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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Transportation
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Macroscopic-Microscopic Sequential Traffic Simulation Analysis and Dynamic O/D Estimation for Sub-area
Lee, Jin Hak ; Kim, Ikki ; Kim, Dae Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 567~578
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.567
The study suggested a method to improve analysis accuracy such that the interactive effects of transportation changes between outside and inside of sub-areas were sequentially considered in the analysis by linking a macroscopic network analysis and a microscopic traffic simulation. A dynamic O/D estimation method was developed for practical implement of sub-area microscopic simulation analysis by using the results of macroscopic network analysis, the results of selected link analysis at the cordon line of the sub-area, departure time data of household travel survey, timely observed traffic volume data at the cordon. This estimated dynamic O/D for the sub-area made it possible to analyze traffic phenomena in details. Various detailed phenomena such as traffic queues, delay at intersection, and conflicts between vehicles, which is impossible to be grasped through a macroscopic analysis, can be analyzed with the dynamic microscopic traffic analysis. Through implementing an empirical study and validation, the study provided a reference result about accuracy of a microscopic traffic simulation of a sub-area to help its application for real transportation policy analysis.
Assessment of Bicycle Left-turn Traffic Control Strategies at Signalized Intersections
Lee, Chung Min ; Lee, Sang Soo ; Cho, Hanseon ; Nam, Doohee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 579~588
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.579
In this study, three signal control strategies such as Bike box, Hook-turn, and 6-phase were assessed for various traffic conditions at signalized intersections incorporating bicycle left-turn traffic. Results showed that the size of a waiting zone mainly affected the performance of signal control in both Bike box and Hook-turn. Both Bike box and Hook-turn yielded an identical vehicle delay, but Bike box produced less bicycle delay than Hook-turn by 2.5~29.9 sec/veh for undersaturated traffic conditions. For saturated traffic condition, Bike box produced less vehicle delay than Hook-turn and 6-phase strategies, but bicycle delay was found to increase at the 700 vph of bicycle traffic compared to 6-phase. Bicycle delay was greatly increased under Hook-turn and Bike box strategies when bicycle traffic was greater than 300 vph and 500 vph, respectively. It was also shown that bicycle delay could be significantly reduced by providing appropriate size of queueing space. In addition, Bike box was likely to yield less vehicle and bicycle delay than Hook-turn for traffic volume patterns investigated in this study.
A Study on Inaccuracy in Urban Railway Ridership Estimation
Kim, Kang-Soo ; Kim, Ki Min ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 589~599
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.589
This paper analyzes the forecasting errors of traffic volumes by comparing forecasted volumes for the opening year with the observed ones in the years after the urban railway construction in the metropolitan areas. The result shows that the average inaccuracy of traffic volumes for each station was estimated at around 7.27. Based on the confirmed factors of demand estimation errors, this study seeks for an alternative method to reduce estimation errors in feasibility studies. It is noted that there is a tendency that the inaccuracy varies by regions and the longer construction period or the shorter station spacing is, the overestimation increases. If urban railway projects are proceeded as planed, therefore, the level of the inaccuracy for traffic volume forecast will be decreased. In addition, thanks to the theoretical progress, recent estimation results show higher accuracy than before. In that sense, when we introduce the new railway line, it is necessary to make an accurate and realistic demand forecast based on actual outcomes and tendency of the previous estimation. The limitation of our study is that we only cover the errors of the initial period, the opening year and deal with the exogenous variables. Further research including other variables which might be considered to cause overestimation or errors would be needed for increasing the estimation accuracy of traffic volumes.
Forecasting the Korea`s Port Container Volumes With SARIMA Model
Min, Kyung-Chang ; Ha, Hun-Koo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 600~614
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.600
This paper develops a model to forecast container volumes of all Korean seaports using a Seasonal ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) technique with the quarterly data from the year of 1994 to 2010. In order to verify forecasting accuracy of the SARIMA model, this paper compares the predicted volumes resulted from the SARIMA model with the actual volumes. Also, the forecasted volumes of the SARIMA model is compared to those of an ARIMA model to demonstrate the superiority as a forecasting model. The results showed the SARIMA Model has a high level of forecasting accuracy and is superior to the ARIMA model in terms of estimation accuracy. Most of the previous research regarding the container-volume forecasting of seaports have been focussed on long-term forecasting with mainly monthly and yearly volume data. Therefore, this paper suggests a new methodology that forecasts shot-term demand with quarterly container volumes and demonstrates the superiority of the SARIMA model as a forecasting methodology.
A Study on the Implementation of Walking Environment Projects by Analyzing Characteristics of Pedestrian Accidents by Local Government Types
Park, Jinkyung ; Han, Myungjoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 615~627
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.615
In this study, nonhierarchical K-mean cluster analysis is used to classify the types of 230 local governments and the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis analysis are used to analyze the characteristics of pedestrian accidents by region types. With empirical analysis of pedestrian accidents, this study suggests improvements of walking environments reflecting local characteristics. Type 1-A (relatively dominant urban commercial areas), Type 1-B (predominantly urban residence) and Type 2 (rural areas) have been classified using nonhierarchical K-mean cluster analysis. According to the results, pedestrian accident rate on community roads was more than 60% for all types and incidence rate in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas. In addition, pedestrian accidents of Type 1-B have been found to occur more frequently than Type 2 in intersections and crossings, while the number of roadside casualties for Type 2 was highest.
A Study on the Improvement of Pedestrian Facilities by the Use of Importance-Performance Analysis
Lee, Chang Hee ; Kim, Myung Soo ; Jo, Kyeong Nam ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 628~637
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.628
The purpose of this study is to investigate the actual conditions of the mobility convenience facilities for pedestrians and their perception of the facilities, and thereby provide fundamental material necessary to establish a strategy of improving mobility convenience facilities. This study tried to analyze the characteristics of the mobility convenience facilities for pedestrians. Based on previous studies and "Report of Mobility Facilities of the Mobility Handicapped", this study first chose the evaluation items related to mobility convenience facilities, and then conducted a questionnaire survey and Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). According to the study results, first, the item that needs intensive improvement was sidewalks, and the detailed indicators for sidewalks were walking safety, convenient facilities for the disabled, and pavement in order. Secondly, the items that need to be maintained were bus and crossroad. Thirdly, the low-ranking items were under-passageway and pedestrian overpass. And lastly, the items that need to be controlled were facilities for passenger terminals and bus terminals. Based on the comprehensive IPA result, this researcher judged the actual use conditions of the mobility convenience facilities in Buyeo-gun, Chungcheongnamdo. Therefore, it was found that it would be urgent to improve the direct walking environment on sidewalks. In this aspect, for future policy decision and facility maintenance, it is desirable to put the item in priority in terms of investment and come up with an improvement strategy.
Effects of Urban Environments on Pedestrian Behaviors: a Case of the Seoul Central Area
Kwon, Daeyoung ; Suh, Tongjoo ; Kim, Soyoon ; Kim, Brian Hong Sok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 638~650
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.638
The objective of this study is to identify the causes of pedestrian volume path to the destination by investigating the influential levels of regional and planning features in the central area of Seoul. Regional characteristics can be classified from the result of the analysis and through the spatial characteristics of pedestrian volume. For global scale analysis, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression is used for the degree of influence of each characteristics to pedestrian volume. For the local scale, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is used to identify regional influential factors with consideration for spatial differences. The results of OLS indicate that boroughs with transportation facilities, commercial business districts, universities, and planning features with education research facilities and planning facilities have a positive effect on pedestrian volume path to the destination. Correspondingly, transportation hubs and congested areas, commercial and business centers, and university towns and research facilities in the Seoul central area can be identified through the results of GWR. The results of this study can provide information with relevance to existing plans and policies about the importance of regional characteristics and spatial heterogeneity effects on pedestrian volume, as well as significance in the establishment of regional development plans.
Development of Capacity Models Based on the Travel Characteristics at Roundabout
Kim, Tae Young ; Beak, Tae Hun ; Park, Byung Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 651~661
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.651
Recently, many studies have been undertaken regarding the of introduction at roundabout in Korea. The studies related to roundabout capacity, however, is insufficient. Thus, the goal of this study is to develop a capacity model based on real data. The main results are as follows. First, roundabout capacity in Korea was analyzed using HCM capacity model based on critical gap and following time estimated by Probit model. Entry capacity in Korea was evaluated to be similar to that of the U.S in the case of low circulating flow(
), but higher in the case of high circulating flow(
). Second, the basic capacity models in Korea were newly developed based on real traffic data. Third, models that consider geometric structure were developed based on the basic models. Finally, all of the developed models mentioned above were analyzed to be statistically significant.
A Development of Traffic Accident Estimation Model by Random Parameter Negative Binomial Model: Focus on Multilane Rural Highway
Lim, Joon Beom ; Lee, Soo Beom ; Kim, Joon-Ki ; Kim, Jeong Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 662~674
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.662
In this study, accident frequency prediction models were constructed by collecting variables such as geometric structures, safety facilities, traffic volume and weather conditions, land use, highway design-satisfaction criteria along 780km (4,372 sections) of 4 lane-highways over 8 areas. As for models, a fixed parameter model and a random parameter model were employed. In the random parameter model, some influences were reversed as the range was expressed based on specific probability in the case of no fixed coefficients. In the fixed parameter model, the influences of independent variables on accident frequency were interpreted by using one coefficient, but in the random parameter model, more various interpretations were took place. In particular, curve radius, securement of shoulder lane, vertical grade design criteria satisfaction showed both positive and negative influence, according to specific probability. This means that there could be a reverse effect depending on the behavioral characteristics of drivers and the characteristics of highway sections. Rather, they influence the increase of accident frequency through the all sections.
Segment-based Differentiated Pricing Strategy for Reducing Congestion of Expressways
Lee, Eunho ; Kim, Dong-Kyu ; Kho, Seung-Young ; Kim, Hyo Seung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 675~685
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.675
This paper develops a differentiated pricing strategy over each segment of expressways based on the second-best pricing method for reducing congestion. To this end, a bi-level problem is proposed, in which the upper level of the model is formulated to determine toll level of each segment for minimizing traffic congestion, whereas the lower level of the model is formulated as a variable demand assignment problem. The sensitivity analysis based algorithm is took placed to find optimal solutions of upper level model. An application of the proposed model uses the modified Sioux-Falls network. The results show that the segment-based differentiated pricing strategy performs better than the existing uniform pricing strategy in reducing traffic congestion. This study can be applied as a demand management method to relieve disutility of excessively congested segments of expressways.
Development of a Surface Temperature Prediction Model Using Neural Network Theory
Kim, In Su ; Yang, Choong Heon ; Choi, Keechoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 686~693
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.686
This study presents a model that enables to predict road surface temperature using neural network theory. Historical road surface temperature data were collected from Road Weather Information System. They used for the calibration of the model. The neural network was designed to predict surface temperature after 1-hour, 2-hour, and 3-hour from now. The developed model was performed on Cheongwon-Sangju highway to test. As a result, the standard deviation of the difference of the predicted and observed was
, respectively. Also, comparing the predicted surface temperature and the actual data, R2 was found to be 0.985, 0.923, and 0.903, respectively. It can be concluded that the explanatory power of the model seems to be high.
A Study on Estimation of CO
Emission and Uncertainty in the Road Transportation Sector Using Distance Traveled : Focused on Passenger Cars
Park, Woong Won ; Park, Chun Gun ; Kim, Eungcheol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Transportation, volume 32, issue 6, 2014, Pages 694~702
DOI : 10.7470/jkst.2014.32.6.694
Since Greenhouse Gas Inventory & Research Center (GIR) of Korea was founded in 2010, the annual greenhouse gas inventory reports, one of the collections of GIR`s major affairs, have been published from 2012. In the reports many items related to greenhouse gas emission quantities are included, but among them uncertainty values are replaced to basic values which IPCC guideline suggests. Even though IPCC guideline suggests the equations of each Tier level in details, the guideline recommends developing nation`s own methodology on uncertainty which is closely related to statistical problems such as the estimation of a probability density function or Monte carlo methods. In the road transportation sector the emissions have been calculated by Tier 1 but the uncertainties have not been reported. This study introduce a bootstrap technique and Monte carlo method to estimates annual emission quantity and uncertainty, given activity data and emission factors such as annual traveled distances, fuel efficiencies and emission coefficients.