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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
An Analysis on Truck Trip Chaining
Seong, Hong-Mo ; Kim, Chan-Sung ; Shin, Seung-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 7~16
There are unique aspects of truck vehicle movements compared with the personal travel in trip chaining. This paper reports an analysis on the truck vehicle trip chaining which intercity/metropolitan/intraregional trips are classified. Data collected from the travel dairy survey is used the truck trip-chaining analysis. The pattern of trip chaining classes is classified by the GIS mapping based on orgin-destination trip information. The physical index and efficiency index for each trip diary is used to the truck vehicle activity. Truck trips lengths and time differs from its truck type, service type and travel patterns. It is shown that the efficiency of the truck trip chaining depends on vehicle types and its delivery patterns. There are many other topics for research on trip chaining modeling such as the classification of trip chain, time use and mode choice by trip chaining.
Practical Review of Analysis Techniques for Patronage Ramp-up
Chung, Sung-Bong ; Chang, Justin Su-Eun ; Kim, Ki-Min ; Kim, Jeong-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 17~28
This study examines the ramp-up analysis techniques which have been introduced till now and presents the strength and weakness of each method. The applicability of each technique was reviewed using a case study involving the data of Cheonan-Nonsan motorway usages where seasonal variations of the data were removed. The results showed that all the techniques except F-test have the same ramp-up period of 12 months. The level of Tamp-up was 65%-72% compared to that of the real traffic volume at the beginning of opening. The demand recovered to the stabilized level as time goes on. To apply the methodology to practical demand forecasts actual surveys of real data of traffic demand should be performed. With these efforts to the patronage ramp-up, more reliable demand analyses can be accompanied.
New Methodology about the Criteria for Appointing School Zones
Kim, Yo-Sep ; Park, Je-Jin ; Park, Kwang-Won ; Park, Seong-Yong ; Kim, Jeong-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 29~40
Police agency is indicated that the number of children's traffic accident is tending downwards, however about one child is dead every day due to traffic accident. Major parts of the accidents happen during walking; among the rest, jaywalking is the biggest reason. Many accidents take plate on the road to school or near the home so government legislate children safeguard zone at 1995. According to the legislation, drivers have to reduce speed and there are safety facilities for children at children safeguard zone. This study finds the problems of children safeguard zone and suggest more effective and quantitative method for children safeguard zone. Firstly this study grasps the characters of children's pattern movement and children's traffic accident at children safeguard zone and then divides specific danger factors of children's traffic accident at children safeguard zone. Secondly, each factor is given danger level depending on danger degree and suggests effective method for assignment standard of children safeguard zone using all of these things.
An Analysis of the Efficiency of the Global Logistics Industry with Data Envelopment Analysis and a Tobit Model
Park, Woo-Ram ; Kwon, Oh-Kyoung ; Tongzon, Jose ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 41~49
According to the demand for services. a single point contract between a user and provider spreads over the industry, and the relationship between them is a main issue. The user wants to make a deal with the contributor which can provide the effective services to the user. This study is to estimate the efficiency of global logistics industry with Data Envelopment Analysis, by nations from 2001 to 2005. Furthermore, it tries to estimate the inefficiency affected by macro factors, and proves the association between them using Tobit model. Global logistics industry has made growth both externally and internally more than doubled for the last 5years. Technical inefficiency of global logistics industry is more influenced by pure technical inefficiency than inefficiency of scale. Therefore technical efficiency can be increased by decreasing pure technical inefficiency. Through this study, it found that the logistics industry got influenced to its efficiency by high price of oil, and courier and transportation service market is formed stably. Furthermore, it advocates policy planners to consider effectiveness and clearness of policy which influence to inefficiency of logistics industry. Also, it found that labor and financial support can give critical effect.
Methodology for Evaluating Collision Risks Using Vehicle Trajectory Data
Kim, Joon-Hyung ; Song, Tai-Jin ; Oh, Cheol ; Sung, Nak-Moon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 51~62
An innovative feature of this study is to propose a methodology for evaluating safety performance in real time based on vehicle trajectory data extracted from video images. The essence of evaluating safety performance is to capture unsafe car-following and lane-changing events generated by individual vehicles traveling within video surveillance area. The proposed methodology derived three indices including real-time safety index(RSI) based on the concept of safe stopping distance, time-to-collision(TTC), and the collision energy based on the conservation of momentum. It is believed that outcomes would be greatly utilized in developing a new generation of video images processing(VIP) based traffic detection systems capable of producing safety performance measurements. Relevant technical challenges for such detection systems are also discussed.
Assessment of Preemption Signal Control Strategy for Emergency Vehicles in Korea
Yang, Lyun-Ho ; Lee, Sang-Soo ; Oh, Young-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 63~72
Signalized intersections are operated without a signal preemption control strategy in Korea, thus there is no priority treatment for an emergency vehicle passing through the intersections. In this paper, a signal preemption control strategy is introduced to improve the safety and operational efficiency of an emergency vehicle. Using the micro simulation tool, the effects on delay and travel speed of the signal preemption control strategy are analyzed for various traffic conditions to identify the general performance trends. Then, another simulation analysis is performed to verify the feasibility of the control strategy using real network data collected from field study. Results show that the preemption control strategy provides the positive impact on emergency vehicles' operation, but the positive impact is reduced as the v/c ratios increase. As expected, the average delays of the normal vehicles are slightly increased, but the magnitude is not significant. Therefore, it is expected that the introduction of the preemption control strategy in Korea would produce the positive social benefits.
Improvement of ALINEA Model Using Speed
Cho, Han-Seon ; Lee, Jun ; Lee, Ho-Won ; Kim, Eun-Mi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 73~80
ALINEA algorithm, which is one of the best on-ramp metering algorithms, was designed to control the traffic volume from on-ramp in order to maintain the optimal occupancy rate of the detectors installed downstream of the merge area. But, the reliability of occupancy rate estimated from the loop detectors, which are used most commonly in Korea, is relatively lower than other parameters such as speed and volume. Moreover, because occupancy rate depends on the length of loop detectors and site, lots of calibration work is required whenever they are installed in order to estimate the occupancy rate. Therefore, there exists room for improvement of ALINEA algorithm because only occupancy rate having some problems is considered as a control parameter in ALINEA algorithm. Practically it is difficult to measure or perceive the occupancy rate for traffic engineers and drivers. On the other hand, speed can be good alternative which can overcome the defect induced by using occupancy. In this study, occupancy based ALINEA algorithm is converted to speed based ALINEA assuming the linear relationship between density and speed.
A Study on the Change of Monthly Patterns of Bus Passenger Demand According to Bus Route Change
Seo, Young-Woo ; Kim, Ki-Hyuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 81~90
Bus passengers need some time to adapt to the changed bus route or free bus transfer system which is part of the public transportation system restructuring plan. This research is focused on the characteristics of monthly patterns of bus passengers. The period of stabilization of bus passenger demand after the rearrangement of bus route system by a time series were analysed. In order to look into the characteristics of bus passenger demand by month, data on the number of monthly bus passengers of recent five years in metropolitan cities across the nation was collected. Kendall's coefficient of concordance is used to test whether the cities showed concordance with respect to the number of monthly bus passengers during a period of five years. The study collected and performed a time series analysis of data on the number of monthly bus passengers during the past ten years in Daegu metropolitan area which carried out a new bus route plan in February 2006. The number of monthly bus passengers in 2006 was estimated using the time series analysis. The city of Daegu found that after six months the estimated and actual values displayed a similar pattern. This result can be applied to other cities in estimating the passenger demands in the future.
A Study on the Beginning Time of Flashing Green Signals for Pedestrians
Shim, Kywan-Bho ; Ko, Myoung-Soo ; Kim, Jeong-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 91~100
Pedestrians are exposed to accidents as a result of the lack of understanding the meaning of a flashing green signal. This study was to designed to relate changes of pedestrians' crossing characteristics as a functions of flashing green signal timings. A field survey was conducted to collect pedestrian preference and safety and it was examined by signal operation experiment. Two versions of new pedestrian signal timings were compared to the existing pedestrian signal timings. The results indicated that the number of pedestrians who starts to cross during flashing green signals was significantly decreased when flashing green signals started at 1/2 or 2/3 point of crossing. However, the number of pedestrians who remain in the crossing during red signals was significantly increased when flashing green signals started at 2/3 point of crossing. This study concludes that starting flashing green signals at 1/2 point of crossing is the safest. Also, implication and directions for its practical relevance were discussed.
Disaggregate Demand Forecasting and Estimation of the Optimal Price for UTIS Service
Jang, Seok-Yong ; Jung, Hun-Young ; Ko, Sang-Seon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 101~115
This study reports UTIS(Urban Traffic Information System), which has been generalized in developed countries through brisk research and development and is being promoted for introduction by National Police Agency and Road Traffic Authority to reduce the astronomical amount of social expenses including traffic congestion expenses. Also this study investigates the proper charges for using by the preestimate of demand and contentment according to methods of payment after the service is introduced. The results of this study are as follows. First, demand forecast model is constructed by Binary Logit Model. Second, forecast models of using aspects of UTIS service according to methods of payment are established by Ordered Probit Model. Third, the proper charges for using of UTIS service according to methods of payment are presented to the supplier in the aspects of users. For this, preferences by using aspects and methods of payment are captured. And unit elasticity of coefficient of utilization is understood through responsiveness analysis according to methods of payment.
Analyzing the Airfreight Transshipment Connectivity at Incheon Airport
Kim, Joong-Yup ; Park, Yong-Hwa ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 117~127
After the deregulation of the aviation market in the United States in 1978, airlines took advantage of the possibilities of the liberalized market and reorganized their networks. Then, the hub-and-spoke networks became widely used in the aviation market. The framework of hub-and-spoke network made it feasible to amplify flight networks. Thus, a number of airlines were able to fly to more destinations than ever before through the networks. Amplification of networks can be implementing through the transfer of passengers, transshipment of cargo, or both most researches have been concentrated on the passenger aspect at airports worldwide. Air cargo, however, has become one of the most significant areas at hub airports to keep their leading position in terms of the provision of services and handling volumes. This paper investigates the connectivity of airfreight networks as the temporal concentrations in current network at Incheon International Airport. In order to evaluate airline flight schedule effects to stimulate hubbing at an airport, the indirect connectivity can be considered to be the number of direct frequencies, the minimum connecting times and the quality of the connection determine indirect connectivity. Therefore the connectivity of freight transshipment depends on both the quality of the connection at the hub airport and the quality of the indirect flight compared to the direct flight. In addressing these issues, this paper analyzes the connectivity of flight schedules using a temporal wave-system structure and estimates the degree of connectivity and quality of connectivity applying the NETSCAN model.
A Study on the Construction of Historical Profiles for Freeway Travel Time Forecasting
Kim, Dong-Ho ; Rho, Jeong-Hyun ; Park, Dong-Joo ; Park, Jee-Hyung ; Kim, Han-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 131~141
The objective of this study is to propose methods for determining optimal representative value and the optimal size of historical data for reliable travel time forecasting. We selected values with the smallest mean of forecasting errors as the optimal representative value of travel time pattern data. The optimal size of historical data used was determined using the CVMSE(Cross Validated Mean Square Error) method. According to the results of applying the methods to point vehicle detection data of Korea Highway Corporation, the optimal representative value were analyzed to be median. Second, it was analyzed that 60 days' data is the optimal size of historical data usedfor travel time forecasting.
A Visualization of the Korean Road Freight Transport Industry Using a Causal Map
Roh, Hong-Seung ; Kang, Sang-Gon ; Jang, So-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 143~152
Road freight transport industry in Korea contains many and complicate problems such as over supply of the vehicle caused by rapid policy changes, illegal multilevel transactions, poor truck drivers working environment, lack of road freight transport related statistics and so on. Korean government has developed various logistics industrial policy trying to solve these problems in various ways. However the relationship among the problems and action plans has been more and more entangled since the part of suggested policies have made another perverted problems. These complex structure of the toad freight transport industry in Korea makes difficult to identify and to solve the problems. Causal map method helps to give a clean picture to understand the complex industry at a fiance. This study contributes for visualization of the causal relationships among the existing problems and related policy issues in the road freight transport industry in Korea by causal map. This study could be helpful to develop the actual road freight transport industrial policies including the illogical multilevel and unfair transaction in Korea.
Traffic Accident Models of Cheongju Four-Legged Signalized Intersections by Accident Type
Park, Byung-Ho ; Han, Sang-Wook ; Kim, Tae-Young ; Kim, Won-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 153~162
This study deals with the traffic accidents at the 4-legged signalized intersections in Cheong-ju. The purpose is to comparatively analyze the characteristics and models by the accident type using the data of 143 intersections. In pursuing the above, this study gives particular emphasis to modeling such the accidents as head on collision, rear end collision, side swipe, side right angle collision, and others. The main results are the followings. First, the overdispersion tests show that the negative binomial regression models are appropriate to the traffic accident data in the above contexts. Second, five accident models are developed, which are all analyzed to be statistically significant. Finally, the models are comparatively evaluated using the common variable(ADT) and type-specific variables.
Estimating Travel Demand by Using a Spatial-Temporal Activity Presence-Based Approach
Eom, Jin-Ki ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 163~174
The conventional four-step travel demand model is still widely used as the state-of-practice in most transportation planning agencies even though it does not provide reliable estimates of travel demand. In order to improve the accuracy of travel demand estimation, implementing an alternative approach would be critical as much as acquiring reliable socioeconomic and travel data. Recently, the role of travel demand model is diverse to satisfy the needs of microscopic analysis regarding various policies of travel demand management and traffic operations. In this context, the activity-based approach for travel demand estimation is introduced and a case study of developing a spatial-temporal activity presence-based approach that estimates travel demand through forecasting number of people present at certain place and time is accomplished. Results show that the spatial-temporal activity presence-based approach provides reliable estimates of both number of people present and trips actually people made. It is expected that the proposed approach will provide better estimates and be used in not only long-term transport plans but short-term transport impact studies with respect to various transport policies. Finally, in order to introduce the spatial-temporal activity presence-based approach, the data such as activity-based travel diary and land use based on geographic information system are essential.
Budget Estimation Problem for Capacity Enhancement based on Various Performance Criteria
Kim, Ju-Young ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Cho, Chong-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 175~184
Uncertainties are unavoidable in engineering applications. In this paper we propose an alpha reliable multi-variable network design problem under demand uncertainty. In order to decide the optimal capacity enhancement, three performance measures based on 3E(Efficiency, Equity, and Environmental) are considered. The objective is to minimize the total budget required to satisfy alpha reliability constraint of total travel time, equity ratio, and total emission, while considering the route choice behavior of network users. The problem is formulated as the chance-constrained model for application of alpha confidence level and solved as a lexicographic optimization problem to consider the multi-variable. A simulation-based genetic algorithm procedure is developed to solve this complex network design problem(NDP). A simple numerical example ispresented to illustrate the features of the proposed NDP model.
Ant Algorithm for Dynamic Route Guidance in Traffic Networks with Traffic Constraints
Kim, Sung-Soo ; Ahn, Seung-Bum ; Hong, Jung-Ki ; Moon, Jae-Ki ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 185~194
The objective of this paper is to design the dynamic route guidance system(DRGS) and develop an ant algorithm based on routing mechanism for finding the multiple shortest paths within limited time in real traffic network. The proposed ant algorithm finds a collection of paths between source and destination considering turn-restrictions, U-turn, and P-turn until an acceptable solution is reached. This method can consider traffic constraints easily comparing to the conventional shortest paths algorithms.
The Obstructing Factors for Safe Driving on Road Signs
Lee, Jong-Hak ; Noh, Kwan-Sub ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 195~204
When the drivers try to read an information on road signs, they can reach their destinations successfully. In this situation, human factors, road signs and geometric condition regarded as the most important factors for a safe driving should be a well-balanced relationship mutually. This research aims to prove the factors obstructing a safe driving, while drivers try to read an information on road signs for the next destination. For this sake, driving simulator was used and human factors, road signs etc. were considered in this experiment. The statistical analysis indicated what factors disturb a safe driving. The probability function using a Logistic Model was presented in this study. This result and experience will be used as a basic data in designing better road signs.
Value Analysis of Barrier-free Facilities at Subway Stations Using CVM with a Double Bounded Dichotomous Choice Question
Jung, Hun-Young ; Baik, Sang-Keun ; Baek, Eun-Sang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 205~216
As the aged and physically disabled people are expected to increase in the next several years, traffic demand especially for the 'mobility handicapped people' will be stronger. According to this trend, our society needs the improvement of social overhead capital for the aged and the disabled. First of all, Barrier-free of public transport facilities is urgent case. The purpose of this study is to estimate value of the Barrier-free facilities at subway stations by using Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) with Double Bounded Dichotomous Choice Question and to analyze the factor which affects the WTP(Willingness To Pay) of subway users by using Survival Analysis. As a result of this study, 'Elevators' and 'Escalators' are higher than 'Handicapped Gate Machines' and 'Ramps for Wheelchair' in the aspect of the average willingness to pay. Therefore the government is recommended to install the Barrier-free facilities for going up and down such as 'Elevators' and 'Escalators', and then supply others for just using subway, and passing such as 'Handicapped Gate Machines' and 'Ramps for Wheelchair'. Also, the average willingness to pay of 'mobility handicapped people' is higher than that of 'normal people'. It indicates that 'mobility handicapped people' value each Barrier-free facility high compared to 'normal people'.
A Measure for Travel Time Reliability
Chang, Justin Su-Eun ; Kang, Ji-Hye ; Lee, Seung-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 217~226
The term, travel-time reliability, refers to variations in journey time that travelers cannot predict. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a standard way to measure travel time reliability. A modified buffer time indicator is proposed. The index is represented by the difference between planned and actual travel times based on lognormal type travel time distribution. Using this framework, a constant function for railways and a negative parabola function for roads are discussed. The model developed is applied to the real data of Korean road and rail usages to empirically verify the methodology proposed. In this process, the unit value of travel time reliability for each group is estimated. The result of this research is expected to be helpful of conducting more cautious economic feasibility studies of transport.
Efficiency of Radial Transit Routes
Park, Jun-Sik ; Kho, Seung-Young ; Lee, Chung-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 26, issue 5, 2008, Pages 227~235
This study analyzed the efficiency of a trunk with branches and a trunk with feeders route system comparing the user cost and operator cost of those route systems. Basically, a trunk with branches is more efficient than a trunk with feeders in the passengers' perspective if the transit system of a trunk and feeders are the same. In the case that the trunk system is hierarchically higher than the feeder system, a trunk with feeders has the competitive edge over a trunk with branches if the saving of travel cost induced by using the trunk line is larger than the increasing waiting and transfer cost. This result is consistent with the previous research by Park et al.(2007c), which analyzed the efficiency of hierarchical structure in a grid transit network. If the travel demand of each origins and destinations is low, increasing headway according to the travel demand can increase passenger load or operating efficiency in a trunk with feeders route system. In this case, a trunk with feeders route system is more prevalent as the operating cost, route length, and number of destinations increases, while it is less prevalent as the transfer cost and passengers' time value of the waiting time increases. In cases that central business district, which is located in the middle of a trunk line, generates travel demand, a trunk with feeders is more efficient than a trunk with branches with the increasing travel demand from and to the CBD. Therefore it can be concluded that to have a dual operating system between CBD and suburban is more efficient than one type transit system. The efficiency of that system can be increased through an efficient transfer system that can reduce the transfer cost.