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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 32, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 32, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 32, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 32, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 32, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 32, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Characteristics of Sonication Combined with UV in the Degradation of Phenol
Kim, Seong-Keun ; Son, Hyun-Seok ; Im, Jong-Kwon ; Khim, Jee-Hyeong ; Zoh, Kyung-Duk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 649~655
This study investigated the degradation of phenol using sonication and/or UV-C. The effects of frequency, temperature, pH in solution, argon purging, with UV intensity were estimated in sonication-only, UV-only, and the combined reaction of sonication with UV. The optimum condition for degrading phenol in the sonication-only reaction was 35 kHz,
, and pH 4. As this condition approximately 30% degradation of phenol was achieved within 360 min. However, phenol in the UV-only at
under the same condition was completely degraded within 60 min. In the combined system of sonication with UV, the degradation of phenol was well fitted to first-order rate model, and phenol was completely degraded within 360 min and 45 min at UV intensity of
), respectively. Adding methanol, as a radical scavenger, in the phenol degradation in the sonication reaction indicates that OH radical is a major factor in the degradation of phenol. The order of degradation efficiencies of phenol was in the order of as follows; combined reaction of sonication with UV > UV-only > sonication-only.
Assessment of Distribution Patterns and Sources for PAHs, OCPs, and Co-PCBs in the Surface Sediments from the Nakdong River Basin, Korea
Kang, Hee-Hyung ; Lee, In-Seok ; Huh, In-Ae ; Shin, Won-Sik ; Hwang, In-Sung ; Kim, Young-Hoon ; Hur, Jin ; Shin, Hyun-Sang ; Kim, Joon-Ha ; Oh, Jeong-Eun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 656~664
We investigated the levels and distribution patterns of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 12 Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the surface sediments from the Nakdong river basin, Korea. The levels of 16 PAHs and 12 Co-PCBs in the river sediment samples ranged from not detected (N.D.)~969.3 ng/g-dry, 4.2~7716.5 pg/g-dry (0.0~10.1 pg-TEQ/g-dry), respectively. Also, the levels of 16 PAHs were from 5.8~2987.2 ng/g-dry and 4.3~461.1 pg/g-dry (0.0~0.6 pg-TEQ/g-dry) for 12 Co-PCBs in the lake sediment samples. Only dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) were detected among target OCPs and the concentration ranged from N.D.~1.5 ng/g-dry in the river sediment samples. These contamination levels were far below the guideline values suggested for environmental quality assessment. Low molecular weight PAHs were dominant in the river sediment samples, while middle and high molecular weight PAHs were dominant among 16 PAHs in the lake sediment samples. PCB-118 and PCB-105 were predominant congeners in the sediment, which were similar to the results obtained from previous studies. With these results, the assessment of potential sources of PAHs and Co-PCBs contamination in the sediments of the Nakdong river basin was performed. The pyrogenic-PAHs originated from combustion of fossil fuel and biomass were related with the PAHs contribution in most of the sediment samples, and Co-PCBs in the sediment samples were related with commercial PCB products.
Solidification/Stabilization of Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge Prior to Use as a Landfill Cover Material
Park, Youn-Jin ; Shin, Won-Sik ; Choi, Sang-June ; Lee, Hoon-Ha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 665~675
The effects of chemical binders (ladle slag, ordinary portland cement (OPC), hydroxyapatite and calcium hydroxide) on the solidification/stabilization of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in sewage sludge were evaluated by chemical leaching tests such as EDTA extraction, TCLP and sequential extraction. The results of EDTA extraction showed that heavy metal concentrations in sewage sludge were highly reduced after solidification/stabilization with slag, cement or calcium hydroxide. However, EDTA interrupted solidification/stabilization of heavy metals by hydroxyapatite. The TCLP-extracted heavy metal concentrations in sewage sludge after solidification/stabilization with chemical amendments were highly reduced. However, Cu concentration in the sewage sludge solidified/stabilized with slag, cement or calcium hydroxide increased because the pH of TCLP solution was higher than 7. Mixtures of sludge 1 : slag 0.2 : calcium hydroxide 0.1 (wt ratio) showed the least leachability in batch TCLP and EDTA extraction. The results of sequential extraction (SM&T, formaly BCR) indicated that the distribution of heavy metals changed from exchangable and carbonate fractions to strongly bound organic fraction. It was found that maximum leachate concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cr and Pb from sewage sludge amended with slag and calcium hydroxide were far below US EPA TCLP regulations.
Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia Coli and Brevibacterium sp. Isolated from Livestock Waste and Disinfection Efficiency of Gamma-Ray Irradiation
Jang, Eun-Hee ; Jung, Sang-Hyuk ; Nam, Youn-Ku ; Park, Woo-Shin ; Lee, Myun-Joo ; Kim, Tak-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 676~681
Antibiotic resistant bacteria were isolated from livestock wastes and the resistance patterns were investigated using various antibiotic agents. Also, a gamma ray was tested regarding the aspects of the effect on resistance pattern and the efficiency of disinfection. Among the isolates, Esherichia coli and Brevibacterium sp. showed the most serious resistance patterns. Esherichia coli had resistance against 9 agents whereas Brevibacterium sp. against 7 agents. It can be suggested from these results that the abuse of antibiotic agents will cause a serious mutation problem even to Esherichia coli which is ubiquitous in the ecosystem. Esherichia coli could be easily controlled but Brevibacterium sp. had a moderate resistance to the gamma ray under low doses. In the case of Brevibacterium sp, more than 2.0 kGy of a radiation dose will be required in order to achieve an enhanced efficiency of disinfection.
Evaluation of Leaching Characteristics of Bottom Ash and Waste Tire
Lee, Jea-Keun ; Koh, Tae-Hoon ; Sa, Kong-Myong ; Lee, Sung-Jin ; Lee, Tae-Yoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 682~689
The purpose of this study was to determine any detrimental effects on surrounding environments by using bottom ash, waste tire, and mixture as a fill material to raise the ground level. Three different initial pHs (4, 6, 8) were applied to bottom ash and initial pH of 4 was used to waste tire and mixture. Among 7 heavy metals, Pb and Zn were exceeded drinking water standards but their concentrations decreased below drinking water standards within 1 PVE. Among 5 anions, sulfate exceeded 10 times of drinking water standards and further higher partition coefficients resulted in increased PVE of 8.21. For the mixture of bottom ash and waste tire, its concentrations of heavy metals and anions were decreased due to the dilution effect and lowered PVE from 8.21 (BA) to 5.89.
Numerical Study on Operating Factors Affecting Performance of Surfactant-Enhanced Aquifer Remediation Process
Lee, Kun-Sang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 690~698
Contamination of groundwater resources by organic chemicals has become an issue of increasing environmental concern. Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) is widely recognized as one of the most promising techniques to remediate organic contaminations in-situ. Solutions of surfactant or surfactant with polymer are used to dramatically expedite the process, which in turn, may reduce the treatment time of a site compared to use of water alone. In the design of surfactant-based technologies for remediation of organic contaminated aquifers, it is very important to have a considerable analysis using extensive numerical simulations prior to full-scale implementation. This study investigated the formation and flow of microemulsions during SEAR of organic-contaminated aquifer using the finite difference model UTCHEM, a three-dimensional, multicomponent, multiphase, compositional model. The remediation process variables considered in this study were the sequence of injection fluids, the injection and extraction rate, the concentrations of polymer in surfactant slug and chase water, and the duration of surfactant injection. For each variable, temporal changes in injection and production wells and spatial distributions of relative saturations in the organic phase were compared. Cleanup time and cumulative organic recovery were also quantified. The study would provide useful information to design strategies for the remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid-contaminated aquifers.
Characteristics of Biodegradation of Geosmin using BAC Attached Bacteria in Batch Bioreactor
Son, Hee-Jong ; Jung, Chul-Woo ; Choi, Young-Ik ; Jang, Seong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 699~705
In this study, three different biological activated carbons (BACs) were prepared from activated carbons made of each coal (F400, Calgon), coconut (Samchully) and wood(Pica, Picabiol) which were run for two and half years in the pilot plant. The attached bio-film microorganisms in and on the BACs were isolated and identified. The results showed that nine different bacteria species (Chryseomonas luteola, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Spingomonas paucimobilis, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Spirillum spp., and Pasteurella haemolytica) were isolated and identified, the dominant species was Pseudomonas sp. that had occupied 56.5%. More specifically, it was observed that the populations of the microorganisms deceased in the order: Pasteurella haemolytica (18.9%) > Chryseomonas luteola (4.0%) > Agrobacterium radiobacter (3.5%) > Aeromonas hydrophila (2.0%) in and on the BACs. After isolating of 9 species of biofilm microorganisms, the growth curve for the biomass was investigated. During 24~96 hours, the biomass has the highest concentration, and activity of the biomass was the best to uptake geosmin as carbon resources. The operation temperatures for investigating the biodegradation of geosmin were set at
. Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Agrobacterium radiobacter and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia played a maior role in removing the target compound as geosmin. However, geosmin was not biodegraded well by Chryseomonas luteola, Spingomonas paucimobilis, and Spirillum spp.. It is also interesting to evaluate kinetics of biodegradability of geosmin. The first-order rate constants for biodegradability of geosmin at
respectively. Higher water temperature produced better geosmin removal rates. When concentrations of geosmin increased from 10 to 10,000 ng/L, the rate constants for biodegradability of geosmin increased from 0.0003 to
. As described earlier, higher geosmin concentration in the reactor produced higher rate constant.
Comparison of the Sonodegradation of Naphthalene and Phenol by the Change of Frequencies and Addition of Oxidants or Catalysts
Park, Jong-Sung ; Her, Nam-Guk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 706~713
The research seeks to find the optimal conditions for sonodegradation of naphthalene and phenol as exemplary organic pollutants to be subjected to ultrasound in varying frequencies (28 kHz, 580 kHz, and 1,000 kHz) and in the presence of different kinds of additive (T
, Zeolite, and Cu). In cases of both naphthalene and phenol, 580 kHz of ultrasound has proven to be the most effective among others at sonodegradation. Based on the observation that OH radicals are also produced in maximum under exposure of 580 kHz of ultrasound, we concluded that this frequency of ultrasound creates hospitable condition for the combined process of degradation by pyrolysis and oxidization.
degradation rate and k1 value have increased by approximately 1.8 times compared with the results of the solutions without any additives. This seems to be the result of ultrasound reaction which, accompanied by Fenton's reaction, increased the oxidative degradation and the production of OH radicals. However, application of ultrasound and Fenton's reaction is limited to the batch type conditions, as its use in continuous system can cause loss of iron or decay of the cistern, thereby creating additional pollutants. When the additive is replaced with
, on the contrary, the rate of sonodegradation has increased up to 20% compared to when there was no additive. We therefore conclude that
could prove to be an effective additive for ultrasound degradation in continuous treatment system.
Fluoride Sorption Property of Lanthanum Hydroxide
Kim, Jung-Hwan ; Park, Hyun-Ju ; Jung, Kyung-Hun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 714~721
This research was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of lanthanum hydroxide for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. A batch sorption experiments were conducted to study the influence of various factors such as pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration and temperature on the sorption of fluoride on lanthanum hydroxide. The optimum fluoride removal was observed in the
. Sorption equilibrium of fluoride on lanthanum hydroxide was better described by the Freundlish isotherm model than by the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption energy obtained from D-R model was 9.21 kJ/mol indicating an ion-exchange process as primary adsorption mechanism. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model described well the experimental kinetic data. Thermodynamic parameters such as
indicated that the nature of fluoride sorption is spontaneous and endothermic. The used lanthanum hydroxide could be regenerated by washing with NaOH solution. Also, the results applied to real ground water indicate that fluoride selectivity and removal capacity of lanthanum hydroxide were superior to those of PA anion-exchange resin.
Applicability of UV and UV/
Processes in the Control of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products and Microbiological Safety for Water Reuse
Kim, Il-Ho ; Tanaka, Hiroaki ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 722~729
Over the last decades, much consideration has been given to microbiological and chemical risks, especially when wastewater was reclaimed as water resources for urban water, irrigation water and recreational water etc. We investigated the performance of UV-based processes such as UV and UV/
for both the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as an emerging chemical and the inactivation of pathogen with bench-scale experimental study. 38 kinds of PPCPs including antibiotics and analgesics were detected from secondary effluent used as tested water. Bench-scale experimental study showed that UV process would require considerable UV dose for the effective PPCPs removal. Contrarily, PPCPs removal efficiency significantly improved by the combination of
with UV even at a lower UV dose and, moreover, their removal efficiency increased with the increased initial
concentration. Besides naproxen (>89%), concentrations of all the investigated PPCPs decreased by more than 90% of their initial concentrations under
of UV dose and 6.2 mg/L of
. Previous studies showed that this operational condition could get 4~5 log inactivation for Total coliform, indicating that UV/
process will be appropriate to comply with the criteria of California Title 22 for Total coliform.
Inhibition Effects of
Ion on Struvite Crystallization
Kim, Seung-Ha ; Kim, Keum-Yong ; Ryu, Hong-Duck ; Lee, Sang-Ill ;
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, volume 32, issue 7, 2010, Pages 730~737
It is very important to remove fluoride ion before treating semiconductor wastewater containing high concentration of ammonia, phosphates, and fluoride ions by struvite formation. Calcium ion was generally added for the removal of fluoride ion. However, calcium ions remained after removal of fluoride ion can deteriorate the performance of struvite crystalization. It should be removed completely before struvite formation. In this study, the effect of fluoride and calcium ion concentration on the struvite crystalization was investigated. Removal efficiencies of ortho-phosphate with struvite formation were more abruptly decreased than those of ammonium nitrogen, as increase of fluoride ion concentration in synthetic wastewater. The structures of struvite formed in synthetic wastewater containing calcium ion of up to 500 mg/L were identical. Purity of struvite was deteriorated as increase of calcium ion over 500 mg/L. Removal efficiencies of ammonium nitrogen were more decreased than those of phosphate ions as increase of cacium ion in synthetic wastewater.