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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 49, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 49, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 49, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 49, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
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Analysis of Highly Directional Sonar Communication System
Lee, Jaeil ; Lee, Chong Hyun ; Lee, Seung Wook ; Shin, Jungchae ; Jung, Jin Woo ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 3~9
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.003
In this paper, we present novel analysis results of sonar communication using parametric array. We consider transducer diameter, primary frequency, difference frequency and acoustic power as analysis parameters of communication performance. We calculate theoretical BER(Bit Error Rate) and channel capacity of MIMO(Multi Input and Multi Output) communication system. By considering practical parameters, we obtain optimum difference frequency generation condition. The obtained primary frequency is 560 kHz, difference frequency 45kHz and acoustic power is 28.05Watt. For BER of
, the range gain of parametric array communication is 3.35km compared to primary frequency communication. For channel capacity of 10bps/Hz, the SISO and
MIMO communication range of parametric array communication are 3.8km and 3.98km respectively, while primary frequency communication range is 0.83km.
Design and Analysis of Intelligent AMC Scheme with Relay Protocols in LTE-Advanced System
Malik, Saransh ; Kim, Bora ; Moon, Sangmi ; Kim, Daejin ; Hwang, Intae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 10~19
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.010
In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) scheme using relay protocols generally known as Relay Node (RN). The AMC scheme is used for improving the throughput and a reliability of a communication system, because of the nature of different modulation and coding schemes. We analyze the performance of relay protocols with the AMC scheme and observed that relay protocols with the AMC scheme is capable of providing better average throughput at a lower Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) level as compared to the conventional scheme with no AMC. We perform Monte Carlo simulations with Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) parameters to prove the performance comparison of adaptive Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) relay protocols with the non-adaptive MCS relay protocols. The simulation results of the proposed system with adaptive MCS prove that among the Amplify-and-Forward (AF), Decode-and-Forward (DF) and DeModulate-and-Forward (DMF), the DMF protocol performs best at a lower SNR value and also provides better average throughput.
Performance Modeling of STTC-based Dual Virtual Cell System under the Overlay Convergent Networks of Cognitive Networking
Choi, YuMi ; Kim, Jeong-Ho ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 20~26
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.020
The newly introduced model of a STTC-based Distributed Wireless Communication System (DWCS) can provide the capability of joint control of the signals at multiple cells. This paper has considered the virtual cell systems: the Dual Virtual Cell (DVC), and also proposes DVC employment strategy based on DWCS network. The considered system constructs DVC by using antenna selection method. Also, for multi-user high-rate data transmission, the proposed system introduces multiple antenna technology to get a spatial and temporal diversity gain and exploits space-time trellis codes known as STTC to increase a spectral efficiency.
Jeju Jong Nang Channel Code I
Lee, Moon Ho ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 27~35
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.027
In this paper, we look into a Jong Nang Channel which is the origin of digital communications and has been used in Jeju Island since AD 1234. It is one kind of communication ways which informs people of whether a house owner is in one's house or not using its own protocol. It is comprised of three timber and two stone pillars whose one side has three holes respectively. In this paper, we analyze the Jong-Nang Channel both in the light of logic and bit error probability. In addition, we compare it with a conventional binary erasure channel when some errors occur over them respectively. We also show that a capacity of NOR channel approaches Shannon limit.
Jeju Jong Nang Channel Code II
Lee, Moon Ho ; Khan, Md. Hashem Ali ; Park, Ju Yong ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 36~44
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.036
We had introduced the backgrounds, history and physical meanings of Jong Nang in "Jeju Jong Nang Channel Code I". In this paper, we introduce practical the root of digital human binary coded Jong Nang communications as the wooden gate in Korea Jeju Island custom. We investigate Jong Nang gatemodels as an approximation of the AWGN model. The objective is to find a deterministic model, which is accessible to capacity analysis. Furthermore, this analysis should provide insights on the capacity of the AWGN model. Motivated by backhaul cooperation in cellular networks where cooperation is among base stations, we term the interference channel with conferencing transmitters. Jong Nang communicationsis normal 3 rafters placed on two vertical stones with three holes to convey the family's whereabouts that is deterministic signal, nowadays it is applied to backhaul in mobile base station and traffic signal.
A Study of Variable Wakeup Period for Duty Cycled MAC protocol in WSN
Lee, Jae-Ho ; Eom, Doo-Seop ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 45~55
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.045
The energy efficiency is extremely significant in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) which deliver the data sensed in the sensor field, using wireless communications. Under the characteristics of WSN, many MAC protocols employ the Duty Cycle mechanism which continuously operates Wakeup and Sleep periods, for the energy efficiency. However, constant Wakeup period in general Duty Cycle incurs the limited performance of the energy efficiency and the receiving ratio. For addressing this, we design and propose a new scheme called Variable Wakeup Period, considering local traffic conditions. Our scheme enhances receiving ratio by increasing Wakeup period under the high traffic condition, and makes high energy efficiency by decreasing Wakeup period under the otherwise condition. In addition, we evaluate the performance of our scheme by performing the simulation, which experiments the previous synchronous and asynchronous MAC protocols, and which also experiments the same protocols with the proposed scheme, for comparative evaluations.
Cluster Topology Algorithm for Efficient Data Transmission in Wireless Body Area Network based on Mobile Sink
Lee, Jun-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 56~63
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.056
The WBAN technology means a short distance wireless network which provides each device interactive communication by connecting devices inside and outside of body. Standardization on the physical layer, data link layer, network layer and application layer is in progress by IEEE 802.15.6 TG BAN. Wireless body area network is usually configured in energy efficient using sensor and zigbee device due to the power limitation and the characteristics of human body. Wireless sensor network consist of sensor field and sink node. Sensor field are composed a lot of sensor node and sink node collect sensing data. Wireless sensor network has capacity of the self constitution by protocol where placed in large area without fixed position. Mobile sink node distribute energy consumption therefore network life time was increased than fixed sink node. The energy efficient is important matter in wireless body area network because energy resource was limited on sensor node. In this paper we proposed cluster topology algorithm for efficient data transmission in wireless body area network based mobile sink. The proposed algorithm show good performance under the advantage of grid routing protocol and TDMA scheduling that minimized overlap area on cluster and reduced amount of data on cluster header in error prone wireless sensor network based on mobile sink.
Design of a computationally efficient frame synchronization scheme for wireless LAN systems
Cho, Jun-Beom ; Lee, Jong-Hyup ; Han, Jin_Woo ; You, Yeon-Sang ; Oh, Hyok-Jun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 64~72
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.064
Synchronization including timing recovery, frequency offset compensation, and frame synchronization is most important signal processing block in all wireless/wired communication systems. In most communication systems, synchronization schemes based on training sequences or preambles are used. WLAN standards of 802.11a/g/n released by IEEE are based on OFDM systems. OFDM systems are known to be much more sensitive to frequency and timing synchronization errors than single carrier systems. A loss of orthogonality between the multiplexed subcarriers can result in severe performance degradations. The starting position of the frame and the beginning of the symbol and training symbol can be estimated using correlation methods. Correlation processing functionality is usually complex because of large number of multipliers in implementation especially when the reference signal is non-binary. In this paper, a simple correlation based synchronization scheme is proposed for IEEE 802.11a/g/n systems. Existing property of a periodicity in the training symbols are exploited. Simulation and implementation results show that the proposed method has much smaller complexity without any performance degradation than the existing schemes.
P2P-based Mobility Management Protocol for Global Seamless Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Network
Chun, Seung-Man ; Lee, Seung-Mu ; Park, Jong-Tae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 73~80
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.073
In this article, we propose a P2P-based mobility management protocol for global seamless handover in heterogeneous wireless networks. Unlike previous mobility management protocols such as IETF MIPv4/6 and its variants, the proposed protocol can support global seamless handover without changing the existing network infrastructure. The idea of the proposed protocol is that the location management function for mobility management is separately supported from packet forwarding function, and bidirectional IP tunnels for packet transmission are dynamically constructed between two end-to-end mobile hosts. In addition, early handover techniques have been developed to avoid large handover delays and packet losses using the IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover functions. The architecture and signaling procedure of the proposed protocol have been designed in detail, and the mathematical analysis and simulation have been done for performance evaluation. The performance results show that the proposed protocol outperforms the existing MIPv6 and HMIPv6 in terms of handover latency and packet loss.
P2P-based Group Communication Management For Scalable P2P Live Video Streaming Communication
Chun, Seung-Man ; Park, Jong-Tae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 81~88
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.081
As the performance of the next-generation broadband wireless networks is dramatically enhanced, various services (i.e., education, Live video streaming, Live video conferencing, online games, etc.) have been provided to users through a smart mobile platform. Those services are usually provided by using the centralized communication server. However, since all multimedia traffic is exchanged through a communication server, it often has the scalability problem with regard to traffic management. Our main purpose is for group smart users to provide scalable live multimedia streaming service based on P2P network. To do this, we have designed an architecture of P2P-based service management for mobile group communication management and service management protocol. In order to verify the performance of the proposed scheme, we have mathematically analyzed the performance in terms of the average transmission delay and bandwid th utilization.
UHF Cavity-backed Spiral Antenna for Partial Discharge Diagnosis
Kim, Han Byul ; Kim, Jin Hyuk ; Hwang, Keum Cheol ; Shin, Jae Ho ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 89~94
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.089
In this paper, a UHF cavity-backed spiral antenna for partial discharge diagnosis is proposed. The proposed antenna consists of two-arm Archimedean spiral, a cavity, and a balun for feeding. The spiral antenna is designed for 0.3-1.5 GHz operating frequency. Two spiral arms of the proposed antenna are fed by a microstrip tapered-balun. In order to enhance the gain, the cavity is located in the back side of the spiral pattern. The proposed antenna is designed and simulated using CST Microwave Studio. The designed antenna is also fabricated and tested to validate performance. The measured radiation patterns are directional to the +z-axis and measured peak gain is 9.92 dBi.
Effect of a Finite Substrate Size on the Radiation Characteristics of Two-Element Linear E-plane Array Antennas
Yoon, Young-Min ; Kim, Boo-Gyoun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 95~110
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.095
The effect of a finite substrate size on the radiation characteristics of a two-element linear E-plane array antenna using microstrip patch antennas is investigated. The average active element pattern characteristics of two-element E-plane array antennas printed on different dielectric constant substrates with various substrate sizes and element spacings are analyzed. Using the average active element pattern, the radiation pattern characteristics of the array antenna versus scan angle is analyzed. The simulation results show that the diffracted fields of surface waves from substrate edges have a significant effect on the radiation characteristics of a 2-element E-plane array antenna. The distance between the center of patch antenna and the substrate edges on the E-plane for the enhancement of radiation characteristics of the array antenna is about
A License Plate Recognition System Robust to Vehicle Location and Viewing Angle
Hong, Sungeun ; Hwang, Sungsoo ; Kim, Seongdae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 113~123
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.113
Recently, various attempts have been made to apply Intelligent Transportation System under various environments and conditions. Consequently, an accurate license plate recognition regardless of vehicle location and viewing angle is required. In this paper, we propose a novel license plate recognition system which exploits a) the format of license plates to remove false candidates of license plates and to extract characters in license plates and b) the characteristics of Hangul for accurate character recognition. In order to eliminate false candidates of license plates, the proposed method first aligns the candidates of license plates horizontally, and compares the position and the shape of objects in each candidate with the prior information of license plates provided by Korean Ministry of Construction & Transportation. The prior information such as aspect ratio, background color, projection image is also used to extract characters in license plates accurately applying an improved local binarization considering luminance variation of license plates. In case of recognizing Hangul in license plates, they are initially grouped according to their shape similarity. Then a super-class method, a hierarchical analysis based on key feature points is applied to recognize Hangul accurately. The proposed method was verified with high recognition rate regardless of background image, which eventually proves that the proposed LPR system has high performance regardless of the vehicle location or viewing angle.
Image Feature Point Selection Method Using Nearest Neighbor Distance Ratio Matching
Lee, Jun-Woo ; Jeong, Jea-Hyup ; Kang, Jong-Wook ; Na, Sang-Il ; Jeong, Dong-Seok ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 124~130
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.124
In this paper, we propose a feature point selection method for MPEG CDVS CE-7 which is processing on International Standard task. Among a large number of extracted feature points, more important feature points which is used in image matching should be selected for the compactness of image descriptor. The proposed method is that remove the feature point in the extraction phase which is filtered by nearest neighbor distance ratio matching in the matching phase. We can avoid the waste of the feature point and employ additional feature points by the proposed method. The experimental results show that our proposed method can obtain true positive rate improvement about 2.3% in pair-wise matching test compared with Test Model.
Improvement of Recognition of License Plate Numbers in CCTV Images Using Reference Images
Kim, Dongmin ; Jang, Sangsik ; Yoon, Inhye ; Paik, Joonki ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 131~141
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.131
This paper proposes a method of analyzing unrecognizable numbers of license plate images, which are degraded by various factors such as low resolution, low light level, geometric distortion, and periodic noise, to name a few. With existing vehicle license plate recognition methods, it is difficult to recognize license plate if images are not recognizable in the pre-process of removing degradation factors. Although images of license plate have not been improved to be recognizable in the pre-process, the proposed method makes it possible to recognize numbers of license by distorting pre-saved reference images of license plate numbers same as sample plates, and by assuming likelihood ratio using statistical methods. The proposed method also makes it possible to identify suspect vehicle license plate under unstable light conditions and with low resolution images that are unrecognizable by the naked eye. This method has been used in real criminal investigation to recognize numbers of license plate of criminal vehicle, and has proved to be useful as criminal evidence through experiments under various conditions.
Data Compression Algorithm for Efficient Data Transmission in Digital Optical Repeaters
Kim, Jae Wan ; Eom, Doo Seop ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 142~146
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.142
Today, the demand for high-speed data communication and mobile communication has exploded. Thus, there is a growing need for optical communication systems that convert large volumes of data to optical signals and that accommodate and transmit the signals across long distances. Digital optical communication with these characteristics consists of a master unit (MU) and a slave unit (SU). However, the digital optical units that are currently commercialized or being developed transmit data without compression. Thus, digital optical communication using these units is restricted by the quantity of optical frames when adding diversity or operating with various combinations of CDMA, WCDMA, WiBro, GSM, LTE, and other mobile communication technologies. This paper suggests the application of a data compression algorithm to a digital signal processor (DSP) chip as a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) of a digital optical unit to add separate optical waves or to transmit complex data without specific changes in design of the optical frame.
Data De-duplication and Recycling Technique in SSD-based Storage System for Increasing De-duplication Rate and I/O Performance
Kim, Ju-Kyeong ; Lee, Seung-Kyu ; Kim, Deok-Hwan ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 149~155
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.149
SSD is a storage device of having high-performance controller and cache buffer and consists of many NAND flash memories. Because NAND flash memory does not support in-place update, valid pages are invalidated when update and erase operations are issued in file system and then invalid pages are completely deleted via garbage collection. However, garbage collection performs many erase operations of long latency and then it reduces I/O performance and increases wear leveling in SSD. In this paper, we propose a new method of de-duplicating valid data and recycling invalid data. The method de-duplicates valid data and then recycles invalid data so that it improves de-duplication ratio. Due to reducing number of writes and garbage collection, the method could increase I/O performance and decrease wear leveling in SSD. Experimental result shows that it can reduce maximum 20% number of garbage collections and 9% I/O latency than those of general case.
XOR-based High Quality Information Hiding Technique Utilizing Self-Referencing Virtual Parity Bit
Choi, YongSoo ; Kim, HyoungJoong ; Lee, DalHo ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 156~163
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.156
Recently, Information Hiding Technology are becoming increasingly demanding in the field of international security, military and medical image This paper proposes data hiding technique utilizing parity checker for gray level image. many researches have been adopted LSB substitution and XOR operation in the field of steganography for the low complexity, high embedding capacity and high image quality. But, LSB substitution methods are not secure through it's naive mechanism even though it achieves high embedding capacity. Proposed method replaces LSB of each pixel with XOR(between the parity check bit of other 7 MSBs and 1 Secret bit) within one pixel. As a result, stego-image(that is, steganogram) doesn't result in high image degradation. Eavesdropper couldn't easily detect the message embedding. This approach is applying the concept of symmetric-key encryption protocol onto steganography. Furthermore, 1bit of symmetric-key is generated by the self-reference of each pixel. Proposed method provide more 25% embedding rate against existing XOR operation-based methods and show the effect of the reversal rate of LSB about 2% improvement.
VRML Database Access for 3D Real-time Data Visualization in MiWi
Thermal Wireless Sensor Network
Wan, Xue-Fen ; Yang, Yi ; Cui, Jian ; Zheng, Tao ; Ma, Li ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 164~170
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.164
A Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) database access in remote virtual reality control platform for dyeing enterprise
thermal sensor network is presented in this paper. The VRML-ASP framework is introduced for 3D real-time data plotting in this application. The activities of thermal sensor nodes and sensor area are analyzed. The database access framework is optimized for
wireless sensor networks. The experimental results show that VRML-ASP database access framework could be a reliable and competitive data-manage candidate for targeted virtual reality remote industrial visualization application.
Scaling Accuracy Analysis of Substrate SPICE Model for RF MOSFETs
Lee, Hyun-Jun ; Lee, Seonghearn ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 173~178
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.173
Using accurate MOSFET substrate parameters obtained by a RF direct extraction method, it is demonstrated that a BSIM4 model with only substrate resistances is not physically valid to apply in the wide range of gate length because of scaling inaccuracy. In order to remove the unphysical problem of the BSIM4, a modified BSIM4 model with additional dielectric substrate capacitance is used and its physical validity is verified by observing excellent gate length scalability.
Random Dopant Fluctuation Effects of Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors (TFETs)
Jang, Jung-Shik ; Lee, Hyun Kook ; Choi, Woo Young ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 179~183
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.179
The random dopant fluctuation (RDF) effects of tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) have been observed by using atomistic 3-D device simulation. Due to extremely low body doping concentration, the RDF effects of TFETs have not been seriously investigated. However, in this paper, it has been found that the randomly generated and distributed source dopants increase the variation of threshold voltage (
), drain induced current enhancement (DICE) and subthreshold slope (SS) of TFETs. Also, some ways of relieving the RDF effects of TFETs have been presented.
A 2.0-GS/s 5-b Current Mode ADC-Based Receiver with Embedded Channel Equalizer
Moon, Jong-Ho ; Jung, Woo-Chul ; Kim, Jin-Tae ; Kwon, Kee-Won ; Jun, Young-Hyun ; Chun, Jung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 184~193
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.184
In this paper, a 5-bit 2-GS/s 2-way time interleaved pipeline ADC for high-speed serial link receiver is demonstrated. Implemented as a current-mode amplifier, the stage ADC simultaneously processes the tracking and residue amplification to achieve higher sampling rate. In addition, each stage incorporates a built-in 1-tap FIR equalizer, reducing inter-symbol-interference (ISI）without an extra digital post-processing. The ADC is designed in a 110nm CMOS technology. It comsumes 91mW from a 1.2-V supply. The area excluding the memory block is
. Simulation results show that when equalizer is enabled, the ADC achieves SNDR of 25.2dB and ENOB of 3.9bits at 2.0GS/s sample rate for a Nyquist input signal. When the equalizer is disengaged, SNDR is 26.0dB for 20MHz-1.0GHz input signal, and the ENOB of 4.0bits.
A Study on the Modeling of a High-Voltage IGBT for SPICE Simulations
Choi, Yoon-Chul ; Ko, Woong-Joon ; Kwon, Kee-Won ; Chun, Jung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 194~200
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.194
In this paper, we proposed a SPICE model of high-voltage insulated gate bipolar transistor(IGBT). The proposed model consists of two sub-devices, a MOSFET and a BJT. Basic I-V characteristics and their temperature dependency were realized by adjusting various parameters of the MOSFET and the BJT. To model nonlinear parasitic capacitances such as a reverse-transfer capacitance, multiple junction diodes, ideal voltage and current amplifiers, a voltage-controlled resistor, and passive devices were added in the model. The accuracy of the proposed model was verified by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results of a 1200V trench gate IGBT.
Hardware Design of Rate Control for H.264/AVC Real-Time Video Encoding
Kim, Changho ; Ryoo, Kwangki ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 201~208
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.201
In this paper, the hardware design of rate control for real-time video encoded is proposed. In the proposed method, a quadratic rate distortion model with high-computational complexity is not used when quantization parameter values are being decided. Instead, for low-computational complexity, average complexity weight values of frames are used to calculate QP. For high speed and low computational prediction, the MAD is predicted based on the coded basic unit, using spacial and temporal correlation in sequences. The rate control is designed with the hardware for fast QP decision. In the proposed method, a quadratic rate distortion model with high-computational complexity is not used when quantization parameter values are being decided. Instead, for low-computational complexity, average complexity weight values of frames are used to calculate QP. In addition, the rate control is designed with the hardware for fast QP decision. The execution cycle and gate count of the proposed architecture were reduced about 65% and 85% respectively compared with those of previous architecture. The proposed RC was implemented using Verilog HDL and synthesized with UMC
standard cell library. The synthesis result shows that the gate count of the architecture is about 19.1k with 108MHz clock frequency.
Fabric Mapping and Placement of Field Programmable Stateful Logic Array
Kim, Kyosun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 209~218
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.209
Recently, the Field Programmable Stateful Logic Array (FPSLA) was proposed as one of the most promising system integration technologies which will extend the life of the Moore's law. This work is the first proposal of the FPSLA design automation flow, and the approaches to logic synthesis, synchronization, physical mapping, and automatic placement of the FPSLA designs. The synchronization at each gate for pipelining determines the x-coordinates of cells, and reduces the placement to 1-dimensional problems. The objective function and its gradients for the non-linear optimization of the net length and placement density have been remodeled for the reduced global placement problem. Also, a recursive algorithm has been proposed to legalize the placement by relaxing the density overflow of bipartite bin groups in a top-down hierarchical fashion. The proposed model and algorithm are implemented, and validated by applying them to the ACM/SIGDA benchmark designs. The output state of a gate in an FPSLA needs to be duplicated so that each fanout gate can be connected to a dedicated copy. This property has been taken into account by merging the duplicated nets into a hyperedge, and then, splitting the hyperedge into edges as the optimization progresses. This yields additional 18.4% of the cell count reduction in the most dense logic stage. The practicality of the FPSLA can be further enhanced primarily by incorporating into the logic synthesis the constraint to avoid the concentrated fains of gates on some logic stages. In addition, an efficient algorithm needs to be devised for the routing problem which is based on a complicated graph. The graph models the nanowire crossbar which is trimmed to be embedded into the FPSLA fabric, and therefore, asymmetric. These CAD tools can be used to evaluate the fabric efficiency during the architecture enhancement as well as automate the design.
Desgin of Low-power, Low-noise Preamplifier for Digital Hearing-Aids
Im, Saemin ; Park, Sang-Gyu ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 219~225
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.219
A low-power, low-noise pre-amplifier for digital hearing-aid application is designed. This pre-amplifier amplifies single-ended signal from an electret microphone, and produces differential output to be delivered to an ADC. It has a variable gain of 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 and 28.8 with a bandwidth between 100Hz~10kHzon. The measurement results show 85 dB of SNR, 0.05 % of harmonic distortion and
of power consumption with 1.2V supply.
A Study on Accelerated Built-in Self Test for Error Detecting in Multi-Gbps High Speed Interfaces
Roh, Jun-Wan ; Kwon, Kee-Won ; Chun, Jung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 226~233
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.226
In this paper, we propose a 'linear approximation method' which is an accelerated BER (Bit Error Rate) test method for high speed interfaces, based on an analytical BER model. Both the conventional 'Q-factor estimation method' and 'linear approximation method' can predict a timing margin for
BER with an error of about 0.03UI. This linear approximation method is implemented on a hardware as an accelerated Built-In Self Test (BIST) with an internal BERT (BET Tester). While a direct measurement of a timing margin in a 3Gbps interface takes about 5.6 hours with
BER requirement and 95% confidence level, the accelerated BIST estimates a timing margin within 0.6 second without a considerable loss of accuracy. The test results show that the error between the estimated timing margin and the timing margin from an actual measurement using the internal BERT is less than 0.045UI.
The New Design Methodology Considering Transistor Layout Variation
Doh, Ji Seong ; Cho, Jun Dong ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 234~241
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.234
This paper proposes a novel design methodology considering transistor layout variation. The proposed design technique is to improve the transistor's electrical characteristics without performing a circuit simulation to extract transistor layout variation. There are three advantages in the proposed method. Firstly, there is no need to change the normal design flow used in layout designs. Secondly, there is no need to perform simulation in order to extract the transistor layout variation. Thirdly, early warnings in layout design lead to decreasing the number of post layout simulations. Less post layout simulations will decrease the number of iterations in the design cycle and shorten design period. The number of bad transistors in the early design phase were reduced from 17.8% to 2.9% by applying eDRC environment for layout designers to develop Standard Cell Library.
An RF Front-end for Terrestrial and Cable Digital TV Tuners
Choi, Chihoon ; Im, Donggu ; Nam, Ilku ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 242~246
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.242
This paper presents an integrated low noise and highly linear wideband RF front-end for a digital terrestrial and cable TV tuner, which are used as a part of double-conversion TV tuner. The low noise amplifier (LNA) has a low noise figure and high linearity by adopting a noise canceling technique based on current amplification. The up-conversion mixer and SAW buffer have high linearity by employing a third order intermodulation cancellation technique. The proposed RF front-end is designed in a
CMOS and draws 60 mA from a 1.8 V supply voltage. The RF front-end shows a voltage gain of 30 dB, an average single side-band noise figure of 4.2 dB, an IIP2 of 40 dBm, and an IIP3 of -4.5 dBm for the entire band from 48 MHz to 862Hz.
Study on Electric Stimulus Pattern in Cochlear Implant Using a Computer Model
Yang, Hyejin ; Woo, Jihwan ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 249~255
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.249
A cochlear implant system uses charge-balanced biphasic pulses that are known to reduce tissue damage than monophasic pulses. In this study, we investigated effect of pulse pattern on neural responses using a computer model, based on the Hodgkin-Huxley equation. Electric pulse phase, pulse duration, and phase gap have been systematically varied to characterize auditory nerve responses. The results show that neural responses, dynamic range and threshold are represented as a function of stimulus patterns and duration. The results could greatly extend to develop more efficient cochlear implant stimulation.
Modified Directional Algebraic Reconstruction Technique Using Adjacent Current Pattern
Kim, Ji Hoon ; Kim, Chan Yong ; Kim, Kyung Youn ; Choi, Bong Yeol ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 256~264
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.256
The directional algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) using the trigonometric current pattern is one of the image reconstruction algorithms in electrical impedance tomography (EIT). This method needs to compute resistances between electrode pairs as using relation between the injected currents and measured voltages for the reconstruction of the inner image. The delay time is incurred in this process. Therefore this paper proposes modified directional algebraic reconstruction technique (mDART) using the adjacent current pattern instead of the trigonometric current pattern to solve the delay time for initial resistance values. The proposed method uses measured voltages instead of computed resistances in the reconstruction algorithm. Hence this method can eliminate the delay time because it does not use the resistances. In conclusion, the proposed method improves image quality and image reconstruction time by using the adjacent current pattern. To prove performance of the proposed method, we carried on computer simulation of various cases.
Preceding Vehicle Detection and Tracking with Motion Estimation by Radar-vision Sensor Fusion
Jang, Jaehwan ; Kim, Gyeonghwan ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 265~274
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.265
In this paper, we propose a method for preceding vehicle detection and tracking with motion estimation by radar-vision sensor fusion. The motion estimation proposed results in not only correction of inaccurate lateral position error observed on a radar target, but also adaptive detection and tracking of a preceding vehicle by compensating the changes in the geometric relation between the ego-vehicle and the ground due to the driving. Furthermore, the feature-based motion estimation employed to lessen computational burden reduces the number of deployment of the vehicle validation procedure. Experimental results prove that the correction by the proposed motion estimation improves the performance of the vehicle detection and makes the tracking accurate with high temporal consistency under various road conditions.
Improved Design Method of a EMI(Electro Magnetic Interference Noise for Wireless Video System in Vehicle
Kang, Eun Kyun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 12, 2012, Pages 277~284
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.12.277
In this paper, we analyzed various noise in the video stream system that have largely influence on EMI noise. We presented the remedy for these various noises and then designed the wireless video streaming system for a vehicle. To minimize EMI noise, we derived the improvement of noise characteristic from impedance matching, new design of the inner layer of the PCB line design and new design of high-speed data Interfaces. As a result, the final system showed 40[dBuV/m] and 47[dBuV/m] dB in the each regulation band.