimating the benefits from an investment project in the transportation sector, errors caused by many factors may exist. This study focuses on user equilibrium traffic assignment methods and stopping criteria. According to previous studies, when using a user equilibrium assignment model, the benefits of travel time savings can be effected by the relative gap value. As the stopping criteria decreases, the time needed for traffic assignment increases, so that lowering the criteria cannot be the best solution. Therefore, an effort is necessary to reduce this change rate and thus improve reliability. This paper considers three methods: reducing the links subject to benefit calculation, extracting sub-area O/D tables and networks, and applying the mean value of successive traffic assignment results. The results of the analysis show that the method using the mean value of five results is more proper than the other methods. Using the sub-area analysis method, if the study area is small the benefits of a project might be over- or under-estimated. This paper used a nationwide O/D table and network at peak time as a case study. The resulting patterns can differ according to basic data to be used in analysis. So further analysis using the data from metropolitan areas are needed.
Strategies for Providing Detour Route Information and Traffic Flow Management for Flood Disasters
Sin, Seong-Il ; Jo, Yong-Chan ; Lee, Chang-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 33~42
This research proposes strategies about providing detour route information and traffic management for flood disasters. Suggested strategies are based on prevention and preparation concepts including prediction, optimization, and simulation in order to minimize damage. Specifically, this study shows the possibility that average travel speed is increased by proper signal progression during downpours or heavy snowfalls. In addition, in order to protect the drivers and vehicles from dangerous situations, this study proposes a route guidance strategy based on variational inequalities such as flooding. However, other roads can have traffic congestion by the suggested strategies. Thus, this study also shows the possibility to solve traffic congestion of other roads in networks with emergency signal modes.
Predefined Access Routes for Quick Response to Disaster Areas
Jo, Yong-Chan ; Lee, Chang-Ju ; Sin, Seong-Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 43~53
In this research, in order to more concretely define the concept of the previously vaguely defined fire road, the authors propose new terminology called disaster prevention routes. These are defined as predefined access routes for the quick response to disaster areas. For this, the authors suggest selection techniques for disaster prevention routes considering characteristics of fire trucks and selected areas. The paper also includes legally-based ideas for the executive departments with exclusive responsibility for continuous management and supervision of disaster response. In addition, a case study is performed with a virtual scenario including the outbreak of fire in one borough of Seoul. This case study shows that the damage can be decreased by prompt access of fire trucks. The establishment of predefined access routes to disaster areas can help to protect citizens with more rapid response by emergency crews. Indirect benefits also include reduced congestion of roads through the prohibition of parking and stopping on the chosen roads.
Hypothesis Tests on the Relations Between Interchange Types and Traffic Accidents in the Case of Korean Expressways
Park, Byeong-Ho ; Ryu, Seung-Ok ; Park, Jeong-Sun ; Han, Sang-Uk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 55~63
This research deals with the relations between intersection types and traffic accidents in the case of Korean expressways. The purpose of this research is to test the hypotheses that traffic accidents depend on intersection types and geometric design elements. The main research results are as follows. First, the accident comparisons that are drawn from junctions with interchanges, and trumpet interchanges with other types of interchanges respectively displays no significant meaning. However, the differences among four types of trumpet interchanges are found to be meaningful. In other words, the BO type trumpet interchanges seem to have far more traffic accidents than other types of trumpet interchanges. Second, hypothesis tests show that approximately 90 degree and one lane connection roads have lower accident rates. Based on this research, the following directions can be suggested for the safer types of intersections and geometric design elements in freeway construction. From a road safety point of view, it is advisable not to introduce BO type interchanges. It is also desirable that the intersection angle should be approximately 90 degrees. Furthermore, it would be wise to design one lane roads if the connection road has low traffic volumes.
A Study on Effectiveness and Warrant Analysis for Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes
Bae, Gwang-Su ; Sim, Gwan-Bo ; Song, Chang-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 65~77
A two-way left-turn lane is a continuous center left-turn lane that could be used as a deceleration and refuge area for both directions of left-turning vehicles. TWLTL's have been used effectively for access management treatment when applied to a highway that has wide-spread left turning traffic demand and a high-density of side streets. In this study, an effective analysis was carried out using a computer-based simulation tool, VISSIM, in order to evaluate performance and safety effects of TWLTLs and develop a warrant. In conclusion, the results indicated that there was a remarkable decrease of through and left-turning vehicle travel time delay on the main road and improvement of traffic safety.
Design Hourly Factor Estimation with Vehicle Detection System
Baek, Seung-Geol ; Kim, Beom-Jin ; Lee, Jeong-Hui ; Son, Yeong-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 79~88
Design Hourly Volume (DHV) is the hourly volume used for designing a section of road. DHV is also used to estimate the expected number of vehicles to pass or traverse the relevant section of road in a future target year. The Design Hour Factor (DHF) is defined as the ratio of DHV to Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT). In addition to high precision of predicted traffic volume, in order to design a roadway to be the proper scale, applying appropriate DHFs considering traffic flow characteristics and type of area which surrounds the relevant roadway is important. This study categorizes sections of expressway (Suh Hae An Expressway) according to their area type and estimates DHFs utilizing traffic data obtained from a vehicle detection system (VDS). This study shows that DHFs calculated using VDS data are different from those using traffic data acquired from a coverage survey. While AADTs from both data show similar values, peak hour volumes from both data show significant differences especially for recreational areas. DHFs from the coverage survey are quite different from the values provided by the Korean design guide or previous research results and DHFs for urban areas are higher than recreational areas. However, DHFs from VDS shows similar values to previous research results. The result of this study suggests that using VDS for estimating DHFs is more reliable than using a coverage survey.
Feasibility Analysis of Traffic Policy Alternatives for the Depreciation Effect Analysis of Automotive Exhaust Gas using Microscopic Simulation
Seo, Im-Gi ; Wang, Wi-Geol ; NamGung, Mun ; Lee, Byeong-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 89~97
The car-dependent traffic system based on highly advanced industrialization and economic growth causes various urban problems including traffic jams, energy consumption, air pollution, noise, car accidents and other issues. Particularly in urban areas, air pollution from motor vehicles is worse than pollution from past industrialization. In this study, therefore, the authors grasped car exhaust reduction effects by using microsimulation and those traffic policies that could make cars flow smoothly, reducing the air pollution in urban areas through analysis on profitability. As a result, the weekday-based car using system has been found most effective as it does not need investment cost. However, this system may be socially unacceptable, as it requires the government to change driver behavior. Therefore, the government needs to first reach a consensus with the citizens regarding this system. This system will also be effective with other alternatives. As a follow-up study, the authors will research citizens' perceived impacts of car exhaust on air pollution through a study on preference and grasp the possibility of applying these study results to real traffic policies.
Different Impacts of Independent Recurrent and Non-Recurrent Congestion on Freeway Segments
Gang, Gyeong-Pyo ; Jang, Myeong-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 99~109
There have been few studies on the impacts of independent recurrent and non-recurrent congestion on freeway networks. The main reason is due partly to the lack of traffic data collected during those periods of recurrent and non-recurrent congestion and partly to the difficulty of using the simulation tools effectively. This study has suggested a methodology to analyze the independent impacts of the recurrent and non-recurrent congestion on target freeway segments. The proposed methodology is based on an elaborately calibrated simulation analysis, using real traffic data obtained during the recurrent and non-recurrent congestion periods. This paper has also summarized the evaluation results from the field tests of two ITS technologies, which were developed to provide drivers with real-time traffic information under traffic congestion. As a result, their accuracy may not be guaranteed during the transition periods such as the non-recurrent congestion. In summary, this study has been focused on the importance of non-recurrent congestion compared to recurrent congestion, and the proposed methodology is expected to provide a basic foundation for prioritizing limited government investments for improving freeway network performance degraded by recurrent or non-recurrent congestion.
Analysis of Driver's Responsive Behavior to Variable Message Signs Using In-vehicle DGPS Data
Hong, Seung-Pyo ; Park, Jun-Hyeong ; O, Cheol ; Jang, Myeong-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 111~120
More accurate vehicle trajectory data are now readily available through Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS). A variety of research opportunities emerge with utilization of such high resolution traffic data. A novel approach of this study is to explore drivers' responsive behavior to variable message signs (VMS) by using individual vehicle trajectories extracted from in-vehicle DGPS data. Responsive characteristics of drivers traveling on urban freeways, which can be represented by speeds and acceleration rates, under the provision of real-time traffic information through VMS are statistically investigated. In addition to conducting an ANOVA test, probability density functions of acceleration rates were estimated. The findings of this study can be used to understand the impact of drivers' workload when providing VMS messages on traffic flow patterns. Furthermore, results can be important fundamentals to assist in conducting more realistic traffic simulations.
A Methodology for Estimating the Value of Interclass Equity Improvement by Railway Operations
Jang, Su-Eun ; Jeong, Gyu-Hwa ; Kim, Seong-Su ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 121~128
This paper suggests a way of estimating the value of interclass equity improvement by railway operations. Equity is understood in this paper in the context of a mobility gap between classes. The value of the reduced mobility gap by railway operations is interpreted as an increase of social equity. In particular, the unit value of equity improvement by rail services is quantified based on the amount of fare reduction through public service obligations. The difference in the surplus calculation between elastic and inelastic demands relative to the reduction is also discussed. The result of this study is expected to be helpful of performing more cautious appraisal for rail investment schemes.
Model Structure and its Solution of Analytical Research on Transit Network Design
Park, Jun-Sik ; Gwon, Yong-Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 129~140
The planning procedure of a transit operation consists of design, operation, and evaluation according to the research characteristics. There are some review studies on the operation and evaluation procedure, but the research on the design procedure has not yet been organized systematically. In this study, the research on transit system design was reviewed and the model structure and its solution method were arranged. The decision variables of the design procedure are network structure, line spacing or position, stop spacing, dispatching headway, and fleet size. In the analytical research on design procedure, system total cost is generally used as the objective function. System total cost is comprised of user cost, which is the sum of user access, waiting, and travel cost, and operating cost. Total cost of the transit system, used as the objective function, has the unique minimum because it is differentiable. There is a certain decision variable that makes the derivative of the objective function equal to zero and the second derivative of the objective function is positive. Therefore the decision variable that makes the first derivative of the objective function zero is the optimum that minimizes the objective function, and each of the cost components of the objective function become the same. This study is expected to help understanding about the research on the design procedure of transit operation planning and to help be a catalyst for relevant research.
The Analysis of Efficiency and Productivity in the Korean and Japanese Railways: A Stochastic Cost Frontier Approach
Park, Jin-Gyeong ; Kim, Seong-Su ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 141~157
This paper evaluates the effects of privatization and deregulation on the firm-specific efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the Korean and Japanese railways. Using a stochastic frontier approach and a generalized translog functional form, the paper specifies the equation system consisting of a multiproduct variable cost function and input share equations which is estimated with Zellner's iterative seemingly unrelated regression and the corrected least squares method. The Korean and Japanese railway firms are assumed to produce three outputs (Shinkansen passenger-kilometers, incumbent railway passenger-kilometers, ton-kilometers of freight) using three input factors (labor, fuel, maintenance and rolling stock). A monetary value of the ways and fixed installations held by the railroad firm is also included as a quasi-fixed input. The empirical results indicate that the average estimate of cost inefficiency is 2.57% for the total sample and on the average, JNR and JR Kyushu are found to be worst efficient while the most efficient railway firm in the sample is JR West. Also the cost efficiency levels of seven JRs have been improved after the reform and privatization of JNR. The findings also indicate that TFP growth of the privately-owned JRs are higher than those of the government-owned KNR and JNR. Three-island JRs and JR Freight have slightly higher TFP growth than Honshu JRs as well. Thus, the results suggest that managerial autonomy and increased competition via deregulation have improved efficiency and TFP growth.
Study on the Solution of the Assignment Model Based on an Asymmetric Cost Function
Park, Jun-Hwan ; Sin, Seong-Il ; Im, Yong-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 161~170
The purpose of this study is to find the solution that overcomes the existing assumption of symmetric cost functions in multi-class assignment. In the assignment problem, the assumption of a symmetric cost function means that the link cost is determined by each unique mode and is not affected by any other modes. In this study, the authors have applied a diagonalized algorithm and a heuristic model based on column generation to a multi-class assignment model and analyzed the result. Through the study, the authors found that the diagonalized algorithm produces equilibrium solutions by the initial convergence condition. In contrast to the diagonalized algorithm, the column generation algorithm has improved the solution model to overcome the problem of equilibrium solutions in the diagonalized algorithm.
An Activity-Based Analysis of Contextual Information of Activity Patterns and Profiles
Jo, Chang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 171~183
Urban transport demand is derived from activity participation. A variety of individual daily activities based on the decisions on activity participation result in collective spatial behavior. The travel derived from the effort to overcome the spatially distributed locations of adjacent activities represents the detailed structural relationships among activities. An activity-based approach provides an important framework of analyzing contemporary urban daily life in the sense that it studies the interaction between individuals' daily decision making and social practice in time and space, on the one hand, and socio-spatial environment on the other. The current study identifies representative patterns of urban daily activity implementations and analyzes the correlation between representative patterns and individuals' characteristics and contextual characteristics. The study shows that urban daily activity patterns can be grouped in a limited number of representative patterns, which are systematically correlated with socio-spatial characteristics. The results provide related transportation policy implications.
A Study on Signal Control Algorithms using Internal Metering for an Oversaturated Network
Song, Myeong-Gyun ; Lee, Yeong-In ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 185~196
The aim of this research is to develop a signal control algorithm using internal metering to minimize total delay that vehicles go through, in case a network is oversaturated. To calculate total delay on the network, the authors first detect vehicles' arrivals and departures in the network through the detecting system, and chase the vehicles' flow in the links with a platoon dispersion model. Following these, the authors calculate the queue length in all the inks of the network through the chase of vehicles, deduce the stopped time delay, and finally convert the stopped time delay to the approach delay with a time-space diagram. Based on this calculated delay, an algorithm that calculates the level of the internal metering necessary to minimize the deduced approach delay is suggested. To verify effectiveness of this suggested algorithm, the authors also conduct simulation with the micro-simulator VISSIM. The result of the simulation shows that the average delay per vehicle is 82.3 sec/veh and this delay is lower than COSMOS (89.9sec/veh) and TOD (99.1sec/veh). It is concluded that this new signal control algorithm suggested in this paper is more effective in controlling an oversaturated network.
A Study on an Adaptive Guidance Plan by Quickest Path Algorithm for Building Evacuations due to Fire
Sin, Seong-Il ; Seo, Yong-Hui ; Lee, Chang-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 197~208
Enormously sized buildings are appearing world-wide with the advancement of construction techniques. Large-scaled and complicated structures will have increased difficulties for dealing with safety, and will demand well-matched safety measures. This research introduced up-to-date techniques and systems which are applied in buildings in foreign nations. Furthermore, it proposed s direct guidance plan for buildings in case of fire. Since it is possible to install wireless sensor networks which detect fires or effects of fire, the plan makes use of this information. Accordingly, the authors completed a direct guidance plan that was based on omnidirectional guidance lights. It is possible to select a route with concern about both time and capacity with a concept of a non-dominated path. Finally, case studies showed that quickest path algorithms were effective for guiding efficient dispersion routes and in case of restriction of certain links in preferred paths due to temperature and smoke, it was possible to avoid relevant links and to restrict demand in the network application. Consequently, the algorithms were able to maximize safety and minimize evacuation time, which were the purposes of this study.
Cost Function of Congestion-Prone Transportation Systems
Mun, Dong-Ju ; Kim, Hong-Bae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 25, issue 6, 2007, Pages 209~230
This paper analyzed the social cost function of a congestion-prone service system, which is developed from the social cost minimization problem. The analysis focused on the following two issues that have not been explicitly explored in the previous studies: the effect of the heterogeneity of value-of-travel-times among customers on the structure of cost functions; and the structure of the supplier cost function constituting the social cost function. The analysis gave a number of findings that could be summarized as follows. First, the social marginal cost for one unit increase in system output having a certain value-of-travel-time is the sum of the service time cost for that value-of-travel-time and the marginal congestion cost for the average value-of-service-time of all the system outputs. Second, the marginal congestion cost equals the marginal supplier cost of system output under the condition that supplier compensates the customers for the changed service time costs which is incurred by the marginal capacity increase necessary for economically facilitating an additional system output. Third, the compensated marginal cost is the multiple of the marginal capacity cost and the inverse of system utilization ratio, if the service time function is homogeneous of degree zero in its inputs.