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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
A Study on Differences of Economic Benefits by Volume Calibration in Road Construction Projects
Kim, Sang-Gu ; Kim, Geun-Deok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 7~16
This paper proposes a plan which can raise the accuracy of economic benefit estimation in road construction projects. The point of existing economic appraisals may be that the speeds forecasted by models are different from the field speeds because only volumes are calibrated in the road network. The result of such a calibration has an influence on estimating wrong economic benefits in terms of vehicle operating cost savings, travel time savings, and air pollution savings. Then this study performs a calibration when volumes are at the same amount but the calibration between the field speeds and model speeds is different from each other with two different volume-delay functions; the differences of benefits are confirmed according to two different speed calibrations. Three improvement schemes, including the development of a new volume-delay function, are proposed in this study in order to solve the problem of current benefit calculations. The outcome of this study will help practitioners perform more accurate benefit calculations and reasonable economic appraisals.
An Analysis of Effectiveness for Permissive Warrants on the Restrictive Left-Turn Signal Control in Urban Arterial Roads
Jeong, In-Taek ; Lee, Yeong-In ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 17~28
There are many limitations in dealing with rapidly changing traffic demand in urban cities. Thus recently, traffic operation and management skills are more emphasized rather than the expansion of traffic facilities. In particular, in the interrupted flow formed by signalized intersections, it is quite important to give optimal signal timing to each intersection with consideration of progression. However, as fixed signal times per direction can affect passing capacity in signalized intersections, the present four-signal phase including a left-turn signal has many limitations, including reduction of directional road capacity when traffic demand is increases dramatically during peak hours. Because of this problem, lots of studies about internal metering techniques for oversaturated signal control skills have progressed but these techniques are not used widely due to the absence of detectors for queue sensing in real-time signal control systems. In this research, a new methodology called the "restrictive left-turn signal control", which is already used at the intersection above Samsung subway station, is suggested in order to reduce control delay of urban arterial roads. The restrictive left-turn signal control allows a driver to make a U-turn and then a right turn instead of turning left in that intersection. With this change, the restrictive left-turn signal control can contribute to increased intersection capacity by reducing the number of signal phases and maximizing the through phase time. However, road structure and traffic conditions at the target intersections should be considered before the adoption of the proposed signal control.
Exploration of the Relationship between Traffic Volume and Air Quality Using Existing Monitoring Data
Go, Jun-Ho ; Choe, Yu-Jin ; Lee, Se-Hui ; Lee, Tae-Gyeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 29~37
As the level of the ambient air quality becomes increasingly important, transportation management strategies tend to incorporate air quality standards into their measure of effectiveness. However, previous research efforts did not pay much attention to the empirical relationships between traffic volume and air quality, potentially due to the lack of data. With this background, this study investigates the relationship using Seoul's existing traffic and air quality monitoring data collected over the period of three years, from 2005 through 2007. In particular, those paired monitoring sites with a distance of less than one kilometer apart were utilized, targeting the emissions of CO, NO,
. As a result, in general the data of two monitoring systems exhibited lower correlations,
showing a relatively higher correlation with traffic volumes than other emissions. In addition, it was found that the degree of correlation can be higher for the data obtained over the morning time period, 6am-9am, and the day after rainy days.
The Study on Choice Standard and Operation Method on Zone 30 in the Outskirts Street of Residential Area
Sim, Gwan-Bo ; Go, Myeong-Su ; Jo, Seong-Geun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 39~49
This research analyzes current pedestrian's safety zone choice standard problem and described about correct standard re-thesis at real. About problem of pedestrian traffic accidents to specific item statistical data to basis ramification of pedestrian traffic accidents, occurrence type of accident, action type etc. synthetically analyze and mark pedestrian's safety zone by countermeasure for decrease of pedestrian traffic accidents and utilize operating domestic outer garment reward and drew domestic Zone30 zone choice standard. Also, because analyzing effect that traffic discharge and speed through on-the-spot probe get in pedestrian thinking, presented quantitative standard, and analyze accident special quality of back pedestrian traffic accidents occurrence number of item and so on do accident type beside quantitative standard, road function, accident latitude and present standard. Specially, take advantage of statistical data of traffic accidents and put emphasis in pedestrian safety. Also, because establishment standard about safety facility establishment of Zone30 zone and systematic thesis of operation way do not consist, standard guide of consistency it is no and does equipment that is established in Zone30 zone because confusion happens by each local unit presented establishment and operation way, and present Zone30 zone.
Analysis of User Preferences for Traffic Safety Warning Information using Portable Variable Message Signs(PVMS)
Park, Jae-Hong ; O, Cheol ; Song, Tae-Jin ; O, Ju-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 51~62
Variable message signs (VMS) are a useful tool for providing real-time traffic information to drivers. In particular, effective warning information provision leading to safer driving would be an important countermeasure to prevent traffic accidents. The purpose of this study was to identify users' preferences for traffic safety warning information formats. A variety of warning information scenarios using text and pictograms were devised and investigated for the purpose of selecting more effective methods to provide warning information. A portable variable message sign (PVMS) was used to evaluate users' preferences. The results of this study can be used for designing better warning information for the enhancement of traffic safety.
Effects of In-vehicle Warning Information on Drivers' Responsive Behavior
Song, Tae-Jin ; O, Cheol ; O, Ju-Taek ; Lee, Cheong-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 63~74
One of the effective countermeasures for preventing traffic accidents is to provide traffic safety warning information to drivers. Provision of warning information would lead to safer driving to avoid accident occurrence. This study investigated the effects of in-vehicle warning information on driver's behavior. A variety of warning information contents using text, sound, and pictograms were prepared for the field experiments. Individual vehicle speed and acceleration data, which represent quantitative drivers' behavior in response to in-vehicle warning information, were collected using differential global positioning systems (DGPS). Statistical analyses including ANOVA and Tukey's pairwise comparison were conducted. It is expected that the results could be invaluable for designing more effective warning information.
An Analysis for Airport Network Characteristics Assuming the Integrated Aviation Market of Korea, China and Japan
O, Seong-Yeol ; Park, Yong-Hwa ; Yun, Sin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 75~82
Air transport markets are composed of airlines' networks through their base airports. The analysis of an air transport market has been focusing on determining the efficiency or competitiveness of airports or airlines in the market using number of routes, number of passengers, transfer rates, revenues, costs, and other data. However, little work has been done in analyzing the airport network itself. Assuming the air transport markets of Korea, China, and Japan are integrated, this paper aims to analyze the characteristics of the resulting airport network. To that end, the degree of connectivity, the degree of closeness, and the betweenness of centrality are employed. The analysis shows that Incheon International Airport is better than most other airports in terms of the degree of connectivity and that of closeness. Airports in Japan, however, exhibit strong connectivity but weak closeness and betweenness of centrality. Although it has low connectivity, Shenyang Airport has a possibility of becoming an attractive point of the integrated market in the future due to its high degree of closeness.
Development of a Traffic Condition Index (TCI) on Expressways
Bok, Gi-Chan ; Lee, Seung-Jun ; Choe, Yun-Hyeok ; Gang, Jeong-Gyu ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 85~95
Congestion on expressways is increasing in spite of continuous road construction. In enlargement of expressway capacity to lessen congestion, a long period is needed and in the case of traffic congestion, it would be impossible to avoid long periods of traffic congestion. So, it is necessary to cope with traffic congestion through continuous traffic condition monitoring, analysis of the causes of congestion and the development of alternatives before traffic conditions worsen. A congestion index that can express traffic operating conditions measurably is needed to monitor those conditions. Thus, in this research, a new congestion index, the Traffic Condition Index (TCI), is developed. TCI is able to evaluate roads that have different grades (or design speeds) and to judge traffic condition as good, fair and poor (congested). In addition, TCI has merits in that it can strengthen the function of existing Freeway Traffic Management Systems (FTMS) and can be applied to congestion management easily: TCI calculates congestion intensity and severity using data obtained from existing FTMS. In order to validate TCI, it was applied to the Kyungbu Expressway and the Seohaean Expressway. As a result, TCI shows a good performance in the aspect of applicability and ability of presentation of traffic conditions compared with travel speed and Travel Time Index (TTI).
Development of the Algorithm for Traffic Accident Auto-Detection in Signalized Intersection
O, Ju-Taek ; Im, Jae-Geuk ; Hwang, Bo-Hui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 97~111
Image-based traffic information collection systems have entered widespread adoption and use in many countries since these systems are not only capable of replacing existing loop-based detectors which have limitations in management and administration, but are also capable of providing and managing a wide variety of traffic related information. In addition, these systems are expanding rapidly in terms of purpose and scope of use. Currently, the utilization of image processing technology in the field of traffic accident management is limited to installing surveillance cameras on locations where traffic accidents are expected to occur and digitalizing of recorded data. Accurately recording the sequence of situations around a traffic accident in a signal intersection and then objectively and clearly analyzing how such accident occurred is more urgent and important than anything else in resolving a traffic accident. Therefore, in this research, we intend to present a technology capable of overcoming problems in which advanced existing technologies exhibited limitations in handling real-time due to large data capacity such as object separation of vehicles and tracking, which pose difficulties due to environmental diversities and changes at a signal intersection with complex traffic situations, as pointed out by many past researches while presenting and implementing an active and environmentally adaptive methodology capable of effectively reducing false detection situations which frequently occur even with the Gaussian complex model analytical method which has been considered the best among well-known environmental obstacle reduction methods. To prove that the technology developed by this research has performance advantage over existing automatic traffic accident recording systems, a test was performed by entering image data from an actually operating crossroad online in real-time. The test results were compared with the performance of other existing technologies.
Development of a Driver Safety Information Service Model Using Point Detectors at Signalized Intersections
Jang, Jeong-A ; Choe, Gi-Ju ; Mun, Yeong-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 113~124
This paper suggests a new approach for providing information for driver safety at signalized intersections. Particularly dangerous situations at signalized intersections such as red-light violations, accelerating through yellow intervals, red-light running, and stopping abruptly due to the dilemma zone problem are considered in this study. This paper presents the development of a dangerous vehicle determination algorithm by collecting real-time vehicle speeds and times from multiple point detectors when the vehicles are traveling during phase-change. For an evaluation of this algorithm, VISSIM is used to perform a real-time multiple detection situation by changing the input data such as various inflow-volume, design speed change, driver perception, and response time. As a result the correct-classification rate is approximately 98.5% and the prediction rate of the algorithm is approximately 88.5%. This paper shows the sensitivity results by changing the input data. This result showed that the new approach can be used to improve safety for signalized intersections.
Development of a Signal Control Algorithm Using an Individual Vehicle's Data in a Wireless Environment
Lee, In-Gyu ; Kim, Yeong-Chan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 125~134
Recently, as IT technology and the ubiquitous environment have diffused, the application of these techniques are being attempted in the field of traffic operations and management. Therefore, it is necessary to develop data collection systems and signal control strategies that are suitable in the ubiquitous environment and that will improve efficiency and safety of signalized intersections. The authors conducted a study on the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) signal control strategy using a wireless communication network between individual vehicles and a signal-control system and full actuated signal control technique to propose a new signal control strategy in the ubiquitous environment. The WSN was defined to evaluate the algorithm used with PARAMICS API simulation. The simulation produced results that the WSN signal control is more effective than other signal control methods. The WSN signal control could reduce vehicle delay time to a maximum of 64% in comparison with other signal control methods in low and near saturation flow conditions.
A Study on the Traffic Accident Estimation Model using Empirical Bayes Method
Gang, Hyeon-Geon ; Gang, Seung-Gyu ; Jang, Yong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 135~144
This study estimates the expected number of accidents in Kyungbuk Province to capitalize on experience gained from four years of accident history using the Empirical Bayes (EB) Method. The number of accidents of each site in Kyungbuk Province is recalculated using the Equivalent Property Damage Only (EPDO) method to reflect the severities of the accidents. A cluster analysis is performed to determine similar sites and a unique Safety Performance Function (SPF) is established for each site. The overdispersion parameter is built to correct the difference between the actual number of accidents and the underlying probability distribution. To adjust for varying traffic characteristics of each site, a relative weight is applied and eventually estimates the expected number of accidents. The results show that the highest accident sites are Kimcheon, Youngcheon, and Chilgok, but on the other hand the lowest is Gunwi.
Methodology for Evaluating Freeway Interchange Spacing for High Design Speed based on Traffic Safety: Focused on Analysis of Acceleration Noise using Microscopic Traffic Simulations
O, Dong-Uk ; O, Cheol ; Jang, Myeong-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 145~153
Although an interest in higher design speeds continues to increase to promote more efficient travel on expressways, the current Korean design guidelines do not provide criteria for design values. An arising issue associated with higher design speeds is how to effectively ensure traffic safety under such high speed traffic conditions. In particular the safety issue would become more significant in determining the interchange spacing. This study proposes a methodology for determining freeway interchange spacing under higher speed traffic conditions. A microscopic traffic simulator, VISSIM, was used to evaluate the effects of various interchange spacings on traffic conditions in terms of safety. In this study, the acceleration noise was used as an index to represent the stability of traffic conditions, which is a potential indicator to quantify the level of safety. It was found based on simulation evaluations that 5-km interchange spacing would be a feasible alternative under higher speed traffic conditions (around 160 km/h).
Study on Forecasting Urban Rail Demand Reflecting Transfer Fare Value in a Non-integrated Fare System
Lee, Jong-Hun ; Son, Ui-Yeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 155~162
The recent increase of light rail construction by the private sector in Korea has caused a new issue in forecasting rail demand. Integrated fare systems between several rail operators is convenient and brings cost savings to users, and therefore is also very effective in increasing demand. However, it causes some short-term revenue loss to operators so that the private sector often suggests a non-integrated fare system. The current rail demand forecasting model is based upon an integrated fare system. Thus this model cannot be used to forecast the demand with a non-integrated fare system. Some value of transfer fare should be estimated and applied to forecast the demand in a non-integrated fare system. This study conducted a stated preference (SP) survey on urban railway passengers and estimated the value of transfer fare. The estimated value is 2,609 Won/hr, which is about 52% of in-vehicle time. This shows railway users have a tendency to pay more for transfer fares to save time or distance. This value has some limitations since it is derived from the SP survey. If some non-integrated fare system is applied in the future and a RP survey is conducted and compared with these study results, a more clear value of the transfer fare will be derived.
Estimating Value of Time for Freight Transportation in Freight Items using Logit Model
Ju, Ji-Won ; Ha, Heon-Gu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 163~168
Travel time reduction is a benefit in economic analysis. Freight transportation time reduction benefits influence the logistics industry. The objectives of this paper are to estimate the Value of Time (VOT) for transportation time reduction with logit methodology. The data of Gyeonggi-do's domestic road freight transport in 2007 are used. VOT was estimated for five commodities. An average VOT of 19,946 won/vehicle-hr was calculated; transport of electronic parts had the highest VOT. This study will help provide direction for improving Korea's road infrastructure for freight.
Assessment of Transfer Center by Facility Design Analysis
Lee, Jeong-Yeop ; Han, Dong-Hui ; Lee, Ju-Yeong ; Lee, Yeong-In ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 169~177
Establishing a public transportation transfer system that can reduce personal automobile use in the CBD and absorb the demand, thereby reducing congestion, is a necessity. However, the current transfer system and facilities are lacking in intermodal connectivity, require long transfer times, have complex flow patterns, and are lacking in information systems and convenience. The design analysis program of this study is to develop a program that executes computations of design analysis of transfer facilities by utilizing the existing design standards for facilities such as facilities for boarding and alighting, elements for convenience, and pedestrian facilities. Developing an analytical tool through which individual or integrated design analysis can be conducted on the design standards of various facilities is an important study for improving the work accuracy and efficiency of designing an actual transfer center.
Application and Evaluation of a Traffic Signal Control Algorithm based on Travel Time Information for Coordinated Arterials
Jeong, Yeong-Je ; Kim, Yeong-Chan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 179~187
This study develops a real-time signal control algorithm based on sectional travel times and includes a field test and evaluation. The objective function of the signal control algorithm is the equalization of delay of traffic movements, and the main process is calculating dissolved time of the queue and delay using the sectional travel time and detection time of individual vehicles. Then this algorithm calculates the delay variation and a targeted red time and calculates the length of the cycle and phase. A progression factor from the US HCM was applied as a method to consider the effect of coordinating the delay calculation, and this algorithm uses the average delay and detection time of probe vehicles, which were collected during the accumulated cycle for a stabile signal control. As a result of the field test and evaluation through the application of the traffic signal control algorithm on four consecutive intersections at 400m intervals, reduction of delay and an equalization effect of delay against TOD control were confirmed using the standard deviation of delay by traffic movements. This study was conducted to develop a real-time traffic signal control algorithm based on sectional travel time, using general-purpose traffic information detectors. With the current practice of disseminating ubiquitous technology, the aim of this study was a fundamental change of the traffic signal control method.
A Study of Transfer Impedance of KTX and Rail Stations
Kim, Hye-Ran ; Kim, Hwang-Bae ; O, Jae-Hak ; Choe, Jin-Hui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 189~194
Transfer impedance is one of the most critical factors decreasing the competitive power of public transportation. Therefore, it is necessary to improve transfer impedance of KTX and rail station users in order to increase the usage of public transportation. Important factors influencing transfer decisions include exterior walking distance, interior walking distance, steps, and escalators. However, their comparative impedances are different. This study constructed a model for calculating transfer impedance based on bodily sensational transfer time in KTX and rail stations and calculated transfer impedance on major KTX and rail stations in Korea. The study results show that the addition of one escalator decreases travel time by one to three minutes. The calculated transfer impedance based on bodily sensational transfer time in this study can be utilized as objective criteria to compare transfer conditions of different KTX and rail stations and to prioritize them for facility improvement. The calculated transfer impedance also can be used as facility guidelines for designing a new transit center.
A Goal-Based Transportation Planning Model
Im, Yong-Taek ; Kim, Hyeon-Myeong ; Yang, In-Cheol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 195~208
A network design problem (NDP) formulated as a mathematical program is generally used to find an optimum value to minimize or to maximize some objectives such as total travel time, social benefit, or others. NDP has, however, some limits of describing components of travel patterns like activities and trip generation due to its modeling simplicity, and also it has difficulty in including attributes of regional planning. In order to cope with such limits, this paper extends NDP to the urban planning field and proposes a mathematical program which can describe the interactions between urban social activities and transportation planning. Based on this model the authors try to optimize both urban activities and the transportation system. The model developed in this paper is tested to assess its application with a real-size regional transportation network.
A Path Travel Time Estimation Study on Expressways using TCS Link Travel Times
Lee, Hyeon-Seok ; Jeon, Gyeong-Su ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 27, issue 5, 2009, Pages 209~221
Travel time estimation under given traffic conditions is important for providing drivers with travel time prediction information. But the present expressway travel time estimation process cannot calculate a reliable travel time. The objective of this study is to estimate the path travel time spent in a through lane between origin tollgates and destination tollgates on an expressway as a prerequisite result to offer reliable prediction information. Useful and abundant toll collection system (TCS) data were used. When estimating the path travel time, the path travel time is estimated combining the link travel time obtained through a preprocessing process. In the case of a lack of TCS data, the TCS travel time for previous intervals is referenced using the linear interpolation method after analyzing the increase pattern for the travel time. When the TCS data are absent over a long-term period, the dynamic travel time using the VDS time space diagram is estimated. The travel time estimated by the model proposed can be validated statistically when compared to the travel time obtained from vehicles traveling the path directly. The results show that the proposed model can be utilized for estimating a reliable travel time for a long-distance path in which there are a variaty of travel times from the same departure time, the intervals are large and the change in the representative travel time is irregular for a short period.