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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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The Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 49, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 49, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 49, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 49, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
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Averaged BER Performance Analysis of CDD-DSF-Relay schemes for MC-CDMA Systems over Multipath Rayleigh Fading Channles
Ko, Kyun-Byoung ; Seo, Jeong-Tae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 3~10
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.003
In this paper, CDD(Cyclic Delay Diversity)-DSF(decode-and-selectively forward) relay schemes are proposed for MC-CDMA(multicarrier-code division multiple access) systems over multipath Rayleigh fading channels. On the contrary to general DSF schemes, each relay equipped a CDD method can transmit on single channel. Therefore, all link channels between destination and relays can be considered as a single channel which is widely delay spread. The cooperative diversity of relay networks can be obtained as the frequency diversity for MC-CDMA systems with proposed CDD schemes. Furthermore, a semi-analytical approach for the averaged bit error rare(BER) performance evaluation is proposed for the proposed CDD-DSF-Relay schemes. By simulation and numerical results, it is confirmed that the proposed one can be a possible solution to achieve cooperative diversity gain without a reduction of spectral efficiency.
Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks
Lee, Yong ; Lee, Goo Yeon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 11~17
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.011
Capacity is a traditional issue in wireless network and is closely related to the service quality of network providers, therefore it is a main interest of them. Especially, when a big match of sport game or a special event are held in a place and a large crowd temporarily gathers, a need of big transmission capacity greater than usual usage in the area is required, where network providers need a scheme to temporarily expand network capacity in any specified area. This paper focuses on temporary expansion of wireless network capacity for such situations. In this paper, we first investigate maximum transmission capacity of wireless ad-hoc networks. In the investigation, we consider a network topology with regularly located nodes. For the topology, we investigate the maximum transmission capacity with RTS/CTS medium access protocol, and then we study the maximum transmission capacity without the protocol. Next, we propose a scheme to expand network capacity and analyze the performance of the proposed scheme. From the results of analysis, we see that our proposed scheme is effective for temporary expansion of wireless network capacity.
P2P-based Group Communication Management Using Smart Mobile Device
Chun, Seung-Man ; Park, Jong-Tae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 18~26
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.018
As the performance of the next-generation broadband wireless networks is dramatically enhanced, various services (i.e., education, video conferencing, online games, etc.) have been provided to users through a smart mobile platform. Since those services are usually provided by using the centralized architecture, it is difficult for a lot of users to provide the scalable communication service with regard to traffic management. To solve these problems, we have proposed an architecture of P2P-based group communication management scheme using smart mobile device. More specifically, we design the group management protocol and algorithm for the group member management and the traffic management. By using these methods, the mobile multimedia streaming service can be provided with scalability. In order to verify the performance of the proposed scheme, we have mathematically analyzed the performance in terms of the average transmission delay and bandwidth utilization.
Energy Reduction Methods using Energy-aware QoS Routing Scheme and Its Characteristics in IP Networks
Han, Chimoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 27~34
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.027
Today the energy consumption of ICT networks is about 10% of the worldwide power consumption and will be remarkably increased in the near future. For that reason, the energy saving topics of ICT networks are actually studying in various research institutes. This paper studies the possible energy saving methods assuring the QoS of networks on network level. This paper assumed the energy consumption models according to energy profiles of node and link in IP networks. Especially it formulates the energy problem of a minimum energy consumption with various energy profile models and suggests the methods of energy-aware QoS routing under energy saving and network QoS sustaining condition. It shows the large difference of energy saving according to energy profiles and the possibility of energy saving by using the appropriate energy profile model in the simulation experiment. This paper shows that min_used_path(MP) heuristic of energy-aware QoS routing is the excellent method compared with other heuristic methods as view of reduction ratio of nodes and links and energy saving effect under network QoS sustaining condition. As a result, this paper confirms that the min_used_path(MP) heuristic of energy-aware QoS routing can get energy saving and sustaining of network QoS in IP networks.
Inductive Loaded Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Aperture Coupled Fed
Koo, Hwan-Mo ; Yoon, Young-Min ; Kim, Boo-Gyoun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 35~42
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.035
An inductive loaded microstrip patch antenna using aperture coupled feeding is designed and an impedance bandwidth enhancement method using a shunt stub is investigated. The -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the AIMPA with a shunt stub is increased up to about 5.51 %. The impedance bandwidth of the corresponding AIMPA without a shunt stub is 2.4 %. The increase of the impedance bandwidth of the AIMPA with a shunt stub is about 129.6 % compared to that of the corresponding AIMPA without a shunt stub.
Improvement in Image Rejection of Multi-Port Junction-based Direct Receivers
Park, Hyung Chul ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 43~48
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.043
This paper presents an iterative single-frequency continuous-wave signal-based I/Q regeneration method for improving image-rejection performance of multi-port junction-based direct receivers (MPDRs). This paper analyzes I/Q regeneration in MPDRs as I/Q mismatch compensation for direct conversion receivers. Based on the analysis, this paper evaluates the accuracy of I/Q regeneration in terms of the image-rejection ratio (IRR). The proposed method improves the IRR performance more than 20 dB compared to existing I/Q regeneration methods. Simulation results show that MPDRs using the proposed method can achieve an IRR of more than 70 dB, and that the bit error rate performances are almost the same as those of conventional coherent demodulators, even in fading channels.
Respiration Rate Estimation using IR-UWB Radar Signals Robust to Body-Rocking
Park, Hyung Chul ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 49~54
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.049
This paper presents a novel respiration rate estimation method based on joint amplitude and time of arrival (TOA) using impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar signals. Through analysis of the affect of body-rocking, it is shown that body-rocking information does not distort the respiration rate and exists at integer multiples of the body-rocking rate from the respiration rate. Based on the analysis, the convolution of the temporal sequence of the maximum amplitude and that of the TOA is proposed. The analysis results show that the frequency components of respiration are improved more than 10dB compared with those obtained using other existing methods.
Practical Biasing Power Analysis breaking Side Channel Attack Countermeasures based on Masking-Shuffling techniques
Cho, Jong-Won ; Han, Dong-Guk ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 55~64
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.055
Until now, Side Channel Attack has been known to be effective to crack decrypt key such as smart cards, electronic passports and e-ID card based on Chip. Combination of Masking and shuffling methods have been proposed practical countermeasure. Newly, S.Tillich suggests biased-mask using template attack(TA) to attack AES with masking and shuffling. However, an additional assumption that is acquired template information previously for masking value is necessary in order to apply this method. Moreover, this method needs to know exact time position of the target masking value for higher probability of success. In this paper, we suggest new practical method called Biasing Power Analysis(BPA) to find a secret key of AES based on masking-shuffling method. In BPA, we don't use time position and template information from masking value. Actually, we do experimental works of BPA attack to 128bit secret key of AES based on masking-shuffling method performed MSP430 Chip and we succeed in finding whole secret key. The results of this study will be utilized for next-generation ID cards to verify physical safety.
Entropy-Coded Lattice Vector Quantization Based on the Sample-Adaptive Product Quantizer and its Performance for the Memoryless Gaussian Source
Kim, Dong Sik ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 67~75
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.067
Optimal quantizers in conducting the entropy-constrained quantization for high bit rates have the lattice structure. The quantization process is simple due to the regular structure, and various quantization algorithms are proposed depending on the lattice. Such a lattice vector quantizer (VQ) can be implemented by using the sample-adaptive product quantizer (SAPQ) and its output can also be easily entropy encoded. In this paper, the entropy encoding scheme for the lattice VQ is proposed based on SAPQ, and the performance of the proposed lattice VQ, which is based on SAPQ with the entropy coder, is asymptotically compared as the rate increases. It is shown by experiment that the gain for the memoryless Gaussian source also approaches the theoretic gain for the uniform density case.
Hierarchy Visualization method of SNS User using Fuzzy Relational
Park, Sun ; Kwon, JangWoo ; Jeong, Min-A ; Lee, Yeonwoo ; Lee, Seong Ro ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 76~84
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.076
Visualizations have played an important role in understanding new insights of users of social network for social network analysis. Most of the previous works of visualization focus on representing user's relationship on social network by a complex multi dimension graph. However, this method is difficult to identify the important of relationship to focus on personal user intuitively. Besides, the user's messages to reflect the interrelation between users is insufficient, since most of visualization methods represent the user relationship using information of interaction between nodes on networks. In order to resolve above problem, this paper proposes a new visualization method to visualize user based hierarchy that uses internal relationship of users by fuzzy relational product and external access information of network.
Adaptive Measurement for Performance Improvement of Compressed Sensing
Lee, Donggyu ; Kim, Kijun ; Ahn, Chang-Beom ; Park, Hochong ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 85~91
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.085
When an image is reconstructed by the conventional compressed sensing with random measurement points, most degradation in the reconstructed image occurs in the transient regions. To solve this problem, in this paper, an adaptive compressed sensing that estimates the transient regions in the image and acquires more data at those regions is proposed, which can reconstruct an image with higher quality. The proposed method roughly analyzes the characteristics of image using the randomly-acquired data, acquires additional data at the adaptively-determined points based on the image characteristics, and reconstructs the final image. It is confirmed that with the same number of acquired data, the proposed method reconstructs the image of higher quality than the conventional method.
A New Coding Technique for Scalable Video Service of Digital Hologram
Seo, Young-Ho ; Bea, Yoon-Jin ; Lee, Yoon-Hyuk ; Choi, Hyun-Jun ; Yoo, Ji-Sang ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 92~103
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.092
In this paper, we discuss and propose a new algorithm of coding technique for scalably servicing holographic video in various decoding environment. The proposed algorithm consists of the hologram-based resolution scalable coding (HRS) and the light source-based SNR scalable coding (LSS). They are classified by the method generating and capturing hologram. HRS is a scalable coding technique for the optically captured hologram and LSS is one for the light source before generating hologram. HRS can provide the scalable service of 8 steps with the compression ratio from 1:1 to 100:1 for a
hologram. LSS can also provide the various service depending on the number of the light source division using lossless compression. The proposed techniques showed the scalable holographic video service according to the display with the various resolutions, computational power of the receiving equipment, and the network bandwidth.
Color Correction Method for High Dynamic Range Image Using Dynamic Cone Response Function
Choi, Ho-Hyoung ; Yun, Byoung-Ju ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 104~112
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.104
Recently, the HDR imaging technique that mimics human eye is incorporated with LCD/LED display devices to deal with mismatch between the real world scene and the displayed image. However, HDR image has a veiling glare limit as well as a scale of the local contrast problem. In order to overcome these problems, several color correction methods, CSR(center/surround Retinex), MSR (Multi-Scale Retinex), tone-mapping method, iCAM06 and so on, are proposed. However, these methods have a dominated color throughout the entire resulting image after performing color correction. Accordingly, this paper presents a new color correction method using dynamic cone response function. The proposed color correction method consists of tone-mapping and dynamic cone response. The tone-mapping is obtained by using a linear interpolation between chromatic and achromatic. Thereafter, the resulting image is processed through the dynamic cone response function, which estimates the dynamic responses of human visual system as well as deals with mismatch between the real scene image and the rendered image. The experiment results show that the proposed method yields better performance of color correction over the conventional methods.
Far Distance Face Detection from The Interest Areas Expansion based on User Eye-tracking Information
Park, Heesun ; Hong, Jangpyo ; Kim, Sangyeol ; Jang, Young-Min ; Kim, Cheol-Su ; Lee, Minho ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 113~127
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.113
Face detection methods using image processing have been proposed in many different ways. Generally, the most widely used method for face detection is an Adaboost that is proposed by Viola and Jones. This method uses Haar-like feature for image learning, and the detection performance depends on the learned images. It is well performed to detect face images within a certain distance range, but if the image is far away from the camera, face images become so small that may not detect them with the pre-learned Haar-like feature of the face image. In this paper, we propose the far distance face detection method that combine the Aadaboost of Viola-Jones with a saliency map and user's attention information. Saliency Map is used to select the candidate face images in the input image, face images are finally detected among the candidated regions using the Adaboost with Haar-like feature learned in advance. And the user's eye-tracking information is used to select the interest regions. When a subject is so far away from the camera that it is difficult to detect the face image, we expand the small eye gaze spot region using linear interpolation method and reuse that as input image and can increase the face image detection performance. We confirmed the proposed model has better results than the conventional Adaboost in terms of face image detection performance and computational time.
Adaptive Denoising for Low Light Level Environment Using Frequency Domain Analysis
Yi, Jeong-Youn ; Lee, Seong-Won ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 128~137
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.128
When a CCD camera acquires images in the low light level environment, not only the image signals but also noise components are amplified by the AGC (auto gain control) circuit. Since the noise level in the images acquired in the dark is very high, it is difficult to remove noise with existing denoising algorithms that are targeting the images taken in the normal light condition. In this paper, we proposed an adaptive denoising algorithm that can efficiently remove significant noises caused by the low light level. First, the window including a target pixel is transformed to the frequency domain. Then the algorithm compares the characteristics of equally divided four frequency bands. Finally the noises are adaptively removed according to the frequency characteristics. The proposed algorithm successfully improves the quality of low light level images than the existing algorithms do.
A Time-Domain Equalization of OFDM Systems Using the OMP Algorithm
Moon, Woosik ; Im, Sungbin ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 138~144
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.138
In this paper, we introduce the time-domain equalizer in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems using orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. Since OFDM system inserts guard intervals, it shows robust performance against multi-path fading. However, in Doppler channel, inter-carrier interference (ICI) occurs because an orthogonality of sub-carriers does not maintain. A least squares (LS) algorithm is common method of time-domain equalizer, but if a channel length is longer, the performance deteriorates by noise. The multi-path fading is a summation of the different delay signal. And that has sparse properties in time-domain. Because the OMP algorithm of the compressive sensing (CS) algorithm restores the channel by choosing the important elements of sparse channel, it can reduce the influence of noise. We simulate the performance of time-domain equalizer in OFDM system with various channel environments using OMP algorithm compared with other equalization method.
A Quantitative Analysis of I/Q Regeneration and I/Q Mismatch in Multi-Port Junction-based Direct Receivers
Park, Hyung Chul ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 145~154
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.145
This paper proves that multi-port junction-based direct receivers (MPDRs) can regenerate I- and Q-channel signals accurately by using conventional I/Q mismatch compensation. This proof enables MPDRs to be integrated into existing RFIC based systems without additional digital signal processing. This paper analyzes the relationship between accuracy of I/Q regeneration parameters and degree of I/Q mismatch, and shows that the estimation results and the simulation results are almost the same.
Location and Gain/Phase Calibration Techniques for Array Sensors with known Sources
Yoo, Seong Ki ; Lee, Tae Beom ; Shin, Ki Young ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 155~163
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.155
The geometrical and electrical errors of array sensors can severely degrade the performance of array sensor system. Various calibration techniques are developed to alleviate this problem. In this paper, two different calibration methods with respect to location, gain and phase of array sensors are presented. One method applies the first-order Taylor series expansion to approximate the true steering vector from the nominal values of array sensors. Then a set of equations is formed by using the null characteristics of the MUSIC spectrum to estimate errors of location, gain and phase of array sensors. Another method estimates these errors based on the data covariance matrix of pilot sources. From the simulations, it is demonstrated that two calibration algorithms calibrated an array system successfully. In addition to that, Fistas and Manikas's algorithm is more robust against noise than Ng and Lie's one when SNR is from 10dB to 50dB.
Efficient DOA Estimation of Coherent Signals Using ESPRIT
Choi, Yang-Ho ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 164~171
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.164
ESPRIT(Estimation of Signal Parameter via Rotational Invariance Techniques) estimates DOAs(directions of arrival) of the incident signals on a sensor array by exploiting the shift invariance between its two subarrays. This paper suggests an efficient DOA estimation method based on ESPRIT when coherent signals impinge on the sensor array. When applying ESPRIT, it is necessary to find a signal subspace. Though the widely known SS(spatial smoothing) method allows us to obtain a signal subspace in the presence of coherent signals, its computational complexity is very high. Recently a CV(correlation vector) based method has been presented which is computationally simple. However, the number of resolvable signals in the method is smaller than that in the SS based method when multiple coherent signal groups are present. The proposed method in this paper, which obtains a signal subspace by utilizing only part of the correlation matrix, significantly reduces the computational complexity as compared with the SS based one, while the former is resolving the same number of coherent signals as the latter,
MRAL Post Processing based on LS for Performance Improvement of Active Sonar Localization
Jang, Eun-Jeong ; Han, Dong Seog ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 172~180
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.172
In multi-static sonar for detecting an underwater target, received signals contain the target echo, reverberation and clutter. Clutter and reverberation are main causes of increasing the false alarm rate. MRAL classifies received signals according to the spatial similarity, and it regards classified signal as reflected signals from a reflector. MRAL reduces the false alarm rate this way. However, the results of MRAL can have localization errors. In this paper, an MRAL post processing algorithm is proposed to reduce the localization errors with the least square (LS) method.
Design of Dual-Path Decimal Floating-Point Adder
Lee, Chang-Ho ; Kim, Ji-Won ; Hwang, In-Guk ; Choi, Sang-Bang ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 183~195
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.183
We propose a variable-latency Decimal Floating Point(DFP) adder which adopts the dual data path scheme. It is to speed addition and subtraction of operand that has identical exponents. The proposed DFP adder makes use of L. K. Wang's operand alignment algorithm, but operates through high speed data-path in guaranteed accuracy range. Synthesis results show that the area of the proposed DFP adder is increased by 8.26% compared to the L. K. Wang's DFP adder, though critical path delay is reduced by 10.54%. It also operates at 13.65% reduced path than critical path in case of an operation which has two DFP operands with identical exponents. We prove that the proposed DFP adder shows higher efficiency than L. K. Wang's DFP adder when the ratio of identical exponents is larger than 2%.
Sort-Based Distributed Parallel Data Cube Computation Algorithm using MapReduce
Lee, Suan ; Kim, Jinho ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 196~204
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.196
Recently, many applications perform OLAP(On-Line Analytical Processing) over a very large volume of data. Multidimensional data cube is regarded as a core tool in OLAP analysis. This paper focuses on the method how to efficiently compute data cubes in parallel by using a popular parallel processing tool, MapReduce. We investigate efficient ways to implement PipeSort algorithm, a well-known data cube computation method, on the MapReduce framework. The PipeSort executes several (descendant) cuboids at the same time as a pipeline by scanning one (ancestor) cuboid once, which have the same sorting order. This paper proposed four ways implementing the pipeline of the PipeSort on the MapReduce framework which runs across 20 servers. Our experiments show that PipeMap-NoReduce algorithm outperforms the rest algorithms for high-dimensional data. On the contrary, Post-Pipe stands out above the others for low-dimensional data.
A Stability Verification of Backup System for Disaster Recovery
Lee, Moon-Goo ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 205~214
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.205
The main thing that IT operation managers consider is protecting assets of corporation from system failure and disaster. Therefore, this research proposed a backup system for a disaster recovery. Previous backup method is that if database update occurs, this record is saved in redo log, and if the size of record file is over than expected, this file is saved in archive log in order. Thus, it is possible to occur errors of data loss from the process of data backup which change in real time while changes of database occur. Suggested backup system is back redo log up to database of transaction log in real time, and back a record that can be omitted from previous backup method up to archive log. When recover the data, it is possible to recover redo log in real time online, and it minimizes data loss. Also, throughout multi thread processing method data recovery is performed and it is designed that system performance is improved. To verify stability of backup system CPN(Coloured Petri Net) is introduced, and each step of backup system is displayed in diagram form, and th e stability is verified based on the definition and theorem of CPN.
Designing Password Input System Resistant on Shoulder Surfing Attack with Statistical Analysis
Lim, Soo Min ; Kim, Hyoung Joong ; Kim, Seong Kee ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 215~224
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.215
Using password on system is easy to build and shorten the access time to authorize user, which is high in use for vary system that requires users' authorization. Many input device are able to perform the password system easily, such as PC, smart-phone, tablet PC, etc. Beside the high usability of password, physical attack occurs when user put their password on the device, known as Shoulder Surfing attack. It used to be formed in numbers, characters or mix of different kinds, but new kind of password arose. Exploiting image or making scenarios are those kinds which are able to reflect users' intentions. Not many estimation exists for new password, so there's need to be standard for those new password for highlighting usability and accessability. In this paper, we propose password system with simple image and switching key-board to test statistical method to estimate usability on the password.
An Energy Aware Network Construction and Routing Method for Wireless Sensor Network
Hosen, A.S.M. Sanwar ; Lee, Hyeak-Ro ; Cho, Gi-Hawn ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 225~234
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.225
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) where deployed sensors are not stationary, the most important demand of is to design a cost effective and reliable network. This paper proposes an energy aware network construction and routing scheme, which is based on the hierarchical approach to distribute the task in some sensors in order to prolong the network lifetime. It aims to make even the energy consumption on constitute nodes. With the node hierarchy, the sink initiates the construction by electing gateway nodes in the network and the elected gateway nodes participate to form logical clusters by electing a cluster head in each cluster. Then, the cluster heads aggregate data from the sensing sensors and transmit the data to the sink through the gateway. Our simulation result illustrates that the proposed scheme provides a basement to reduce the source of energy dissipation in network construction, and as well as in data routing.
An Efficient Repair Method to Reduce Area Overhead by Sharing Bitmap Memory
Cho, Hyungjun ; Kang, Sungho ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 237~243
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.237
In recent system-on-chip (SoC) designs, several hundred embedded memory cores have occupied the largest portion of the chip area. Therefore, the yield of SoCs is strongly dependent on the yield of the embedded memory cores. If all memories had built-in self repair (BISR) with optimal repair rates, the area overhead would be very large. A bit-map sharing method using a memory grouping is proposed to reduce the area overhead. Since the bit-map memory occupies the largest portion of the area of the built-in redundancy analysis (BIRA), the proposed bit-map sharing method can greatly reduce the area overhead of the BIRA. Based on the experimental results, the proposed method can reduce the area overhead by about 80%.
Low Power 4-Gb/s Receiver for GND-referenced Differential Signaling
Lee, Mira ; Kim, Seok ; Jeong, Youngkyun ; Bae, Jun-Han ; Kwon, Kee-Won ; Chun, Jung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 244~250
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.244
This paper describes a 4-Gb/s receiver circuit for a low-swing ground-referenced differential signaling system. The receiver employs a common-gate level-shifter and a continuous linear equalizer which compensates inter-symbol-interference (ISI) and improves voltage and timing margins. A bias circuit maintains the bias current of the level-shifter when the common level of the input signal changes. The receiver is implemented with a low-power 65-nm CMOS technology. When 4-Gb/s 400mVp-p signals are transmitted to the receiver through the channel with the attenuation of -19.7dB, the timing margin based on bit error rate (BER) of
is 0.48UI and the power consumption is as low as 0.30mW/Gb/s.
Adaptive Design Techniques for High-speed Toggle 2.0 NAND Flash Interface Considering Dynamic Internal Voltage Fluctuations
Yi, Hyun Ju ; Han, Tae Hee ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 251~258
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.251
Recently, NAND Flash memory structure is evolving from SDR (Single Data Rate) to high speed DDR(Double Data Rate) to fulfill the high performance requirement of SSD and SSS. Accordingly, the proper ways of transferring data that latches valid data stably and minimizing data skew between pins by using PHY(Physical layer) circuit techniques have became new issues. Also, rapid growth of speed in NAND flash increases the operating frequency and power consumption of NAND flash controller. Internal voltage variation margin of NAND flash controller will be narrowed through the smaller geometry and lower internal operating voltage below 1.5V. Therefore, the increase of power budge deviation limits the normal operation range of internal circuit. Affection of OCV(On Chip Variation) deteriorates the voltage variation problem and thus causes internal logic errors. In this case, it is too hard to debug, because it is not functional faults. In this paper, we propose new architecture that maintains the valid timing window in cost effective way under sudden power fluctuation cases. Simulation results show that the proposed technique minimizes the data skew by 379% with reduced area by 20% compared to using PHY circuits.
Layout-Based Inductance Model for On-Chip Power Distribution Grid Structures
Jo, JeongMin ; Kim, SoYoung ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 259~269
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.259
With the lower supply voltage and the higher operating frequency in integrated circuits, the analysis of the power distribution network (PDN) including on-chip inductances becomes more important. In this paper, an effective inductance extraction method for a regular on-chip power grid structure is proposed. The loop inductance model applicable to chip layout is proposed and the inductance extraction tool using the proposed inductance model based on post layout RC circuits is developed. The accuracy of the proposed loop model and the developed tool is verified by comparing the test circuit simulation results with those from the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) model. The voltage fluctuation from the RLC circuits extracted by the developed tool was examined for the analysis of on-chip inductance effects. The significance of on-chip power grid inductance was investigated by the co-simulation of chip-package-PCB.
Design of 26GHz Variable-N Frequency Divider for RF PLL
Kim, Ho-Gil ; Chai, Sang-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 270~275
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.270
This paper describes design of a variable-N frequency synthesizer for RF PLL with
silicon CMOS technology being used as an application of the UWB system like MBOA. To get good performance of speed and noise super dynamic circuits was used, and to get variable-N division ratio MOSFET switching circuits was used. Especially to solve narrow bandwidth problem of the dynamic circuits load resistance value of unit divider block was varied. Simulation results of the designed circuit shows very fast and wide operation characteristics as 5~26GHz frequency range.
Fault Tolerant Design of Universal Soft Controller for Advanced Power Reactor
Ye, Song-Hae ; Lyou, Joon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 279~286
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.279
Recently, design of Universal Soft Controller(USC) has been applied to the advanced control room for nuclear power plant. USC is software-based manual control means to control safety components as well as non-safety components in the highly-integrated control room. Therefore, design feature of USC is essential for the implementation of a single workstation in the advanced control room. The traditional control room is replaced by computer-driven consolidated operator interfaces. Considering our design has further reduced the probability of USC spurious signals by requiring two distinct operator control actions to generate any control signal. The reality of USC does not increase the probability of reactor trip because the probability of spurious USC signal is negligible. Universal Soft Control represents a significant evolution in nuclear I&C/HSI System. USC integrates the indicators and controls from multiple divisions into a single integrated visual display unit(VDU) based HSI(Human System Interface). In order to prevent adverse influence on safety function performance from USC failure, ESFAS signals are applied to safety components or functions. In addition, safety manual switches have priority over USC's signals. Therefore, spurious USC signals can be momentarily blocked by selecting a soft control command from the safety VDU.
Low-Noise Detector Design for Measuring the Electric Conductivity of Liquids
Kim, Nam Tae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 287~292
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.287
In this paper, design of a conductivity detector using a synchronous demodulation is presented to detect the electric conductivity of liquids with low noise. For the purpose, the detector is constructed by the combination of a carrier generator, conductivity detecting cell, and synchronous demodulator. The signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) of the detector is improved by adjusting the frequency bandwidth of the demodulator, whereby infinitesimal conductivity signals can easily be measured under various noise environments. As an application example, a conductivity detector, which is applied to the air monitoring in a fabrication process of semiconductor chips, is designed using the synchronous demodulation. The validity of the design technique is verified by experiments. Since experimental results are shown to approach the design performance of the detector, the synchronous demodulation proves to be useful to the design of a conductivity detector for measuring the infinitesimal electric conductivity of liquids.
Development of Novel on-line Landweber Algorithm for Image Reconstruction in Electrical Impedance Tomography
Kim, Bong Seok ; Kim, Sin ; Kim, Kyung Youn ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 293~299
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.293
Electrical impedance tomography is an imaging modality for determining the electrical properties inside a domain. Small currents are injected and the resulting voltages are measured through the electrodes. The internal electrical properties are reconstructed based on these voltage and current data. In this paper, a novel on-line Landweber algorithm was developed to fast estimate the resistivity distribution in the inverse calculation. Additionally, to enhance the reconstruction performance, a step-length was computed from the eigenvalue of the weighting matrix. The numerical experiments have been performed to evaluate the reconstruction performance of the proposed method.
Vision based Fast Hand Motion Recognition Method for an Untouchable User Interface of Smart Devices
Park, Jae Byung ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 300~306
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.300
In this paper, we propose a vision based hand motion recognition method for an untouchable user interface of smart devices. First, an original color image is converted into a gray scaled image and its spacial resolution is reduced, taking the small memory and low computational power of smart devices into consideration. For robust recognition of hand motions through separation of horizontal and vertical motions, the horizontal principal area (HPA) and the vertical principal area (VPA) are defined respectively. From the difference images of the consecutively obtained images, the center of gravity (CoG) of the significantly changed pixels caused by hand motions is obtained, and the direction of hand motion is detected by defining the least mean squared line for the CoG in time. For verifying the feasibility of the proposed method, the experiments are carried out with a vision system.
Hand-Eye Laser Range Finder based Welding Plane Recognition Method for Autonomous Robotic Welding
Park, Jae Byung ; Lee, Sung Min ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 307~313
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.307
This paper proposes a hand-eye laser range finder (LRF) based welding plane recognition method for autonomous robotic welding. The robot welding is the process of joining a metal piece and the welding plane along the welding path predefined by the shape of the metal piece. Thus, for successful robotic welding, the position and direction of the welding plane should be exactly detected. If the detected position and direction of the plane is not accurate, the autonomous robotic welding should fail. For precise recognition of the welding plane, a line on the plane is detected by the LRF. For obtaining the line on the plane, the Hough transform is applied to the obtained data from the LRF. Since the Hough transform is based on the voting method, the sensor noise can be reduced. Two lines on the plane are obtained before and after rotation of the robot joint, and then the direction of the plane is calculated by the cross product of two direction vectors of two lines. For verifying the feasibility of the proposed method, the simulation with the robot simulator, RoboticsLab developed by Simlab Co. Ltd., is carried out.
Development of Gas Measurement System for the Harmful Gases at Livestock Barn
Kim, Young Wung ; Paik, Seung Hyun ; Park, Hong Bae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 314~321
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.314
Harmful gases which are generated from various rout at growth environment of livestock ban have a direct and indirect bad influence to the livestock and farmers, and also step-up breeding density and long-term exposure to the sealed environment of winter can be fatal. In this paper, we propose a gas measurement system for monitoring gases of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, volatile organic compounds, etc. which arise from the muck. The measurement system consist of both wireless gas sensor node and gas recognition software using a Fuzzy Min-Max neural network. To evaluate the performance of suggested system, gas measurement experiments are performed in laboratory environment by using the designed wireless gas sensor node. And we show the performance through classification test for the target gases by the designed gas recognition software.
Gas Typed Digital X-ray Image Sensor Using PDP Fabrication Process
Kim, Chang Man ; Kim, Si Hyung ; Nam, Ki Chang ; Kim, Sang Hee ; Song, Kwang Soup ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 322~327
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.322
Parallel-plate-type scanning sensors have been commercially used for X-ray imaging sensors. In this study, we manufactured the scan typed 1D X-ray image sensor that can be used to obtain scanning images, by using the plasma display panel (PDP) fabrication process. We fabricated drift and pixel electrodes in the glass chamber and injected Xe gas at atmospheric pressure. We evaluated the intensity of a pixel signal depending on the bias voltage on the drift electrode and investigated the characteristics of shielding effect on the single pixel using lead (Pb). The adsorption rate of X-ray photon is low (4%) on the soda lime glass (1.1mm) and the electrical signal detected on the X-ray sensor was increased in the high bias voltage. We acquired digital X-ray scanning image with our DAS (data acquisition system) and sensor scanning system.
Improvement of Fetal Heart Rate Extraction from Doppler Ultrasound Signal
Kwon, Ja Young ; Lee, Yu Bin ; Cho, Ju Hyun ; Lee, Yoo Jin ; Choi, Young Deuk ; Nam, Ki Chang ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 328~334
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.328
Continuous fetal heart beat monitoring has assisted clinicians in assuring fetal well-being during antepartum and intrapartum. Fetal heart rate (FHR) is an important parameter of fetal health during pregnancy. The Doppler ultrasound is one of very useful methods that can non-invasively measure FHR. Although it has been commonly used in clinic, inaccurate heart rate reading has not been completely resolved.. The objective of this study is to improve detection algorithm of FHR from Doppler ultrasound signal with simple method. We modified autocorrelation function to enhance signal periodicity and adopted adaptive window size and shifted for data segment to be analysed. The proposed method was applied to real measured data, and it was verified that beat-to-beat FHR estimation result was comparable with the reference fetal ECG data. This simple and effective method is expected to be implemented in the embedded system.
Short Range Target Tracking Based on Data Fusion Method Using Asynchronous Dissimilar Sensors
Lee, Eui-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 335~343
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.335
This paper presents an target tracking algorithm for fusion of radar and infrared(IR) sensor measurement data. Generally, fusion methods with Kalman filter assume that processing data obtained by radar and IR sensor are synchronized. It has much limitation to apply the fusion methods to real systems. A key point which is taken into account in the proposed algorithm is the fact that two asynchronous dissimilar data are fused by compensating the time difference of the measurements using radar's ranges and track state vectors. The proposed fusion algorithm in the paper is evaluated via a computer simulation with the existing track fusion and measurement fusion methods.
2D Spatial-Map Construction for Workers Identification and Avoidance of AGV
Ko, Jung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 347~352
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.347
In this paper, an 2D spatial-map construction for workers identification and avoidance of AGV using the detection scheme of the spatial coordinates based on stereo camera is proposed. In the proposed system, face area of a moving person is detected from a left image among the stereo image pairs by using the YCbCr color model and its center coordinates are computed by using the centroid method and then using these data, the stereo camera embedded on the mobile robot can be controlled for tracking the moving target in real-time. Moreover, using the disparity map obtained from the left and right images captured by the tracking-controlled stereo camera system and the perspective transformation between a 3-D scene and an image plane, depth map can be detected. From some experiments on AGV driving with 240 frames of the stereo images, it is analyzed that error ratio between the calculated and measured values of the worker's width is found to be very low value of 2.19% and 1.52% on average.
A Study on Improvement of Vision Inspector for T Type Welding nut auto Sorting System using a Masked Histogram Equalization
Hur, Tae-Won ; Song, Han-Lim ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 353~361
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.353
In this paper, we propose a improvement method of vision inspector for T type welding nut using an auto sorting system. We used edge and thread detection with histogram of image which is captured by machine vision camera. We also used a binary morphology operation for a detection of spot. A major problem in this vision inspector is abnormal operation caused by degradation of image acquired. These degradations caused by oil pollution on conveyer belt. For overcome this problem, we introduce a pre-processing using a masked histogram equalization on the image acquired. Histogram equalization is applied on masked region (nut part) for increase contrast. As a result, we can remove features caused by oil pollution on background and reduce a ratio of abnormal operation from 10.0 % to 0.2 %.
Improved Target Localization Using Line Fitting in Distributed Sensor Network of Detection-Only Sensor
Ryu, Chang Soo ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 362~369
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.362
Recently, a target detection based on a distributed sensor network has been much studied in active sonar. Zhou et al. proposed a target localization method using line fitting based on a distributed sensor network which consists of low complexity sensors that only report binary detection results. This method has three advantages relative to ML estimator. First, there is no need to estimate propagation model parameters. Second, the computation is simple. Third, it only use sensors with "detection", which implies less data to be collected by data processing center. However, this method has larger target localization error than the ML estimator. In this paper, a target localization method which modifies Zhou's method is proposed for reducing the localization error. The modified method shows the performance improvement that the target localization error is reduced by 40.7% to Zhou's method in the point of RMSE.
Study on Construction Method of Hybrid Web-based Smart Learning Systems
Kim, JongBae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 370~378
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.370
This paper proposes a method of constructing of hybrid web-based smart learning system to operable in a variety of mobile devices. To do this, the proposed system is developed a learning system with standardized and enhanced functions. In the proposed method, API specifications based on the standard functionality of smart learning system are created. And then, by building the API provider on a legacy system an organic linkage between the legacy system and the smart learning system is guaranteed. A standard API method is applied to data integration between the PC-based learning system and the smart learning system. The smart learning system interacts with legacy learning systems though Json/XML data forms via the https protocol. As a result, the legacy system using the proposed method dose not require major modifications and changes for a smart learning service.
The Implementation of Remote Health Monitoring System using a Mobile Platform
Ryu, Geun Taek ; Kim, Chang Young ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 49, issue 9, 2012, Pages 379~385
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2012.49.9.379
This paper suggests U-healthcare system for individual health management realizing the gateway, client, and Java-based network server by using the vital signal measuring system and android-based mobile platform. This study realized the vital signal measuring system based on the technology to measure the ECG, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and respiration, etc. And all the information of measurement was transmitted to the mobile gateway using the 3-bite transmission protocol consisting of headers and data. The data transmitted to the mobile gateway was used to examine the mobile client's personal health indexes through the network server. This paper realized and tested the android-based gateway, client, and the broadcasting network server and verified their validity with simulations and actual humans. As a result, the U-healthcare system suggested was proved to be effective in managing each individual's health from short distance and long distance. And it could examine each individual's health conditions in real-time and was found to be advantageous in that it could secure the guardian's mobility.