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The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 59, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 59, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 59, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 59, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 59, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 59, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 59, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 59, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 59, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 59, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 59, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 59, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
Selecting the target year
Web Service based Information Integration Architecture in Power Systems
Bae, Jae-Kwang ; Kim, Young-Kook ; Lim, Seong-Il ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 225~231
As growth of operational complexity in power systems, necessity of information integration between automation systems such as EMS, SAS, DAS and renewable energy sources has been increased. This paper proposes a new information integration architecture between power automation systems based on web service technique. Loosely coupled feature of web service system can provide more flexible and reliable way to exchange information. Communication testing on the demonstration system has been performed to establish the feasibility of the proposed architecture.
Development of the Contingency Analysis Program of Korean Energy Management System
Cho, Yoon-Sung ; Yun, Sang-Yun ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 232~241
This paper describes the development of robust contingency analysis program for Korean Energy Management System. The important function of contingency analysis is to determine the bus/branch model for contingency, and to calculate the state of the power network based on the network model and topology output. In the proposed method, the bus/branch models for contingencies are determined exactly using a fast linked-list method based on the application common model database. To calculate the state of the power system included contingency, the full-decoupled powerflow approach, the partial powerflow method for contingencies and the proposed contingency screening algorithm are also used to contingency analysis. To verify the performance of the developed processor, we performed a file-based test using several structured input data and online test using the database which resides on memory. The results of these comprehensive tests showed that the developed processors can accurately calculate the power system contingency state from online data and can be applied to Korea Power Exchange system.
Development of Real-Time Load Flow Program for Korean Energy Management System
Yun, Sang-Yun ; Cho, Yoon-Sung ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 242~247
This paper introduces a real-time load flow program for Korean energy management system(EMS). This study is concentrated on the following aspects. First, we propose the model of the real-time database and power system equipment for the real-time load flow. These models are extracted from the needs of load flow functions and are designed to the application common information. Second, several techniques are applied for the efficient convergence and computational speed. The generation/load mismatch is redistributed using generator participation factors which are separated to the reference bus. For the voltage control, the jacobian matrix is composed with the basic Y matrix elements and the voltage control elements. Through the optimally ordering, jacobian row and column for a column is changed. However all jacobian matrix entries have same order with the Y matrix. The proposed program is tested using the Korea Electric Power Corporation(KEPCO) system. Through the test, we verified that the proposed program can be effectively used to accomplish the Korean EMS system.
Implementation of Microgrid using Energy Storage System
Lee, Kye-Byung ; Son, Kwang-M. ; Jang, Gil-Soo ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 248~254
This paper deals with implementation of the laboratory-scale microgrid using energy storage system. Also, this paper develops a simulation model of the microgrid with same parameters on the laboratory-scale microgrid using PSCAD/EMTDC. The experimental results show good agreement with the simulation results. This shows the validity of the simulation model. A valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery is used to store energy. Energy storage system with fast response is able to maintain power quality of sensitive load within the microgrid.
SCL based HMI Development Methodology for IEC 61850 SAS
Choi, Young-Jun ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Choi, Myeon-Song ; Lee, Seung-Jae ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 255~261
In this paper, a substation HMI based on IEC 61850 is proposed that uses SCL to have all information in substation to include standard concept of IEC 61850. A proposed substation HMI using SCL based on IEC 61850 expresses different display by each substation structure and component device change in substation. A proposed substation HMI is designed by IEC 61850 standard, and it suits for future substation HMI based on IEC 61850. A proposed HMI is proved by a program that is made by Visual C++ to use SCL file based on XML.
A Study on the Analysis of Damping Loads to Prevent Harmonic Resonance
Lim, Chan-Ho ; Lee, Kyeong-Seob ; Yu, Won-Kun ; Lee, Heung-Jae ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 262~266
During the restoration process of primary restorative transmission system, the over voltage may happen due to nonlinear interaction between the unloaded transformer and the transmission system. This over voltage is caused by harmonic resonance and can be prevented by damping loads that are connected before restoration process of primary restorative transmission system. But it is very difficult to predict the occurrence possibility of the harmonic resonance previously. This paper analyzes the relationship between the harmonic resonance and the amount of damping loads to prevent the harmonic resonance. This paper calculates the minimum amount of damping loads to prevent harmonic resonance while changing the length of primary restorative transmission line. And this paper confirmed that the amount of damping loads is not proportional to length of transmission line. The result of this paper will be used as important experiment data to predict the occurrence possibility of harmonic resonance previously.
Application of Robust Controller Design to Photovoltaic System Simulator
Lee, Youn ; Chun, Yeong-Han ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 267~271
Photovoltaic system simulator is under being developed for the performance test of Power conditioning system (PCS). The photovoltaic system simulator is required to emulate real system, which can be obtained by fast response controller. In this paper, we suggest a robust control method as a tool to design the simulator controller. The performance of the controller is determined by weighting functions, sensitivity function
complementary sensitiviey function
, and a control signal shaping function
. Experimental results show that robust control method is promising for obtaining better performance of the photovoltaic system simulator.
Assessment of Optimal Constitution Rate of Windturbine and Photovoltaic Sources for Stable Operation of Microgird
Lee, Su-Mi ; Chun, Yeong-Han ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 272~276
Renewable energy sources are considered to be environment-friendly alternatives those are increasingly introduced in the power systems. Microgrid is one of the systems in which renewable sources have a main role as a energy suppliers. Decision of constitution rates of renewable energy sources is very important for the economical and stable operation of microgird systems. In this paper, we present a method to assess an optimal constitution rate of renewable sources especially of windturbine and photovoltaic systems.
A Study on the New Classification System and Interpretation Work Methods for Standardization of Power IT Terminologies
Kim, Jung-Hoon ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 277~284
As technology is developed, the quantity of new vocabularies is increasing more rapidly. So many vocabularies of technology have various meanings for each part and are used diversely according to circumstances. Therefore, the necessity of reasonable methods of standardization and purification is increasing and it is necessary to establish a classification system of terminology for the first phase of the standardization. Firstly, based on classification systems of power and IT standard dictionaries, scientific and technological standard, SPARK, power IT fields of IEC and organization units of corporations, we propose a new classification system for the standardization of power IT terminologies. The classification system consists of a hierarchical structure with general classification, application fields and specific technologies while keeping the conventional matrix-type classification system. And interpretation methods of power IT terminologies, which are classified according to the new classification system for the standardization of power IT terminologies, is proposed. The interpretation works of the power IT terminologies confirm that the classification system is systematic and the interpretation process is efficient.
Outage Probability Analysis under Time-varying characteristic of Indoor Single User PLC Considering Channel Length and Transmit Power
Shin, Jae-Young ; Jeong, Ji-Chai ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 285~290
We investigate the outage probability in terms of QoS (quality of service) in indoor PLC network. We consider various kinds of appliances for realistic indoor PLC network. For estimation of the outage probability, we calculate the time-varying channel responses considering the loading conditions based on regular human activities and include the additive noise. We calculate the outage probability for each terminal and investigate relationship between the outage probability and the channel length, and transmit powers. Our results suggest that the outage probability is increased when the channel length becomes longer because more appliances affect the amount of reduced channel capacity and is not improved distinctly for very high and low outage threshold by increasing the transmit power. However, we can see outage probability improvement for 30% outage threshold case by increasing the transmit power.
A Study on the Determination of the optimal incentives and amount of load reduction for a retailer to maximize profits considering Demand Response Programs
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kwag, Hyung-Geun ; Kim, Jin-O ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 291~297
A system called demand response programs (DRP) is being introduced among various countries owing to the lack of new generation capacity and the higher fuel generation cost. It is a program which provides for the end-users to select their consumption of electricity by recognizing the value of their consumption in real time. That is, Demand Response can be defined as the changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity or other signals. It is expected that the effects of DRP are preventing price spike, improving supply reliability and social welfare and increasing option of customers. Considering the customer's thermal comfort zone, this paper determines the most profitable combination of optimal incentives and amounts of load reduction for a retailer to maximize profits according to predicted outdoor temperatures while implementing DRP.
The Optimal Volt/Var Control Algorithm with Distributed Generation of Distribution System
Kim, Young-In ; Lim, Il-Hyung ; Choi, Myeon-Song ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Lee, Sung-Woo ; Ha, Bok-Nam ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 298~305
In this paper, a new algorithm of optimal Volt/Var Control is proposed using Volt/Var control for the Distribution Automation System (DAS) with Distributed Generation (DG) based on the modeling of the distributed load and the distributed current. In the proposed, algorithm based on the modeling of the distributed load and the distributed current are estimated from constants of four terminals using the measurement of the current and power factor from a Feeder Remote Terminal Unit (FRTU) and DG data from RTU for DG. For the optimal Volt/Var Control, the gradient method is applied to find optimal solution for tap, capacity and power control of OLTC (On-Load Tap Changers), SVR (Step Voltage Regulator), PC (Power Condenser) and DG (Distributed Generation). In the case studies, the estimation and control of the voltages have been testified in a radial distribution system with DG using matlab program.
Design and Experimental Verification of an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor for High-speed Machines
Kim, Sung-Il ; Lee, Geun-Ho ; Lee, Chang-Ha ; Hong, Jung-Pyo ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 306~310
On account of small size and light weight, a high-speed machine is regarded as a key technology for many future applications of drive systems. In high-speed applications, permanent magnet synchronous motors have a number of merits such as high efficiency and high power density. Therefore, they are suitable for driving the air-blower of a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) where space and energy savings are critical. Particularly, a surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM) of them is mainly used as a high-speed machine. However, the motor has a fatal flaw due to a retaining can to maintain the mechanical integrity of a rotor assembly. The can results in the increase of magnetic air-gap length in the SPMSM. Thus, in this paper, an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) is applied in order to drive the air-blower of FCEV instead of the SPMSM, and the experimental results of two models are compared to verify the capability of the IPMSM for high-speed applications.
Operation Characteristics of a Small Single-phase Written-pole Motor in Home Appliance
Park, Seong-Cheol ; Lee, Won-Yong ; Yu, Byung-Hun ; Kim, Dae-Kyong ; Shin, Duck-Shick ; Kim, Byung-Taek ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 311~317
This paper deals with operation characteristics of a written-pole motor (WPM), having that of a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor and induction motor at once. The WPM also has a magnet layer on the surface of the rotor and the exciter pole that is a device to make the magnet layer magnetized during the operation. This study, introducing a fundamental structure and operation characteristics of a single-phase WPM, proposes a initial design method. With those ground, a 130W, single-phase WPM that is designed for a home appliance is presented and verified with a performance through the experiment.
Analysis on Dynamic Characteristic and Circuit Parameter of Linear Switched Reluctance Motor by Electromagnetic Analytical Method
Park, Ji-Hoon ; Ko, Kyoung-Jin ; Choi, Jang-Young ; Jang, Seok-Myeong ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 318~327
This paper deals with analysis on dynamic characteristic and circuit parameter of linear switched reluctance motor by electromagnetic analytical method. Above all, using space harmonic method, which is electromagnetic method, the air-gap flux density is analyzed in the both align and unaign positions, and the inductance profile, force characteristic and resistance per phase are calculated by means of the process. The validity of the analyzed results are demonstrated by the finite element method(FEM) and manufacture of the prototype machine. Second, the dynamic simulation is analyzed by the use of circuit parameters derived from analytical method, and the operating system of the prototype machine is manufactured to demonstrated the validity of simulation analysis. As a result, it is considered that the characteristic equation suggested in this paper will contribute to the design, analysis and application of LSRM.
A Study on Arc Conductance of Puffer Type SF
GCB at Current Zero Period
Chong, Jin-Kyo ; Song, Ki-Dong ; Lee, Woo-Young ; Kim, Gyu-Tak ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 328~332
The SLF(Short Line Fault) breaking capability test for high voltage class
GCB(Gas Circuit Breaker) was conducted. Simplified LC resonant circuit test facility was used for SLF breaking test. During test, Test current was measured by Rogwski coil and arc voltage was measured by voltage divider. Arc conductance was calculated by using these test results before 200ns at current zero. Critical arc conductance value at rated voltage 145kV class is about 2.3mS regardless of breaking current magnitude and arc conductance value at rated voltage 170kV class is about 2.6mS.
A Study on the Control Method for Torque Ripple Reduction during Phase Commutation
Kim, Tae-Hyoung ; Ahn, Jin-Woo ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 333~337
In this paper, an advanced torque control scheme of Switched Reluctance Motor(SRM) using modified non-linear logical TSF (Torque Sharing Function) with PWM is presented. In the proposed control scheme, a simple calculation of PWM duty ratio and switching rules from DITC(Direct Instantaneous Torque Control) can reduce the torque ripple with fixed switching frequency. The proposed control scheme is verified by the computer simulations and experimental results.
Four-Quadrant Operation of a Single-Switch-based Switched Reluctance Drive
Ha, Keun-Soo ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 338~343
Low cost motor drives are being sought for high volume energy efficient home appliances. Key to the realization of such low cost motor drives is to reduce the power electronic converter in terms of its components, particularly the active devices, finding the motor with least complexity for manufacturing and a controller that could extract the desired performance from the machine and converter combination. These and other factors such as self-starting, speed control over a wide range and most of all the crowning aspect of a four quadrant operation with bare minimum number of controllable switch (or switches) remain as formidable challenges for low cost motor drive realization. In this paper, a four quadrant switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive with only one controllable switch is realized by using a two-phase machine. The theory and operation of the proposed four-quadrant SRM drive with the proposed control algorithm for its realization are described. The motor drive is modeled, simulated and analyzed to verify its feasibility for self-starting, speed control and for four quadrant operation and the simulation results are presented. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed control algorithm for four quadrant control of the SRM drive. The focus of the paper is mainly directed toward the control algorithm for realizing the four-quadrant operation of the two-phase SRM drive with a single controllable switch converter.
Development of a Green Home Simulator using LabVIEW
Kim, Jo-Hwan ; Moon, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Byung-Jae ; Kim, Jin-Seok ; Jang, Joo-Hyun ; Jo, Jae-Young ; Shin, Haeng-Ja ; Son, Joon-Ik ; Kim, Jong-Wook ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 344~351
In this paper, we developed a green home simulator using LabVIEW for house designers or users to assess energy saving costs in an easy and direct way. The LabVIEW simulator has a strong graphic user interface, which is intuitive to general users. Therefore, the developed simulator enables one to gather information on electric power consumed in its house and to calculate efficiency for installing green energy generators such as solar and wind power generators. As an actual application, we simulate and compare the efficiencies of installing green energy generators at various cities and seasons using the developed LabVIEW simulator. The simulation results confirm that energy saving effects of green energies are easy to calculate by the proposed green home simulator.
A Study on the Superconducting prperties of Bi system bulk
Lee, Sang-Heon ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 352~354
The effects of Au addition on the structure and the superconducting properties of Bi system bulk have been investigated. Au exists in the metalic form in above materials. It does not affect the formation and structure of the BiSrCaCuO(2223) phase. The superconducting transition temperature Tc does not change for
composite However Au doping can make the grains smaller. Metallic Au can make gathers on the grains boundary and lead to the increment of critical transport current density. The current density of
at liquid nitrogen temperature.
A 12-bit 1MS/s SAR ADC with Rail-to-Rail Input Range
Kim, Doo-Yeoun ; Jung, Jae-Jin ; Lim, Shin-Il ; Kim, Su-Ki ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 355~358
As CMOS technology continues to scale down, signal processing is favorably done in the digital domain, which requires Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter to be integrated on-chip. This paper presents a design methodology of 12-bit 1-MS/s Rail-to-Rail fully differential SAR ADC using Deep N-well Switch based on binary search algorithm. Proposed A/D Converter has the following architecture and techniques. Firstly, chip size and power consumption is reduced due to split capacitor array architecture and charge recycling method. Secondly, fully differential architecture is used to reduce noise between the digital part and converters. Finally, to reduce the mismatch effect and noise error, the circuit is designed to be available for Rail-to-Rail input range using simple Deep N-well switch. The A/D Converter fabricated in a TSMC 0.18um 1P6M CMOS technology and has a Signal-to-Noise-and-Distortion-Ratio(SNDR) of 69 dB and Free-Dynamic-Range (SFDR) of 73 dB. The occupied active area is
Single ZnO Nanowire Inverter Logic Circuits on Flexible Plastic Substrates
Kang, Jeong-Min ; Lee, Myeong-Won ; Koo, Sang-Mo ; Hong, Wan-Shick ; Kim, Sang-Sig ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 359~362
In this study, inverter logic circuits on a plastic substrate are built with two top-gate FETs in series on a single ZnO nanowire. The voltage transfer characteristics of the ZnO nanowire-based inverter logic circuit exhibit a clear inverting operation. The logic swing, gain and transition width of the inverter logic circuit is about 90 %, 1.03 and 1.2 V, respectively. The result of mechanical bending cycles of the inverter logic circuit on a plastic substrate shows that the stable performance is maintained even after many hundreds of bending cycles.
Fabrication of High-Efficiency Electrochemiluminescence Cell with Nanocrystalline TiO
Kwon, Hyuk-Moon ; Han, Chi-Hwan ; Sung, Youl-Moon ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 363~368
In this work, electrochemiluminescence (ECL) cell using nanocrysralline
electrode and Ru(II) complex (Ru
) is fabricated for low-cost high-efficient energy conversion device application. The nanocrysrallme
thickness) with large surface area (
/g) can largely inject electrons from nanoporous
electrode and allows the oxidation/reduction of Ru(II) complex in the nanopores. The cell structure is composed of a glass/ F-doped
/ Ru(II) complex in acetonitrile/ FTO/ glass. The nanocrysralline
layer is prepared using sol-gel combustion method. The ECL efficiency of the cell consisting of the porous
layers was 250 cd/W, which was higher than that consisting of only FTO electrode (50cd/W). The nanoporous
layers wwas effective for increasine ECL intensities.
The Sensitivity of the Parameters of Microcontroller Device with Coupling Caused by UWB-HPEM (Ultra Wideband-High Power Electromagnetics)
Hwang, Sun-Mook ; Hong, Joo-Il ; Huh, Chang-Su ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 369~373
Modem electronic circuits are of importance for the function of communication, traffic systems and security systems. An intentional threat to these systems could be of big casualties and economic disasters. This paper has shown damage effect of microcontroller device with coupling caused by UWB-HPEM(Ultra Wideband-High Power Electromagnetics). The UWB measurements were done at an Anechoic Chamber using a RADAN UWB voltage source, which can generate a transient impulse of about 180 kV. The susceptibility level for microcontroller has been assessed by effect of various operation line lengths. The results of susceptibility analysis has showed that the effect of the reset line length on the MT(Ma1function Threshold) is larger than the effect of the different line length(Data, Power, Clock). With the knowledge of these parameters electronic system can be designed exactly suitable concerning the system requirements. Based on the results, susceptibility of microcontroller can be applied to protection plan to elucidate the effects of microwaves on electronic equipment.
Analysis of Lumped Element Negative Group Delay Circuit
Jeong, Yong-Chae ; Choi, Heung-Jae ; Kim, Chul-Dong ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 374~379
In this paper, we have mathematically analyzed lumped element type negative group delay circuit (NGDC) and derived general design equation. The applicability of the proposed design equation is validated with mathematical and circuit simulation as well as with experimental results for intentional mobile telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) downlink band. As a design example, single branch NGDC with -0.8ns of group delay (GD) for narrow bandwidth of the specific frequency is simulated and fabricated. Finally,
-network NGDC is proposed and validated to obtain wideband GD response of
nsec for 60 MHz.
Design of an Electromagnetically-driven Micromirror Through the Coupled Physics Analyses
Han, Seung-Oh ; Kim, Byoung-Min ; Pak, Jung-Ho ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 380~384
A micromirror for a laser display system actuated by the electromagnetic force induced by the surface coil and the permanent magnet was designed and analyzed through the coupled physics analyses incorporating the electromagnetics, mechanics, and electrothermal analysis because the mechanical rotation of the micromirror is driven by the electromagnetic driving force. The proposed micromirror has two torsion beams to sustain the mirror plate which has surface coils on the top and the two permanent magnets exists on both sides of the micromirror for an external magnetic field source. The designed micromirror has the resonant frequency of 3.82kHz. When the magnetic field of the permanent magnet is 0.4T, the coil has 4 turns, and the current density of coil is 3.6A/
, the estimated z axis displacement of the mirror plate edge is 0.23mm which corresponds to the rotation angle of
. When considering the joule heating in the current-carrying coil, the maximum temperature of the mirror plate is obtained as 300.045K, which induces the negligible changes in the rotation angle and the resistance of the coil.
A Nickel Nanowire Diluter Operating through the Principle of the Dielectrophoretic Attraction Force
Yang, Jin-Ho ; Yoon, Hyeun-Joong ; Yang, Eui-Hyeok ; Yang, Sang-Sik ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 385~389
This paper presents a microfabricated nanowire diluter which dilutes the concentration of nanowires in solution instead of by the conventional centrifuge process. The device has 16 pairs of gold electrodes in a micro channel composed of a glass substrate and PDMS. We prepared nickel nanowires by the template-directed electrodeposition method using nanoporous anodized aluminum template (AAO). We injected the Dimethylformamide (DMF) solution containing nanowires into the inlet of the diluter while applying square wave voltages on the electrodes to trap the nanowires at the subsequent gold electrodes by means of dielectrophoretic attraction forces. The concentration of nanowires at the outlet of the micro channel was changed as we expected, which illustrates that the device can effectively dilute nanowires and can be applied to a controlled assembly of nanowires.
A Self-Oscillation Type SAW Microgyroscope Based on the Coriolis Effect of Progressive Waves
Oh, Hae-Kwan ; Choi, Ki-Sun ; Lee, Hyung-Keun ; Lee, Kee-Keun ; Yang, Sang-Sik ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 390~396
An 80MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based gyroscope utilizing a progressive wave was developed on a piezoelectric substrate. The developed sensor consists of two SAW oscillators in which one is used for sensing element and has metallic dots in the cavity between input and output IDTs. The other is used for a reference element. Coupling of mode (COM) modeling was conducted to determine the optimal device parameters prior to fabrication. According to the simulation results, the device was fabricated and then measured on a rate table. When the device was subjected to an angular rotation, oscillation frequency differences between the two oscillators were observed because of the Coriolis force acting on the metallic dots. Depending on the angular rate, the difference of the oscillation frequency was modulated. The obtained sensitivity was approximately 52.35 Hz/deg.s within the angular rate range of 0~1000 deg/s. The performances of devices with three IDT structures for two kinds of piezoelectric substrates were characterized. Good thermal stability was also observed during the evaluation process.
Development of Diesel Generator Excitation System in the Nuclear Power Plant
Shin, Man-Su ; Ryu, Ho-Seon ; Lee, Joo-Hyun ; Im, Ik-Heon ; Jeong, Tae-Won ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 397~406
Because diesel generator excitation systems in the nuclear power generating station are included among safety related c1asses(and Class 1E), they have been supposed to apply in the nuclear power generating stations through equipment qualification by nuclear law and so on. So, they has been controlled and assured completely by quality assurance throughout the total development journey. This paper looks into the journey of development of diesel generator excitation systems in the nuclear power generating station.
An New Load Allocation Algorithms of Direct Load Control
Kim, Jeong-Uk ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 407~410
This paper presents an advanced load allocation algorithm in Direct Load Control(DLC) system. It is important to aggregate a various demand side resource which is surely controllable at the peak power time for a successful DLC system. Previous load allocation algorithm appropriate for DLC system is based on interchanged information, but, this algorithm can not derive optimal solutions. In this paper, we develop the optimal algorithm and the new load allocation algorithm in polynomial time. The simulation results show that the proposed heuristic algorithm for DLC system is very effective.
A Static Output Feedback Integral Variable Structure Controller for Uncertain Systems with Unmatched System Matrix Uncertainty
Lee, Jung-Hoon ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 411~416
In this paper, an integral variable structure static output feedback controller with an integral-augmented sliding surface is designed for the improved robust control of a uncertain system under unmatched system uncertainty and matched input matrix uncertainty and disturbance satisfying some conditions. To effectively remove the reaching phase problems, an output dependent integral augmented sliding surface is proposed. Its equivalent control and ideal sliding mode dynamics are obtained. The previous some limitations is overcome in this systematic design. A stabilizing control with the closed loop exponential stability is designed for all unmatched system matrix uncertainties and proved together with the existence condition of the sliding mode on S=0. To show the usefulness of the algorithm, a design example and computer simulations are presented.
Analysis and Comparison of Error Detection and Correction Codes for the Memory of STSAT-3 OBC and Mass Data Storage Unit
Kim, Byung-Jun ; Seo, In-Ho ; Kwak, Seong-Woo ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 417~422
When memory devices are exposed to space environments, they suffer various effects such as SEU(Single Event Upset). Memory systems for space applications are generally equipped with error detection and correction(EDAC) logics against SEUs. In this paper, several error detection and correction codes - RS(10,8) code, (7,4) Hamming code and (16,8) code - are analyzed and compared with each other. Each code is implemented using VHDL and its performances(encoding/decoding speed, required memory size) are compared. Also the failure probability equation of each EDAC code is derived, and the probability value is analyzed for various occurrence rates of SEUs which the STSAT-3 possibly suffers. Finally, the EDAC algorithm for STSAT-3 is determined based on the comparison results.
A Theoretical Superscalar Microprocessor Performance Model with Limited Functional Units Using Instruction Dependencies
Lee, Jong-Bok ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 423~428
In the initial design phase of superscalar microprocessors, a performance model is necessary. A theoretic performance model is very useful since performance for various architecture parameters can be obtained by simply computing equations, without repeating simulations, Previous studies established theoretic performance models using the relation between the instruction window size and the issue width, with the penalties due to branch mispredictions and cache misses. However, the study was intended for unlimited number of functional units, which is insufficient for the real case application. This paper proposes a superscalar microprocessor theoretical performance model which also works for the limited functional units. To enhance the accuracy of our limited functional unit model, instruction dependency rates are employed. By using trace-driven data of SPEC 2000 integer programs as input, this paper shows that the theoretically computed performance of superscalar microprocessor with limited number of functional units is quite similar to the measured performance.
Combining Shape and SIFT Features for 3-D Object Detection and Pose Estimation
Tak, Yoon-Sik ; Hwang, Een-Jun ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 429~435
Three dimensional (3-D) object detection and pose estimation from a single view query image has been an important issue in various fields such as medical applications, robot vision, and manufacturing automation. However, most of the existing methods are not appropriate in a real time environment since object detection and pose estimation requires extensive information and computation. In this paper, we present a fast 3-D object detection and pose estimation scheme based on surrounding camera view-changed images of objects. Our scheme has two parts. First, we detect images similar to the query image from the database based on the shape feature, and calculate candidate poses. Second, we perform accurate pose estimation for the candidate poses using the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method. We earned out extensive experiments on our prototype system and achieved excellent performance, and we report some of the results.
Genetic Design of Granular-oriented Radial Basis Function Neural Network Based on Information Proximity
Park, Ho-Sung ; Oh, Sung-Kwun ; Kim, Hyun-Ki ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 436~444
In this study, we introduce and discuss a concept of a granular-oriented radial basis function neural networks (GRBF NNs). In contrast to the typical architectures encountered in radial basis function neural networks(RBF NNs), our main objective is to develop a design strategy of GRBF NNs as follows : (a) The architecture of the network is fully reflective of the structure encountered in the training data which are granulated with the aid of clustering techniques. More specifically, the output space is granulated with use of K-Means clustering while the information granules in the multidimensional input space are formed by using a so-called context-based Fuzzy C-Means which takes into account the structure being already formed in the output space, (b) The innovative development facet of the network involves a dynamic reduction of dimensionality of the input space in which the information granules are formed in the subspace of the overall input space which is formed by selecting a suitable subset of input variables so that the this subspace retains the structure of the entire space. As this search is of combinatorial character, we use the technique of genetic optimization to determine the optimal input subspaces. A series of numeric studies exploiting some nonlinear process data and a dataset coming from the machine learning repository provide a detailed insight into the nature of the algorithm and its parameters as well as offer some comparative analysis.
A Threshold Adaptation based Voice Query Transcription Scheme for Music Retrieval
Han, Byeong-Jun ; Rho, Seung-Min ; Hwang, Een-Jun ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 445~451
This paper presents a threshold adaptation based voice query transcription scheme for music information retrieval. The proposed scheme analyzes monophonic voice signal and generates its transcription for diverse music retrieval applications. For accurate transcription, we propose several advanced features including (i) Energetic Feature eXtractor (EFX) for onset, peak, and transient area detection; (ii) Modified Windowed Average Energy (MWAE) for defining multiple small but coherent windows with local threshold values as offset detector; and finally (iii) Circular Average Magnitude Difference Function (CAMDF) for accurate acquisition of fundamental frequency (F0) of each frame. In order to evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme, we implemented a prototype music transcription system called AMT2 (Automatic Music Transcriber version 2) and carried out various experiments. In the experiment, we used QBSH corpus , adapted in MIREX 2006 contest data set. Experimental result shows that our proposed scheme can improve the transcription performance.
Time-Multiplexed FIR Filter Design Using Group CSD(GCSD) Multipliers
Jeon, Chang-Ha ; Seo, Dong-Hyun ; Chung, Jin-Gyun ; Kim, Yong-Eun ; Lee, Chul-Dong ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 452~456
Multiplication is a fundamental arithmetic operation in many digital signal processing (DSP) and communication algorithms. The group CSD (GCSD) multiplier was recently proposed based on the variation of canonical signed digit (CSD) encoding and partial product sharing. This multiplier provides an efficient design when the multiplications are performed only with a few predetermined coefficients (e.g., FFT). In this paper, it is shown that, by exploiting the characteristics of the filter coefficients, GCSD multipliers can be used for the efficient implementation of time-multiplexed FIR filters.
Hierarchical Haze Removal Using Dark Channel Prior
Kim, Jin-Hwan ; Kim, Chang-Su ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 457~464
The haze removal algorithm using dark channel prior, which was proposed by He et al., is an efficient algorithm and presents impressive results. But its high memory and computational requirements limit its applications. In this paper, we propose a method to improve the memory usage and calculation speed. We notice that the matting process accounts for most calculation time, so we replace the matting process with a fast bilateral filtering scheme. Using the bilateral filter, we can reduce the memory usage, but its computational complexity is still high. To reduce the computational complexity as well, we adapt a hierarchical structure for the bilateral filtering. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can remove haze in a picture effectively, while requiring much less computations than the He et al.'s method.
A Dual-compensated Charge Pump for Reducing the Reference Spurs of a Phase Locked Loop
Lee, Dong-Keon ; Lee, Jeong-Kwang ; Jeong, Hang-Geun ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 465~470
The charge pump in a phase-locked loop is a key block in determining reference spurs of the VCO output signal. To reduce reference spurs, the current mismatch in the charge pump must be minimized. This paper presents a dual compensation method to reduce the current mismatch. The proposed charge pump and PLL were realized in a
CMOS process. Measured current matching characteristics were achieved with less than 1.4% difference and with the current variation of 3.8% in the pump current over the charge pump output voltage range of 0.35-1.35V at 1.8V. The reference spur of the PLL based on the proposed charge pump was measured to be -71dBc.
A Frequency Synthesizer using Low Voltage Active Inductor VCO
Yi, Soon-Jai ; Lee, Dong-Keon ; Jeong, Hang-Geun ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 471~475
This paper presents a frequency synthesizer using low voltage active inductor VCO(Voltage Controlled Oscillator). The low voltage active inductor VCO with feedback resistor increases its equivalent inductance and the quality-factor(Q). Under certain conditions, the low voltage active inductor with feedback resistor generates a negative resistance at the input. In this paper, the conditions for negative resistance are obtained by small signal analysis. The designed low voltage active inductor VCO covers a frequency band between 1059MHz and 1223MHz. The measured phase noise at 1.178GHz is -81.8dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset.
A Subband Adaptive Blind Equalization Algorithm for FIR MIMO Systems
Sohn, Sang-Wook ; Lim, Young-Bin ; Choi, Hun ; Bae, Hyeon-Deok ;
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 59, issue 2, 2010, Pages 476~483
If the data are pre-whitened, then gradient adaptive algorithms which are simpler than higher order statistics algorithms can be used in adaptive blind signal estimation. In this paper, we propose a blind subband affine projection algorithm for multiple-input multiple-output adaptive equalization in the blind environments. All of the adaptive filters in subband affine projection equalization are decomposed to polyphase components, and the coefficients of the decomposed adaptive sub-filters are updated by defining the multiple cost functions. An infinite impulse response filter bank is designed for the data pre-whitening. Pre-whitening procedure through subband filtering can speed up the convergence rate of the algorithm without additional computation. Simulation results are presented showing the proposed algorithm's convergence rate, blind equalization and blind signal separation performances.